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Materials, Volume 15, Issue 1 (January-1 2022) – 396 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Graphene is known, among others, for its exceptional mechanical properties, including record values of intrinsic strength and elastic modulus. The tuning of its electronic, phononic and other properties via mechanical strain has led to a number of suggested strain engineering applications of graphene over the years. Using first principles methods and atomistic simulations, we quantify the strain dependence of the two-dimensional material’s structural characteristics, i.e., bond lengths and bond angles, when a graphene monolayer is under uniaxial tension. The splitting of the Raman active G mode using strain, for strains extending up to mechanical failure, is also discussed in detail. View this paper
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Article
Improving Fast Charging-Discharging Performances of Ni-Rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 Cathode Material by Electronic Conductor LaNiO3 Crystallites
Materials 2022, 15(1), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010396 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
Fast charging-discharging is one of the important requirements for next-generation high-energy Li-ion batteries, nevertheless, electrons transport in the active oxide materials is limited. Thus, carbon coating of active materials is a common method to supply the routes for electron transport, but it is [...] Read more.
Fast charging-discharging is one of the important requirements for next-generation high-energy Li-ion batteries, nevertheless, electrons transport in the active oxide materials is limited. Thus, carbon coating of active materials is a common method to supply the routes for electron transport, but it is difficult to synthesize the oxide-carbon composite for LiNiO2-based materials which need to be calcined in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. In this work, LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) coated with electronic conductor LaNiO3 (LNO) crystallites is demonstrated for the first time as fast charging-discharging and high energy cathodes for Li-ion batteries. The LaNiO3 succeeds in providing an exceptional fast charging-discharging behavior and initial coulombic efficiency in comparison with pristine NCM811. Consequently, the [email protected] electrode presents a higher capacity at 0.1 C (approximately 246 mAh g−1) and a significantly improved high rate performance (a discharge specific capacity of 130.62 mAh g−1 at 10 C), twice that of pristine NCM811. Additionally, cycling stability is also improved for the composite material. This work provides a new possibility of active oxide cathodes for high energy/power Li-ion batteries by electronic conductor LaNiO3 coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electromaterials for Environment & Energy)
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Article
Influence of Impregnation with Modified Starch of a Paper Core on Bending of Wood-Based Honeycomb Panels in Changing Climatic Conditions
Materials 2022, 15(1), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010395 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of impregnation of the paper core with acetylated starch on the mechanical properties and absorbed energy in the three-point bending test of wood-based honeycomb panels under varying temperatures and relative air humidity [...] Read more.
The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of impregnation of the paper core with acetylated starch on the mechanical properties and absorbed energy in the three-point bending test of wood-based honeycomb panels under varying temperatures and relative air humidity conditions. Nearly six hundred beams in various combinations, three types of facings, three core cells geometries, and two paper thicknesses were tested. The experiment results and their statistical analysis prove a significant relationship between the impregnation of paper with modified starch and mechanical properties. The most effective in absorbing energy, the honeycomb panels, consisted of a core with a wall thickness of 0.25 mm and a particleboard facing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Corrugated and Composite Materials)
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Article
Transverse Cracking Induced Acoustic Emission in Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Matrix Composite Laminates
Materials 2022, 15(1), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010394 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Transverse cracking induced acoustic emission in carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composite laminates is studied both experimentally and numerically. The influence of the type of sensor, specimen thickness and ply stacking sequence is investigated. The frequency content corresponding to the same damage mechanism differs significantly [...] Read more.
Transverse cracking induced acoustic emission in carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composite laminates is studied both experimentally and numerically. The influence of the type of sensor, specimen thickness and ply stacking sequence is investigated. The frequency content corresponding to the same damage mechanism differs significantly depending on the sensor and the stacking sequence. However, the frequency centroid does not wholly depend on the ply thickness except for the inner ply crack and a sensor located close enough to the crack. Outer ply cracking exhibits signals with a low-frequency content, not depending much on the ply thickness, contrary to inner ply cracking, for which the frequency content is higher and more dependent on the ply thickness. Frequency peaks and frequency centroids obtained experimentally are well captured by numerical simulations of the transverse cracking induced acoustic emission for different ply thicknesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Matrix Composites and Multifunctional Materials)
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Article
Influence of Molybdenum on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of Ti20Ta20Nb20(ZrHf)20−xMox (Where: x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20) High Entropy Alloys
Materials 2022, 15(1), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010393 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
The presented work was focused on investigating the influence of the (hafnium and zirconium)/molybdenum ratio on the microstructure and properties of Ti20Ta20Nb20(ZrHf)20−xMox (where: x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 at.%) high entropy [...] Read more.
The presented work was focused on investigating the influence of the (hafnium and zirconium)/molybdenum ratio on the microstructure and properties of Ti20Ta20Nb20(ZrHf)20−xMox (where: x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 at.%) high entropy alloys in an as-cast state. The designed chemical composition was chosen due to possible future biomedical applications. Materials were obtained from elemental powders by vacuum arc melting technique. Phase analysis revealed the presence of dual body-centered cubic phases. X-ray diffraction showed the decrease of lattice parameters of both phases with increasing molybdenum concentration up to 10% of molybdenum and further increase of lattice parameters. The presence of two-phase matrix microstructure and hafnium and zirconium precipitates was proved by scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation. Mechanical property measurements revealed decreased micro- and nanohardness and reduced Young’s modulus up to 10% of Mo content, and further increased up to 20% of molybdenum addition. Additionally, corrosion resistance measurements in Ringers’ solution confirmed the high biomedical ability of studied alloys due to the presence of stable oxide layers. Full article
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Article
Copper Surface Treatment Method with Antibacterial Performance Using “Super-Spread Wetting” Properties
Materials 2022, 15(1), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010392 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
In this work, a copper coating is developed on a carbon steel substrate by exploiting the superwetting properties of liquid copper. We characterize the surface morphology, chemical composition, roughness, wettability, ability to release a copper ion from surfaces, and antibacterial efficacy (against Escherichia [...] Read more.
In this work, a copper coating is developed on a carbon steel substrate by exploiting the superwetting properties of liquid copper. We characterize the surface morphology, chemical composition, roughness, wettability, ability to release a copper ion from surfaces, and antibacterial efficacy (against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). The coating shows a dense microstructure and good adhesion, with thicknesses of approximately 20–40 µm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the coated surface structure is composed of Cu, Cu2O, and CuO. The surface roughness and contact angle measurements suggest that the copper coating is rougher and more hydrophobic than the substrate. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) measurements reveal a dissolution of copper ions in chloride-containing environments. The antibacterial test shows that the copper coating achieves a 99.99% reduction of E. coli and S. aureus. This study suggests that the characteristics of the copper-coated surface, including the chemical composition, high surface roughness, good wettability, and ability for copper ion release, may result in surfaces with antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Societal Implementation)
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Review
Tunnel Squeezing Deformation Control and the Use of Yielding Elements in Shotcrete Linings: A Review
Materials 2022, 15(1), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010391 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
Shotcrete lining shows high resistance but extremely low deformability. The utilization of yielding elements in shotcrete lining, which leads to the so-called ductile lining, provides a good solution to cope with tunnel squeezing deformations. Although ductile lining exhibits great advantages regarding tunnel squeezing [...] Read more.
Shotcrete lining shows high resistance but extremely low deformability. The utilization of yielding elements in shotcrete lining, which leads to the so-called ductile lining, provides a good solution to cope with tunnel squeezing deformations. Although ductile lining exhibits great advantages regarding tunnel squeezing deformation control, little information has been comprehensively and systematically available for its mechanism and design. This is a review paper for the purpose of summarizing the development history and discussing the state of the art of ductile lining. It begins by providing a brief introduction of ductile lining and an explanation of the importance of studying this issue. A following summary of supporting mechanism and benefits of ductile lining used in tunnels excavated in squeezing ground conditions is provided. Then, it summarizes the four main types of yielding elements applied in shotcrete lining and introduces their basic structures and mechanical performances. The influences of parameters of yielding elements on the supporting effect are discussed and the design methods for ductile lining are reviewed as well. Furthermore, recommendations for further research in ductile lining are proposed. Finally, a brief summary is presented. Full article
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Article
Development of Liquid Diene Rubber Based Highly Deformable Interactive Fiber-Elastomer Composites
Materials 2022, 15(1), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010390 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The preparation of intelligent structures for multiple smart applications such as soft-robotics, artificial limbs, etc., is a rapidly evolving research topic. In the present work, the preparation of a functional fabric, and its integration into a soft elastomeric matrix to develop an adaptive [...] Read more.
The preparation of intelligent structures for multiple smart applications such as soft-robotics, artificial limbs, etc., is a rapidly evolving research topic. In the present work, the preparation of a functional fabric, and its integration into a soft elastomeric matrix to develop an adaptive fiber-elastomer composite structure, is presented. Functional fabric, with the implementation of the shape memory effect, was combined with liquid polybutadiene rubber by means of a low-temperature vulcanization process. A detailed investigation on the crosslinking behavior of liquid polybutadiene rubber was performed to develop a rubber formulation that is capable of crosslinking liquid rubber at 75 °C, a temperature that is much lower than the phase transformation temperature of SMA wires (90–110 °C). By utilizing the unique low-temperature crosslinking protocol for liquid polybutadiene rubber, soft intelligent structures containing functional fabric were developed. The adaptive structures were successfully activated by Joule heating. The deformation behavior of the smart structures was experimentally demonstrated by reaching a 120 mm bending distance at an activation voltage of 8 V without an additional load, whereas 90 mm, 70 mm, 65 mm, 57 mm bending distances were achieved with attached weights of 5 g, 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactive Fiber Rubber Composites)
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Article
Giant Third-Order Nonlinear Response of Mixed Perovskite Nanocrystals
Materials 2022, 15(1), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010389 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Mixed (FAPbI3)0.92(MAPbBr3)0.08 perovskite thin films exhibit strong nonlinear optical responses, rendering them promising candidates for applications in photonics and optical communications. In this work, we present a systematic study on the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical processes [...] Read more.
Mixed (FAPbI3)0.92(MAPbBr3)0.08 perovskite thin films exhibit strong nonlinear optical responses, rendering them promising candidates for applications in photonics and optical communications. In this work, we present a systematic study on the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical processes in mixed perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) by exploring the generation of third harmonic radiation and giant two-photon absorption-based photoluminescence (PL) when excited by femtosecond laser pulses of a 1030 nm central wavelength. A comparative analysis of the coherent third harmonic generation in the thin-film-containing perovskite nanocrystals has shown a 40× enhancement of the third harmonic signal compared to the signal generated in the pure quartz substrate. The cubic dependence of the third-nonlinear optical response of the (FAPbI3)0.92(MAPbBr3)0.08 perovskites on the intensity of the driving radiation was identified using broadband 38 femtosecond driving pulses. The positive nonlinear refractive index (γ = +1.4 × 10−12 cm2·W−1) is found to play an important role in improving the phase-matching conditions of the interacting pulses by generating a strong third order harmonic. The giant two-photon absorption (TPA)-assisted PL peak was monitored and a blue shift of the PL was obtained in the higher intensity range of the laser pulses, with the absorption coefficient β estimated to be~+7.0 cm·MW−1 at a 1030 nm laser wavelength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Optics of Nanomaterials)
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Article
Ion Microprobe Study of the Polarization Quenching Techniques in Single Crystal Diamond Radiation Detectors
Materials 2022, 15(1), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010388 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 788
Abstract
Synthetic single crystal diamond grown using the chemical vapor deposition technique constitutes an extraordinary candidate material for monitoring radiation in extreme environments. However, under certain conditions, a progressive creation of space charge regions within the crystal can lead to the deterioration of charge [...] Read more.
Synthetic single crystal diamond grown using the chemical vapor deposition technique constitutes an extraordinary candidate material for monitoring radiation in extreme environments. However, under certain conditions, a progressive creation of space charge regions within the crystal can lead to the deterioration of charge collection efficiency. This phenomenon is called polarization and represents one of the major drawbacks associated with using this type of device. In this study, we explore different techniques to mitigate the degradation of signal due to polarization. For this purpose, two different diamond detectors are characterized by the ion beam-induced charge technique using a nuclear microprobe, which utilizes MeV energy ions of different penetration depths to probe charge transport in the detectors. The effect of polarization is analyzed by turning off the bias applied to the detector during continuous or discontinuous irradiation, and also by alternating bias polarity. In addition, the beneficial influence of temperature for reducing the effect of polarization is also observed. Finally, the effect of illuminating the detector with light is also measured. Our experimental results indicate that heating a detector or turning off the bias, and then applying it during continuous irradiation can be used as satisfactory methods for recovering the CCE value close to that of a prepolarized state. In damaged regions, illumination with white light can be used as a standard method to suppress the strength of polarization induced by holes. Full article
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Article
Fabrication and Mechanical Testing of the Uniaxial Graded Auxetic Damper
Materials 2022, 15(1), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010387 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Auxetic structures can be used as protective sacrificial solutions for impact protection with lightweight and excellent energy-dissipation characteristics. A recently published and patented shock-absorbing system, namely, Uniaxial Graded Auxetic Damper (UGAD), proved its efficiency through comprehensive analytical and computational analyses. However, the authors [...] Read more.
Auxetic structures can be used as protective sacrificial solutions for impact protection with lightweight and excellent energy-dissipation characteristics. A recently published and patented shock-absorbing system, namely, Uniaxial Graded Auxetic Damper (UGAD), proved its efficiency through comprehensive analytical and computational analyses. However, the authors highlighted the necessity for experimental testing of this new damper. Hence, this paper aimed to fabricate the UGAD using a cost-effective method and determine its load–deformation properties and energy-absorption potential experimentally and computationally. The geometry of the UGAD, fabrication technique, experimental setup, and computational model are presented. A series of dog-bone samples were tested to determine the exact properties of aluminium alloy (AW-5754, T-111). A simplified (elastic, plastic with strain hardening) material model was proposed and validated for use in future computational simulations. Results showed that deformation pattern, progressive collapse, and force–displacement relationships of the manufactured UGAD are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions, thus validating the proposed computational and material models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in "Metals and Alloys" Section)
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Article
Phonolite Material as Catalyst Support for the Hydrotreatment of Gas Oil and Vegetable Oil Type Feedstocks
Materials 2022, 15(1), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010386 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Phonolite material has shown to be promising catalyst support for the deoxygenation of triglycerides. In this work, we continue with our previous research by synthesising and testing three acid-treated phonolite-supported Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Ni-W catalysts for the hydrotreating of atmospheric gas oil and [...] Read more.
Phonolite material has shown to be promising catalyst support for the deoxygenation of triglycerides. In this work, we continue with our previous research by synthesising and testing three acid-treated phonolite-supported Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Ni-W catalysts for the hydrotreating of atmospheric gas oil and co-processing with rapeseed oil at industrial operating conditions (350–370 °C, WHSV 1–2 h−1, 5.5 MPa) in the continuous regime for more than 270 h. The phonolite-supported catalysts showed hydrotreating activity comparable with commercial catalysts, together with a complete conversion of triglycerides into n-alkanes. During co-processing, the Ni-promoted catalyst showed strong stability, with similar activity previous to the rapeseed oil addition. Our results enable us to evaluate the suitability of phonolite as catalyst support for the development of plausible alternatives to conventional hydrotreating catalysts for the co-processing of middle distillates with vegetable oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Porous Materials Derived from Natural or Waste Resources)
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Article
Setting the Optimal Laser Power for Sustainable Powder Bed Fusion Processing of Elastomeric Polyesters: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study
Materials 2022, 15(1), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010385 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) of polymeric materials offers many benefits, from rapid prototyping to the production of end-use material parts. Powder bed fusion (PBF), more specifically selective laser sintering (SLS), is a very promising AM technology. However, up until now, most SLS research has [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) of polymeric materials offers many benefits, from rapid prototyping to the production of end-use material parts. Powder bed fusion (PBF), more specifically selective laser sintering (SLS), is a very promising AM technology. However, up until now, most SLS research has been directed toward polyamide powders. In addition, only basic models have been put forward that are less directed to the identification of the most suited operating conditions in a sustainable production context. In the present combined experimental and theoretical study, the impacts of several SLS processing parameters (e.g., laser power, part bed temperature, and layer thickness) are investigated for a thermoplastic elastomer polyester by means of colorimetric, morphological, physical, and mechanical analysis of the printed parts. It is shown that an optimal SLS processing window exists in which the printed polyester material presents a higher density and better mechanical properties as well as a low yellowing index, specifically upon using a laser power of 17–20 W. It is further highlighted that the current models are not accurate enough at predicting the laser power at which thermal degradation occurs. Updated and more fundamental equations are therefore proposed, and guidelines are formulated to better assess the laser power for degradation and the maximal temperature achieved during sintering. This is performed by employing the reflection and absorbance of the laser light and taking into account the particle size distribution of the powder material. Full article
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Review
Optimization of Polymer Processing: A Review (Part I—Extrusion)
Materials 2022, 15(1), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010384 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Given the global economic and societal importance of the polymer industry, the continuous search for improvements in the various processing techniques is of practical primordial importance. This review evaluates the application of optimization methodologies to the main polymer processing operations. The most important [...] Read more.
Given the global economic and societal importance of the polymer industry, the continuous search for improvements in the various processing techniques is of practical primordial importance. This review evaluates the application of optimization methodologies to the main polymer processing operations. The most important characteristics related to the usage of optimization techniques, such as the nature of the objective function, the type of optimization algorithm, the modelling approach used to evaluate the solutions, and the parameters to optimize, are discussed. The aim is to identify the most important features of an optimization system for polymer processing problems and define the best procedure for each particular practical situation. For this purpose, the state of the art of the optimization methodologies usually employed is first presented, followed by an extensive review of the literature dealing with the major processing techniques, the discussion being completed by considering both the characteristics identified and the available optimization methodologies. This first part of the review focuses on extrusion, namely single and twin-screw extruders, extrusion dies, and calibrators. It is concluded that there is a set of methodologies that can be confidently applied in polymer processing with a very good performance and without the need of demanding computation requirements. Full article
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Article
Feasibility Study on Additive Manufacturing of Ferritic Steels to Meet Mechanical Properties of Safety Relevant Forged Parts
Materials 2022, 15(1), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010383 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting are rapidly gaining a foothold in safety-relevant areas of application such as powerplants or nuclear facilities. Special requirements apply to these applications. A certain material behavior must be guaranteed and the material must be approved [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting are rapidly gaining a foothold in safety-relevant areas of application such as powerplants or nuclear facilities. Special requirements apply to these applications. A certain material behavior must be guaranteed and the material must be approved for these applications. One of the biggest challenges here is the transfer of these already approved materials from conventional manufacturing processes to additive manufacturing. Ferritic steels that have been processed conventionally by forging, welding, casting, and bending are widely used in safety-relevant applications such as reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, valves, and piping. However, the use of ferritic steels for AM has been relatively little explored. In search of new materials for the SLM process, it is assumed that materials with good weldability are also additively processible. Therefore, the processability with SLM, the process behavior, and the achievable material properties of the weldable ferritic material 22NiMoCr3-7, which is currently used in nuclear facilities, are investigated. The material properties achieved in the SLM are compared with the conventionally forged material as it is used in state-of-the-art pressure water reactors. This study shows that the ferritic-bainitic steel 22NiMoCr3-7 is suitable for processing with SLM. Suitable process parameters were found with which density values > 99% were achieved. For the comparison of the two materials in this study, the microstructure, hardness values, and tensile strength were compared. By means of a specially adapted heat treatment method, the material properties of the printed material could be approximated to those of the original block material. In particular, the cooling medium/cooling method was adapted and the cooling rate reduced. The targeted ferritic-bainitic microstructure was achieved by this heat treatment. The main difference found between the two materials relates to the grain sizes present. For the forged material, the grain size distribution varies between very fine and slightly coarse grains. The grain size distribution in the printed material is more uniform and the grains are smaller overall. In general, it was difficult and only minimal possible to induce grain growth. As a result, the hardness values of the printed material are also slightly higher. The tensile strength could be approximated to that of the reference material up to 60 MPa. The approximation of the mechanical-technological properties is therefore deemed to be adequate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Materials for Additive Manufacturing)
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Article
An Overview of Nano Multilayers as Model Systems for Developing Nanoscale Microstructures
Materials 2022, 15(1), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010382 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
The microstructural transformations of binary nanometallic multilayers (NMMs) to equiaxed nanostructured materials were explored by characterizing a variety of nanoscale multilayer films. Four material systems of multilayer films, Hf-Ti, Ta-Hf, W-Cr, and Mo-Au, were synthesized by magnetron sputtering, heat treated at 1000 °C, [...] Read more.
The microstructural transformations of binary nanometallic multilayers (NMMs) to equiaxed nanostructured materials were explored by characterizing a variety of nanoscale multilayer films. Four material systems of multilayer films, Hf-Ti, Ta-Hf, W-Cr, and Mo-Au, were synthesized by magnetron sputtering, heat treated at 1000 °C, and subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Binary systems were selected based on thermodynamic models predicting stable nanograin formation with similar global compositions around 20–30 at.%. All NMMs maintained nanocrystalline grain sizes after evolution into an equiaxed structure, where the systems with highly mobile incoherent interfaces or higher energy interfaces showed a more significant increase in grain size. Furthermore, varying segregation behaviors were observed, including grain boundary (GB) segregation, precipitation, and intermetallic formation depending on the material system selected. The pathway to tailored microstructures was found to be governed by key mechanisms and factors as determined by a film’s initial characteristics, including global and local composition, interface energy, layer structure, and material selection. This work presents a global evaluation of NMM systems and demonstrates their utility as foundation materials to promote tailored nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Multilayers: Structures, Growth and Properties)
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Article
Characterization and Properties of Water-Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foams Reinforced with Silane-Modified Nanosepiolites Functionalized with Graphite
Materials 2022, 15(1), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010381 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
In the present study, a promising flame retardant consisting of 80 wt% silane-modified nanosepiolites functionalized with 20 wt% graphite (SFG) is used to obtain a synergistic effect principally focussed on the thermal stability of water-blown rigid polyurethane (RPU) foams. Density, microcellular structure, thermal [...] Read more.
In the present study, a promising flame retardant consisting of 80 wt% silane-modified nanosepiolites functionalized with 20 wt% graphite (SFG) is used to obtain a synergistic effect principally focussed on the thermal stability of water-blown rigid polyurethane (RPU) foams. Density, microcellular structure, thermal stability and thermal conductivity are examined for RPU foams reinforced with different contents of SFG (0, as reference material, 2, 4 and 6 wt%). The sample with 6 wt% SFG presents a slightly thermal stability improvement, although its cellular structure is deteriorated in comparison with the reference material. Furthermore, the influence of SFG particles on chemical reactions during the foaming process is studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The information obtained from the chemical reactions and from isocyanate consumption is used to optimize the formulation of the foam with 6 wt% SFG. Additionally, in order to determine the effects of functionalization on SFG, foams containing only silane-modified nanosepiolites, only graphite, or silane-modified nanosepiolites and graphite added separately are studied here as well. In conclusion, the inclusion of SFG in RPU foams allows the best performance to be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants for Polymeric Materials)
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Article
Study on the Effect of Regeneration Agent on the Viscosity Properties of Aged Asphalt
Materials 2022, 15(1), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010380 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
China’s highway asphalt pavement has entered the stage of major repair, and improving the utilization rate of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is the main issue. The key link affecting the performance of recycled asphalt mixtures is the regeneration of aged asphalt, and the [...] Read more.
China’s highway asphalt pavement has entered the stage of major repair, and improving the utilization rate of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is the main issue. The key link affecting the performance of recycled asphalt mixtures is the regeneration of aged asphalt, and the effect of the regenerant dosing on the high-temperature performance and viscosity of aged asphalt is the main content to be studied in this research. The aging behavior of asphalt seriously affects the roadworthiness of asphalt mixtures. In this study, we investigated the effect of changes in the microscopic properties of the aged asphalt on its viscosity properties during regeneration using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Brinell viscosity tests. This study simulated asphalt aging by the RTFOT test, and then we obtained an aged asphalt with a needle penetration of 30. We prepared different regenerated asphalts by adding regeneration agent with doses of 2%, 4%, and 6% to the aged asphalt. The results showed that the regeneration agent could effectively reduce the viscosity of the aged asphalt, which can play a positive role in improving the construction and ease of the aged asphalt. Rejuvenation agents affected the aging asphalt sulfoxide and carbon group indices. Moreover, rejuvenation agents can also significantly reduce the intensities of their characteristic functional group indices. The results of the AFM test showed that the increase in the dose of regeneration agent increased the number of the asphalt bee-like structures and decreased the area of individual bee-like structures. The results of the GPC test were consistent with the results of the AFM test, and the increase in the dose of regeneration agent reduced the asphalt macromolecule content. The viscosity properties and microstructure of the aged asphalt changed positively after the addition of the regeneration agent, indicating that the regeneration agent had a degrading and diluting effect on macromolecules. Full article
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Article
Rumen Inoculum Enhances Cathode Performance in Single-Chamber Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cells
Materials 2022, 15(1), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010379 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
During the last decade, bioprospecting for electrochemically active bacteria has included the search for new sources of inoculum for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, concerning power and current production, a Geobacter-dominated mixed microbial community derived from a wastewater inoculum remains the standard. [...] Read more.
During the last decade, bioprospecting for electrochemically active bacteria has included the search for new sources of inoculum for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, concerning power and current production, a Geobacter-dominated mixed microbial community derived from a wastewater inoculum remains the standard. On the other hand, cathode performance is still one of the main limitations for MFCs, and the enrichment of a beneficial cathodic biofilm emerges as an alternative to increase its performance. Glucose-fed air-cathode reactors inoculated with a rumen-fluid enrichment and wastewater showed higher power densities and soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) removal (Pmax = 824.5 mWm−2; ΔsCOD = 96.1%) than reactors inoculated only with wastewater (Pmax = 634.1 mWm−2; ΔsCOD = 91.7%). Identical anode but different cathode potentials suggest that differences in performance were due to the cathode. Pyrosequencing analysis showed no significant differences between the anodic community structures derived from both inocula but increased relative abundances of Azoarcus and Victivallis species in the cathodic rumen enrichment. Results suggest that this rarely used inoculum for single-chamber MFCs contributed to cathodic biofilm improvements with no anodic biofilm effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Use of Green Technologies in Various Areas)
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Article
Experimental Research of Selected Lattice Structures Developed with 3D Printing Technology
Materials 2022, 15(1), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010378 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
This paper presents the results of the experimental research of 3D structures developed with an SLA additive technique using Durable Resin V2. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the compression curves, deformation process and energy-absorption parameters of the topologies [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of the experimental research of 3D structures developed with an SLA additive technique using Durable Resin V2. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the compression curves, deformation process and energy-absorption parameters of the topologies with different characteristics. The structures were subjected to a quasi-static axial compression test. Five different topologies of lattice structures were studied and compared. In the initial stage of the research, the geometric accuracy of the printed structures was analysed through measurement of the diameter of the beam elements at several selected locations. Compression curves and the stress history at the minimum cross-section of each topology were determined. Energy absorption parameters, including absorbed energy (AE) and specific absorbed energy (SAE), were calculated from the compression curves. Based on the analysis of the photographic material, the failure mode was analysed, and the efficiency of the topologies was compared. Full article
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Article
Effects of Trace Elements on the Microstructural and Machinability Characteristics of Al–Si–Cu–Mg Castings
Materials 2022, 15(1), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010377 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
This study was undertaken to emphasize the influence of Sn and Bi addition on the machinability of Sr-modified, grain-refined, and heat-treated Al–Si B319 and 396 alloys. Drilling and tapping tests were conducted to examine the cutting forces, tool life, tool wear, built-up edge [...] Read more.
This study was undertaken to emphasize the influence of Sn and Bi addition on the machinability of Sr-modified, grain-refined, and heat-treated Al–Si B319 and 396 alloys. Drilling and tapping tests were conducted to examine the cutting forces, tool life, tool wear, built-up edge evolution, and chip shape. Microstructures were examined using optical and electron microscopy. Drilling test results show that the B319.2 alloy with 0.15%Sn yields the longest drill life, i.e., twice that of the B319.2 alloy containing 0.5%Bi, and one-and-a-half times that of the B319.2 alloy containing 0.15%Sn + 0.5%Bi. The presence of 0.5%Bi in the B319.2 alloy causes a deterioration of drill life (cf., 1101 holes with 2100 holes drilled in the B319.2 alloy containing 0.15%Sn). The α-Fe phase in the 396 alloy produces the highest number of holes drilled compared with alloys containing sludge or β-Fe. The presence of sludge decreases the drill life by 50%. Built-up edge (BUE) measurements and optical photographs show little change in the BUE width for different numbers of holes except for the B319.2 alloy containing 0.5%Bi, which shows a slightly lower width (0.166 mm) compared with that containing 0.15% Sn (0.184 mm) or 0.15%Sn + 0.5%Bi (0.170 mm). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)
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Article
Superhydrophobic [email protected] Composite with UV-Resistant and Self-Cleaning Properties for Oil/Water Separation
Materials 2022, 15(1), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010376 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Oil separation is crucial for avoiding environmental pollution originating from industrial wastewater and oil spillage; therefore, it is essential to develop techniques for oil separation. Herein, a new membrane with superhydrophilicity was synthesized by a facile, green, and low-cost method. First, cellulose non-woven [...] Read more.
Oil separation is crucial for avoiding environmental pollution originating from industrial wastewater and oil spillage; therefore, it is essential to develop techniques for oil separation. Herein, a new membrane with superhydrophilicity was synthesized by a facile, green, and low-cost method. First, cellulose non-woven fabric (CNWF) was modified by poly (catechin) (pCA), which has good antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to make it unaffected by ultraviolet light and to improve the stability of the structure. Then, hydrolyzed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was coated on the [email protected] surface via chemical bonding to make the composite hydrophobic. This durable superhydrophobic fabric can be used to separate various oil/water mixtures by gravity-driven forces with high separation efficiency (over 98.9%). Additionally, the [email protected] possesses the advantages of flexibility, high efficiency, and an outstanding self-cleaning performance, and demonstrates significant potential for applications in various environments, even under various harsh conditions, which make it very promising for the treatment of oil pollution in practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development of Surface Chemistry of Nanomaterials)
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Review
Potential of Soil Stabilization Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and Fly Ash via Geopolymerization Method: A Review
Materials 2022, 15(1), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010375 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Geopolymers, or also known as alkali-activated binders, have recently emerged as a viable alternative to conventional binders (cement) for soil stabilization. Geopolymers employ alkaline activation of industrial waste to create cementitious products inside treated soils, increasing the clayey soils’ mechanical and physical qualities. [...] Read more.
Geopolymers, or also known as alkali-activated binders, have recently emerged as a viable alternative to conventional binders (cement) for soil stabilization. Geopolymers employ alkaline activation of industrial waste to create cementitious products inside treated soils, increasing the clayey soils’ mechanical and physical qualities. This paper aims to review the utilization of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)-based geopolymers for soil stabilization by enhancing strength. Previous research only used one type of precursor: fly ash or GGBFS, but the strength value obtained did not meet the ASTM D 4609 (<0.8 Mpa) standard required for soil-stabilizing criteria of road construction applications. This current research focused on the combination of two types of precursors, which are fly ash and GGBFS. The findings of an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test on stabilized soil samples were discussed. Finally, the paper concludes that GGBFS and fly-ash-based geo-polymers for soil stabilization techniques can be successfully used as a binder for soil stabilization. However, additional research is required to meet the requirement of ASTM D 4609 standard in road construction applications, particularly in subgrade layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume II)
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Article
FEM Simulation of the Riveting Process and Structural Analysis of Low-Carbon Steel Tubular Rivets Fracture
Materials 2022, 15(1), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010374 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Riveted joints are a common way to connect elements and subassemblies in the automotive industry. In the assembly process, tubular rivets are loaded axially with ca. 3 kN forces, and these loads can cause cracks and delamination in the rivet material. Such effects [...] Read more.
Riveted joints are a common way to connect elements and subassemblies in the automotive industry. In the assembly process, tubular rivets are loaded axially with ca. 3 kN forces, and these loads can cause cracks and delamination in the rivet material. Such effects at the quality control stage disqualify the product in further assembly process. The article presents an analysis of the fracture mechanism of E215 low-carbon steel tubular rivets used to join modules of driver and passenger safety systems (airbags) in vehicles. Finite element method (FEM) simulation and material testing were used to verify the stresses and analysis of the rivet fracture. Numerical tests determined the state of stress during rivet forming using the FEM-EA method based on the explicit integration of central differences. Light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition analysis (SEM-EDS) were performed to investigate the microstructure of the rivet material and to analyze the cracks. Results showed that the cause of rivet cracking is the accumulation and exceeding of critical tensile stresses in the rivet flange during the tube processing and the final riveting (forming) process. Moreover, it was discovered that rivet fracture is largely caused by structural defects (tertiary cementite Fe,Mn3CIII along the boundaries of prior austenite grains) in the material resulting from the incorrectly selected parameters of the final heat treatment of the prefabricate (tube) from which the rivet was produced. The FEM simulation of the riveting and structural characterization results correlated well, so the rivet forming process and fracture mechanism could be fully investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing and Fatigue Properties of Materials)
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Article
Low-Frequency Bandgaps of the Lightweight Single-Phase Acoustic Metamaterials with Locally Resonant Archimedean Spirals
Materials 2022, 15(1), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010373 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
In order to achieve the dual needs of single-phase vibration reduction and lightweight, a square honeycomb acoustic metamaterials with local resonant Archimedean spirals (SHAMLRAS) is proposed. The independent geometry parameters of SHAMLRAS structures are acquired by changing the spiral control equation. The mechanism [...] Read more.
In order to achieve the dual needs of single-phase vibration reduction and lightweight, a square honeycomb acoustic metamaterials with local resonant Archimedean spirals (SHAMLRAS) is proposed. The independent geometry parameters of SHAMLRAS structures are acquired by changing the spiral control equation. The mechanism of low-frequency bandgap generation and the directional attenuation mechanism of in-plane elastic waves are both explored through mode shapes, dispersion surfaces, and group velocities. Meanwhile, the effect of the spiral arrangement and the adjustment of the equation parameters on the width and position of the low-frequency bandgap are discussed separately. In addition, a rational period design of the SHAMLRAS plate structure is used to analyze the filtering performance with transmission loss experiments and numerical simulations. The results show that the design of acoustic metamaterials with multiple Archimedean spirals has good local resonance properties, and forms multiple low-frequency bandgaps below 500 Hz by reasonable parameter control. The spectrograms calculated from the excitation and response data of acceleration sensors are found to be in good agreement with the band structure. The work provides effective design ideas and a low-cost solution for low-frequency noise and vibration control in the aeronautic and astronautic industries. Full article
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Article
Development of VUMAT and VUHARD Subroutines for Simulating the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Parts
Materials 2022, 15(1), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010372 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Numerical modelling and simulation can be useful tools in qualification of additive manufactured parts for use in demanding structural applications. The use of these tools in predicting the mechanical properties and field performance of additive manufactured parts can be of great advantage. Modelling [...] Read more.
Numerical modelling and simulation can be useful tools in qualification of additive manufactured parts for use in demanding structural applications. The use of these tools in predicting the mechanical properties and field performance of additive manufactured parts can be of great advantage. Modelling and simulation of non-linear material behaviour requires development and implementation of constitutive models in finite element analysis software. This paper documents the implementation and verification process of a microstructure-variable based model for DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI) in two separate ABAQUS/Explicit subroutines, VUMAT and VUHARD, available for defining the yield surface and plastic deformation of materials. The verification process of the implemented subroutines was conducted for single and multiple element tests with varying prescribed loading conditions. The simulation results obtained were then compared with the analytical solutions at the same conditions of strain rates and temperatures. This comparison showed that both developed subroutines were accurate in predicting the flow stress of various forms of DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI) under different conditions of strain rates and temperatures. Full article
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Article
Modelling the Relations of Rheological Characteristics with Composition of Plaster Mortar
Materials 2022, 15(1), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010371 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
The rheological properties of fresh plaster mortars, with varied contents of porous fillers and polymer admixtures, have been studied. The quantities of fine limestone and expanded perlite, and dosages of methyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose and ethylene vinyl acetate were varied in the experiment. [...] Read more.
The rheological properties of fresh plaster mortars, with varied contents of porous fillers and polymer admixtures, have been studied. The quantities of fine limestone and expanded perlite, and dosages of methyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose and ethylene vinyl acetate were varied in the experiment. Effective viscosity (at a shear rate from 0.045 to 5.705 s−1) and the thixotropy of the mixes were determined with rotational viscometer for 18 compositions (according to the design of the experiment). Each of the 18 viscosity curves were described with the Ostwald–de-Waele equation. The Experimental–Statistical models describing the dependencies of the parameters of the rheological model and of mix thixotropy on the composition factors were built on the obtained data. ES-models have allowed the individual and synergetic effects of mix components on the rheological characteristics to be evaluated. The expanded perlite powder can increase the viscosity by two times, probably due to its pozzolanic effect increasing the content of the CSH phase during cement hydration. The thixotropy can be increased by the quantity of limestone. The computational experiments with ES-models have made it possible for the information set, without a noticeable interrelation between rheological characteristics, to be stratified into subsets, in which such interrelations differ significantly. Full article
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Article
Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Abutments with or without a Titanium Base: An In Vitro Study for Tapered Conical Connection Implants
Materials 2022, 15(1), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010364 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Dental implants with tapered conical connections are often combined with zirconia abutments for esthetics; however, the effect of the titanium base on the implant components remains unclear. This study evaluated the effects of a titanium base on the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments [...] Read more.
Dental implants with tapered conical connections are often combined with zirconia abutments for esthetics; however, the effect of the titanium base on the implant components remains unclear. This study evaluated the effects of a titanium base on the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments and damage to the tapered conical connection implants. Zirconia (Z) and titanium base zirconia (ZT) abutments were fastened to Nobel Biocare (NB) implants and Straumann (ST) implants and subjected to static load testing according to ISO 14801:2016. The experiments were performed with 3 mm of the platform exposed (P3) and no platform exposed (P0). The fracture loads were statistically greater in the titanium base abutments than the zirconia abutments for the NB and ST specimens in the P0 condition. In the P3 condition of the ST specimens, the deformation volume of the ZT group was significantly greater than the Z group. The titanium base increased the fracture resistance of the zirconia abutments. Additionally, the titanium base caused more deformation in the P3 condition. The implant joint design may also affect the amount of damage to the implants when under a load. The mechanical properties of the abutment should be considered when selecting a clinical design. Full article
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Article
Application of Waterborne Acrylic and Solvent-Borne Polyester Coatings on Plasma-Treated Fir (Abies alba M.) Wood
Materials 2022, 15(1), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010370 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
This research investigates the effect of plasma treatment with air, nitrogen (N2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases on the performance of waterborne (acrylic) and solvent-borne (polyester) coated fir (Abies alba M.) wood samples. The properties of the plasma-coated [...] Read more.
This research investigates the effect of plasma treatment with air, nitrogen (N2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases on the performance of waterborne (acrylic) and solvent-borne (polyester) coated fir (Abies alba M.) wood samples. The properties of the plasma-coated samples were analyzed before and after exposure to accelerated weathering and compared with those of untreated and solely treated ones. According to pull-off testing, the coating adhesion of the wood samples was considerably improved by plasma treatment, and obvious differences were observed between different plasma gases. The effect was more pronounced after the weathering test. Similar results were obtained for the abrasion resistance of the samples. The water contact angle measurement illustrated more hydrophilic character in the solely plasma-treated wood in comparison with the untreated wood. The application of coatings, however, strongly improved its hydrophobic character. The performances of waterborne and solvent-borne coatings on plasma-treated wood were comparable, although slightly better values were obtained by the waterborne system. Our results exhibit the positive effect of plasma treatment on coating performances and the increased weather resistance of the waterborne and solvent-borne coating systems on plasma-treated wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Natural Polymers in Bio-Based Products)
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Article
Field Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Resistance to Low-Temperature Cracking
Materials 2022, 15(1), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010369 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
High-modulus asphalt concrete has numerous advantages in comparison to conventional asphalt concrete, including increased resistance to permanent deformations and increased pavement fatigue life. However, previous studies have shown that the construction of road pavements with High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) may significantly increase [...] Read more.
High-modulus asphalt concrete has numerous advantages in comparison to conventional asphalt concrete, including increased resistance to permanent deformations and increased pavement fatigue life. However, previous studies have shown that the construction of road pavements with High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) may significantly increase the risk of low-temperature cracking. Those observations were the motivation for the research presented in this paper. Four test sections with HMAC used in base and binder courses were evaluated in the study. Field investigations of the number of low-temperature cracks were performed over several years. It was established that the number of new low-temperature cracks is susceptible to many random factors, and the statistical term “reversion to the mean” should be considered. A new factor named Increase in Cracking Index was developed to analyze the resistance of pavement to low-temperature cracking. For all the considered field sections, samples were cut from each asphalt layer, and Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests were performed in the laboratory. Correlations of temperature at failure and cryogenic stresses with the cracking intensity observed in the field were analyzed. The paper provides practical suggestions for pavement designers. When the use of high modulus asphalt concrete is planned for binder course and asphalt base, which may result in lower resistance to low-temperature cracking of pavement than in the case of conventional asphalt concrete, it is advisable to apply a wearing course with improved resistance to low-temperature cracking. Such an approach may compensate for the adverse effects of usage of high modulus asphalt concrete. Full article
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Article
Some Thermomagnetic and Mechanical Properties of Amorphous Fe75Zr4Ti3Cu1B17 Ribbons
Materials 2022, 15(1), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010368 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
The microstructure, revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization versus temperature, external magnetizing field induction and mechanical hardness of the as-quenched Fe75Zr4Ti3Cu1B17 amorphous alloy with two refractory metals (Zr, Ti) have been [...] Read more.
The microstructure, revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization versus temperature, external magnetizing field induction and mechanical hardness of the as-quenched Fe75Zr4Ti3Cu1B17 amorphous alloy with two refractory metals (Zr, Ti) have been measured. The X-ray diffraction is consistent with the Mössbauer spectra and is characteristic of a single-phase amorphous ferromagnet. The Curie point of the alloy is about 455 K, and the peak value of the isothermal magnetic entropy change, derived from the magnetization versus external magnetizing field induction curves, equals 1.7 J·kg−1·K−1. The refrigerant capacity of this alloy exhibits the linear dependence on the maximum magnetizing induction (Bm) and reaches a value of 110 J·kg−1 at Bm = 2 T. The average value of the instrumental hardness (HVIT) is about 14.5 GPa and is superior to other crystalline Fe-based metallic materials measured under the same conditions. HVIT does not change drastically, and the only statistically acceptable changes are visibly proving the single-phase character of the material. Full article
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