Fabrication of solar and electronic silicon wafers involves direct contact between solid, liquid and gas phases at near equilibrium conditions. Understanding of the phase diagrams and thermochemical properties of the Si-dopant binary systems is essential for providing processing conditions and for understanding the phase formation and transformation. In this work, ten Si-based binary phase diagrams, including Si with group IIIA elements (Al, B, Ga, In and Tl) and with group VA elements (As, Bi, N, P and Sb), have been reviewed. Each of these systems has been critically discussed on both aspects of phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. The available experimental data and thermodynamic parameters in the literature have been summarized and assessed thoroughly to provide consistent understanding of each system. Some systems were re-calculated to obtain a combination of the best evaluated phase diagram and a set of optimized thermodynamic parameters. As doping levels of solar and electronic silicon are of high technological importance, diffusion data has been presented to serve as a useful reference on the properties, behavior and quantities of metal impurities in silicon. This paper is meant to bridge the theoretical understanding of phase diagrams with the research and development of solar-grade silicon production, relying on the available information in the literature and our own analysis.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited