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Energies 2017, 10(12), 2044;

Characterisation of Ground Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour for Shallow Geothermal Energy Applications

Geotechnics Department-National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal
Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9000, Denmark
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, 3036 Limassol, Cyprus
Building Services Engineering, Lund University, Lund 22100, Sweden
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Urban and Environmental Engineering, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Constantin Daicoviciu Street, No.15, Cluj-Napoca 400020, Romania
Belgian Building Research Institute, 1342 Limelette, Belgium
Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, 2610 Amadora, Portugal
University of Perugia, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Department of Mechanics, Technical University of Sofia, Plovdiv Branch, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, CNRS, UMR 7563, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France
EKIT Department of Plovdiv University “Paisii Hilendarski”, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Centre of Applied Research and Development-Building, Energy and Environment, VIA University College, 8700 Horsens, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 3 December 2017
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Increasing use of the ground as a thermal reservoir is expected in the near future. Shallow geothermal energy (SGE) systems have proved to be sustainable alternative solutions for buildings and infrastructure conditioning in many areas across the globe in the past decades. Recently novel solutions, including energy geostructures, where SGE systems are coupled with foundation heat exchangers, have also been developed. The performance of these systems is dependent on a series of factors, among which the thermal properties of the soil play a major role. The purpose of this paper is to present, in an integrated manner, the main methods and procedures to assess ground thermal properties for SGE systems and to carry out a critical review of the methods. In particular, laboratory testing through either steady-state or transient methods are discussed and a new synthesis comparing results for different techniques is presented. In situ testing including all variations of the thermal response test is presented in detail, including a first comparison between new and traditional approaches. The issue of different scales between laboratory and in situ measurements is then analysed in detail. Finally, the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of soil is introduced and discussed. These coupled processes are important for confirming the structural integrity of energy geostructures, but routine methods for parameter determination are still lacking. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow geothermal systems; soil thermal behaviour; laboratory testing; in situ testing; thermo-mechanical behaviour shallow geothermal systems; soil thermal behaviour; laboratory testing; in situ testing; thermo-mechanical behaviour

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Vieira, A.; Maranha, J.; Christodoulides, P.; Alberdi-Pagola, M.; Loveridge, F.; Nguyen, F.; Florides, G.; Radioti, G.; Cecinato, F.; Prodan, I.; Ramalho, E.; Georgiev, A.; Rosin-Paumier, S.; Lenart, S.; Erbs Poulsen, S.; Popov, R.; Lenart, S.; Erbs Poulsen, S.; Radioti, G.; Javed, S.; Van Lysebetten, G.; Salciarini, D. Characterisation of Ground Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour for Shallow Geothermal Energy Applications. Energies 2017, 10, 2044.

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