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Curr. Oncol., Volume 23, Issue 1 (February 2016) – 23 articles

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97 KiB  
Book Review
Book Review: Hypnotic Approaches in Cancer and Palliative Care
by G. Giddings
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 79-80; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2851 - 01 Feb 2016
Viewed by 322
Abstract
The word “hypnosis” seems to carry somewhat different connotations today than in the past [...]
Full article
96 KiB  
Letter
De-Escalation of Bone-Targeted Agents for Metastatic Prostate Cancer
by Brian Younho Hong, Mohammed F.K. Ibrahim, Ricardo Fernandes, Sasha Mazzarello, Brian Hutton, Risa Shorr and Mark Clemons
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 77-78; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2913 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
Despite advances in therapy, bone remains the most common site of prostate cancer recurrence [...]
Full article
208 KiB  
Letter
A Simple Approach for Eliminating Spam
by Sasha Mazzarello, Michael Fralick and Mark Clemons
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 75-76; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2860 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 441
Abstract
In recent years, the incredible expansion of e-mail has changed the way we all practice medicine [...]
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814 KiB  
Case Report
Synchronous Rectal Adenocarcinoma and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma
by T. Srikumar, M. Markow, B. Centeno, S. Hoffe, J. Tao, H. Fernandez, J. Strosberg and D. Shibata
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 70-74; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2711 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 524
Abstract
Synchronous cancers of different primary origin are rare. Here, we describe the case of a patient with concomitant diagnoses of rectal adenocarcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (smzl). A 57-year-old woman initially presented with abdominal pain. Physical examination and computed tomography [...] Read more.
Synchronous cancers of different primary origin are rare. Here, we describe the case of a patient with concomitant diagnoses of rectal adenocarcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (smzl). A 57-year-old woman initially presented with abdominal pain. Physical examination and computed tomography demonstrated massive splenomegaly, and a complete blood count revealed microcytic anemia and lymphopenia. During the subsequent evaluation, she presented with hematochezia, melena, and constipation, which prompted gastroenterology referral. Subsequent endoscopic rectal ultrasonography revealed a T3N1 moderately differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma, with computed tomography imaging of chest, abdomen, and pelvis confirming no metastasis. Thus, the cancer was classified as clinical stage T3N1M0, stage iii. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed co-existing marginal zone lymphoma, and with the clinical presentation of massive splenomegaly, a diagnosis of smzl was made. The patient’s management was individually tailored for simultaneous optimal treatment of both conditions. Concurrent treatment with neoadjuvant rituximab and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, with external-beam radiation therapy to the pelvis, was administered, followed by surgery consisting of en bloc splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy, and low anterior resection. The patient completed a standard course of adjuvant folfox (fluorouracil–leucovorin–oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and has remained disease-free for 7 years. To our knowledge, this report is the first to specifically describe simultaneous diagnoses of locally advanced rectal cancer and smzl. We also describe the successful combined neoadjuvant treatment combination of 5-fluorouracil, rituximab, and pelvic radiation. Full article
165 KiB  
Short Communication
Impact of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Evaluation at a Single Institution
by R. Dault, M.P. Rousseau, A. Beaudoin, M.A. Frenette, F. Lemay and M.F. Beauchesne
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 65-69; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2780 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Oxaliplatin plays a major role in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), but is associated with the development of neuropathies. The main objective of the present prospective study was to estimate the proportion of participants with grade 1, 2, 3, or [...] Read more.
Oxaliplatin plays a major role in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), but is associated with the development of neuropathies. The main objective of the present prospective study was to estimate the proportion of participants with grade 1, 2, 3, or 4 peripheral sensory neuropathies according to the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4) among CRC patients treated with oxaliplatin (adjuvant or metastatic, FOLFOX or XELOX regimens) at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke. Among the 57 patients so treated between May 2012 and April 2013, about 60% reported grade 2 neuropathy, at maximum, during treatment. About 25% of patients had to stop treatment because of neuropathies. In a subset of patients contacted approximately 22 months after treatment cessation, neuropathies persisted in 70%. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy affects a significant number of CRC patients and can influence the course of treatment and outcomes. Full article
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Article
Eye-Witnessing Cancer—An Ever-Challenging Experience
by S. Jurja
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2904 - 01 Feb 2016
Viewed by 375
Abstract
As a doctor with particular experience, when you see a patient with a certain unfortunate skin color [...]
Full article
258 KiB  
Article
Management of Uveal Melanoma: A Consensus-Based Provincial Clinical Practice Guideline
by E. Weis, T.G. Salopek, J.G. McKinnon, M.P. Larocque, C. Temple-Oberle, T. Cheng, J. McWhae, R. Sloboda and M. Shea-Budgell
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 57-64; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2859 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Introduction: Survival in uveal melanoma has remained unchanged since the early 1970s. Because outcomes are highly related to the size of the tumour, timely and accurate diagnosis can increase the chance for cure. Methods: A consensus-based guideline was developed to inform [...] Read more.
Introduction: Survival in uveal melanoma has remained unchanged since the early 1970s. Because outcomes are highly related to the size of the tumour, timely and accurate diagnosis can increase the chance for cure. Methods: A consensus-based guideline was developed to inform practitioners. PubMed was searched for publications related to this topic. Reference lists of key publications were hand-searched. The National Guidelines Clearinghouse and individual guideline organizations were searched for relevant guidelines. Consensus discussions by a group of content experts from medical, radiation, and surgical oncology were used to formulate the recommendations. Results: Eighty-four publications, including five existing guidelines, formed the evidence base. Summary: Key recommendations highlight that, for uveal melanoma and its indeterminate melanocytic lesions in the uveal tract, management is complex and requires experienced specialists with training in ophthalmologic oncology. Staging examinations include serum and radiologic investigations. Large lesions are still most often treated with enucleation, and yet radiotherapy is the most common treatment for tumours that qualify. Adjuvant therapy has yet to demonstrate efficacy in reducing the risk of metastasis, and no systemic therapy clearly improves outcomes in metastatic disease. Where available, enrolment in clinical trials is encouraged for patients with metastatic disease. Highly selected patients might benefit from surgical resection of liver metastases. Full article
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Short Communication
Patterns of Care and Treatment Trends for Canadian Men with Localized Low-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of Provincial Cancer Registry Data
by K. Tran, R. Rahal, S. Fung, C. Louzado, G. Porter, J. Xu and H. Bryant
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 56-59; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.3011 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 377
Abstract
Background: Many prostate cancers (pcas) are indolent and, if left untreated, are unlikely to cause death or morbidity in a man’s lifetime. As a result of testing for prostate-specific antigen, more such cases are being identified, leading to concerns about “overdiagnosis” [...] Read more.
Background: Many prostate cancers (pcas) are indolent and, if left untreated, are unlikely to cause death or morbidity in a man’s lifetime. As a result of testing for prostate-specific antigen, more such cases are being identified, leading to concerns about “overdiagnosis” and consequent overtreatment of pca. To mitigate the risks associated with overtreatment (that is, invasive therapies that might cause harm to the patient without tangible benefit), approaches such as active surveillance are now preferred for many men with low-risk localized pca (specifically, T1/2a, prostate-specific antigen ≤ 10 ng/mL, and Gleason score ≤ 6). Here, we report on patterns of care and treatment trends for men with localized low-risk pca. Results: The provinces varied substantially with respect to the types of primary treatment received by men with localized low-risk pca. From 2010 to 2013, many men had no record of surgical or radiation treatment within 1 year of diagnosis—a proxy for active surveillance; the proportion ranged from 53.3% in Nova Scotia to 80.8% in New Brunswick. Among men who did receive primary treatment, the use of radical prostatectomy ranged from 12.0% in New Brunswick to 35.9% in Nova Scotia. The use of radiation therapy (external-beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy) ranged from 4.1% in Newfoundland and Labrador to 17.6% in Alberta. Treatment trends over time suggest an increase in the use of active surveillance. The proportion of men with low-risk pca and no record of surgical or radiation treatment rose to 69.9% in 2013 from 46.1% in 2010 for all provinces combined. Conclusions: The provinces varied substantially with respect to patterns of care for localized low-risk pca. Treatment trends over time suggest an increasing use of active surveillance. Those findings can further the discussion about the complex care associated with pca and identify opportunities for improvement in clinical practice. Full article
174 KiB  
Article
Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference 2013: Emerging Therapies in the Treatment of Pancreatic, Rectal, and Colorectal Cancers
by T. Di Valentin, T. Asmis, J. Asselah, F. Aubin, N. Aucoin, S. Berry, J. Biagi, C.M. Booth, R. Burkes, N. Coburn, B. Colwell, C. Cripps, L.A. Dawson, M. Dorreen, D. Frechette, R. Goel, S. Gray, N. Hammad, D. Jonker, P. Kavan, J. Maroun, S. Nanji, D. Roberge, B. Samson, M. Seal, W. Shabana, M. Simunovic, S. Snow, M. Tehfe, M. Thirlwell, E. Tsvetkova, M. Vickers, T. Vuong and R. Goodwinadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 52-55; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2897 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 496
Abstract
The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, 17–19 October 2013, marked the 10-year anniversary of this meeting that is attended by leaders in medical, radiation, and surgical oncology. The goal of the attendees is to improve the care [...] Read more.
The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, 17–19 October 2013, marked the 10-year anniversary of this meeting that is attended by leaders in medical, radiation, and surgical oncology. The goal of the attendees is to improve the care of patients affected by gastrointestinal malignancies. Topics discussed during the conference included pancreatic cancer, rectal cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. Full article
733 KiB  
Article
Cancer Evolution–Development: Experience of Hepatitis B Virus–Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis
by W.B. Liu, J.F. Wu, Y. Du and G.W. Cao
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 49-56; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2836 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
Here, we present the basic concept and theoretical framework of a scientific hypothesis called Cancer Evolution–Development (“Cancer Evo-Dev”), based on our recent studies of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus induces hepatocarcinogenesis, together with related advances in [...] Read more.
Here, we present the basic concept and theoretical framework of a scientific hypothesis called Cancer Evolution–Development (“Cancer Evo-Dev”), based on our recent studies of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus induces hepatocarcinogenesis, together with related advances in that field. Several aspects central to our hypothesis are presented: ■ Immune imbalance—caused by the interaction of genetic predispositions and environmental exposures such as viral infection—is responsible for the maintenance of chronic non-resolving inflammation. Non-resolving inflammation promotes the occurrence and progression of cancers, characterized by an evolutionary process of “mutation–selection–adaptation” for both viruses and host cells. ■ Under a microenvironment of non-resolving inflammation, proinflammatory factors promote mutations in viral or host genomes by transactivation of the expression of cytidine deaminases and their analogues. Most cells with genomic mutations and mutated viruses are eliminated in the competition for survival in the inflammatory microenvironment. Only a small percentage of the mutated cells that alter their survival signal pathways and exhibit the characteristics of “stem-ness” can survive and function as cancer-initiating cells. ■ Cancers generally develop with properties of “backward evolution” and “retro-differentiation,” indicating the indispensability of stem-like signal pathways in the evolution and development of cancers. Full article
965 KiB  
Article
A Canadian Perspective on the Use of Immunoglobulin Therapy to Reduce Infectious Complications in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
by S. Lachance, A.L. Christofides, J.K. Lee, L.H. Sehn, B.C. Ritchie, C. Shustik, D.A. Stewart, C.L. Toze, E. Haddad and D.C. Vinh
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 42-51; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2810 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who typically have increased susceptibility because of hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) related to their disease and its treatment. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT) has [...] Read more.
Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who typically have increased susceptibility because of hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) related to their disease and its treatment. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT) has been shown to reduce the frequency of bacterial infections and associated hospitalizations in patients with HGG or a history of infection, or both. However, use of IGRT in CLL is contentious. Studies examining such treatment were conducted largely before the use of newer chemoimmunotherapies, which can extend lifespan, but do not correct the HGG inherent to the disease. Thus, the utility of IGRT has to be re-evaluated in the current setting. Here, we discuss the evidence for the use of IGRT in CLL and provide a practical approach to its use in the prevention and management of infections. Full article
788 KiB  
Article
Dosimetric and Clinical Toxicity Comparison of Critical Organ Preservation with Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and RapidArc for the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cancer of the Pancreatic Head
by L. Jin, R. Wang, S. Jiang, J. Yue, T. Liu, X. Dou, K. Zhu, R. Feng, X. Xu, D. Chen and Y. Yin
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 41-48; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2771 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 456
Abstract
Purpose: We compared dosimetry and clinical toxicity for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, U.S.A.) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPCC). We hypothesized that the technique with [...] Read more.
Purpose: We compared dosimetry and clinical toxicity for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, U.S.A.) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPCC). We hypothesized that the technique with better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) and better target dose distributions could lead to decreased clinical toxicity. Methods: The study analyzed 280 patients with LAPCC who had undergone radiotherapy. The dosimetry comparison was performed using 20 of those patients. Dose–volume histograms for the target volume and the OARs were compared. The clinical toxicity comparison used the 280 patients who received radiation with 3D-CRT, IMRT, or RapidArc. Compared with 3D-CRT, RapidArc and IMRT both achieved a better conformal index, homogeneity index, V95%, and V110%. Results: Compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT, RapidArc reduced the V10, V20, and mean dose to duodenum, the V20 of the right kidney, and the liver mean dose. Compared with 3D-CRT, RapidArc reduced the V35, and V45 of duodenum, the mean dose to small bowel, and the V15 of right kidney. The incidences of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea (p = 0.037) and anorexia (p = 0.042) were lower with RapidArc than with 3D-CRT, and the incidences of grades 3 and 4 diarrhea (p = 0.027) were lower with RapidArc than with IMRT. Conclusions: Compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT, RapidArc showed better sparing of OARs, especially duodenum, small bowel, and right kidney. Also, fewer acute grades 3 and 4 gastrointestinal toxicities were seen with RapidArc than with 3D-CRT or IMRT. A technique with better sparing of OARs and better target dose distributions could result in decreased clinical toxicities during radiation treatment for LAPCC. Full article
1734 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Inhibitory Effects of Myocardial Cell Culture Medium on Growth of a Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line, A549
by Y. Zheng, J. Zhou, S.Z. Fu, J. Fan and J.B. Wu
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 35-40; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2844 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
Background: Although the heart is one of the body’s vital organs, with an abundant blood supply, metastasis to the heart is considered rare. In a previous study, we found that the myocardial microenvironment might contain a low molecular weight natural tumour suppressor. [...] Read more.
Background: Although the heart is one of the body’s vital organs, with an abundant blood supply, metastasis to the heart is considered rare. In a previous study, we found that the myocardial microenvironment might contain a low molecular weight natural tumour suppressor. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardiac myocyte–conditioned medium (CMCM) on the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: An MTT assay was used to detect the inhibition ratio with respect to A549 proliferation. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cell strain) were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice to produce tumours. The xenograft tumour growth in mice was observed after selected drug administration. Results: After treatment with CMCM and cisplatin (Cis), A549 cell viability significantly declined (p < 0.001). The cell viability in the CMCM and Cis groups were 53.42% ± 3.45% and 58.45% ± 6.39% respectively. Growth of implanted tumour cells in vivo was significantly inhibited in the CMCM group, the group treated with recombinant human adenovirus–p53, and the Cis-treated group compared with a control group. The inhibition rates were 41.44% in the CMCM group, 41.34% in the p53 group, and 64.50% in the Cis group. Lung metastasis capacity was significantly reduced in the presence of CMCM (p < 0.05). Lung metastasis inhibition rates in mice were 56.52% in the CMCM group, 47.83% in the p53 group, and 82.61% in the Cis group. With CMCM, the lives of A549-tumour-bearing mice could be significantly prolonged without any effect on weight loss. Conclusions: Use of CMCM has the effect of reducing A549 cell viability, tumour volume, and lung metastasis rate, while prolonging survival duration without severe toxicity. Full article
645 KiB  
Review
Targeting Leukemia Stem Cells: Which Pathways Drive Self-Renewal Activity in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?
by M. Belmonte, C. Hoofd, A.P. Weng and V. Giambra
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 34-41; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2806 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 577
Abstract
T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a malignancy of white blood cells, characterized by an uncontrolled accumulation of T-cell progenitors. During leukemic progression, immature T cells grow abnormally and crowd into the bone marrow, preventing it from making normal blood cells [...] Read more.
T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a malignancy of white blood cells, characterized by an uncontrolled accumulation of T-cell progenitors. During leukemic progression, immature T cells grow abnormally and crowd into the bone marrow, preventing it from making normal blood cells and spilling out into the bloodstream. Recent studies suggest that only discrete cell populations that possess the ability to recreate the entire tumour might be responsible for the initiation and propagation of T-ALL. Those unique cells are commonly called “cancer stem cells” or, in the case of hematopoietic malignancies, “leukemia stem cells” (LSCs). Like normal hematopoietic stem cells, LSCs are thought to be capable of self-renewal, during which, by asymmetrical division, they give rise to an identical copy of themselves as well as to a daughter cell that is no longer capable of self-renewal activity and represents a more “differentiated” progeny. Here, we review the main pathways of self-renewal activity in LSCs, focusing on their involvement in the maintenance and development of T-ALL. New stem cell–directed therapies and LSC-targeted agents are also discussed. Full article
474 KiB  
Article
Effects of Warm Acupuncture on Breast Cancer–Related Chronic Lymphedema: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by C. Yao, Y. Xu, L. Chen, H. Jiang, C.S. Ki, J.S. Byun and W. Bian
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 27-34; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2788 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Background: Effective treatment for breast cancer–related chronic lymphedema (BCRL) remains a clinical challenge. Acupuncture and moxibustion treatments have been shown to be beneficial and safe for treating BCRL. In the present randomized controlled trial, we compared the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Background: Effective treatment for breast cancer–related chronic lymphedema (BCRL) remains a clinical challenge. Acupuncture and moxibustion treatments have been shown to be beneficial and safe for treating BCRL. In the present randomized controlled trial, we compared the effectiveness of combined acupuncture and moxibustion (“warm acupuncture”) with that of diosmin in BCRL. Methods: Breast cancer patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 30) were randomized to experimental and control groups (15 per group). On alternate days, patients in the experimental group received 30 minutes of acupuncture at 6 acupoints, with 3 of the needles each being topped by a 3-cm moxa stick. The control treatment was diosmin 900 mg 3 times daily. The control and experimental treatments were administered for 30 days. Outcome measures included arm circumferences (index of effectiveness), range of motion [ROM (shoulder joint function)], quality of life, clinical safety, and adverse events. Results: Measured by the index of effectiveness, BCRL improved by 51.46% in the experimental group and by 26.27% in the control group (p < 0.00001). Effects were greatest at 10 cm above the elbow and at the wrist, where the warm needling was provided. Impairments in shoulder joint ROM were minimal at baseline in both treatment groups. However, the ROMs of rear protraction, abduction, intorsion, and extorsion in the experimental group improved significantly; they did not change in the control group. Self-reported quality of life was significantly better with warm acupuncture than with diosmin. No adverse effects were reported during the treatment period, and laboratory examinations for clinical safety fell within the normal ranges. Conclusions: Compared with diosmin, warm acupuncture treatment can effectively reduce the degree of BCRL at the specific acupoints treated and can promote quality of life. Warm acupuncture showed good clinical safety, without any adverse effects on blood or the cardiovascular system. Full article
895 KiB  
Article
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Head and Neck: Clinical Predictors of Outcome from a Canadian Centre
by J.J. Ko, J.E. Siever, D. Hao, R. Simpson and H.Y. Lau
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 26-33; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2898 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Objectives: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is often treated with surgery, with or without adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). We evaluated disease characteristics, treatments, and potentially prognostic variables in patients with ACC. Methods: Our retrospective analysis considered consecutive [...] Read more.
Objectives: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is often treated with surgery, with or without adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). We evaluated disease characteristics, treatments, and potentially prognostic variables in patients with ACC. Methods: Our retrospective analysis considered consecutive cases of ACC presenting at a tertiary care hospital between 2000 and 2014. Factors predictive of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were identified by univariate analysis. Results: The 60 patients analyzed had a mean age of 58 years (range: 22-88 years), with a 2:1 female:male ratio. Tumour locations included the major salivary glands (40% parotid, 17% submandibular and sublingual), the oro-nasopharyngeal cavity (27%), and other locations (16%). Of the 60 patients, 35 (58%) received surgery with adjuvant RT; 12 (20%), RT only; 13 (22%), surgery only. Of 18 patients (30%) who experienced a recurrence within 5 years, 3 (5%) developed local recurrence only, and the remaining 15 (25%), distant metastasis. The 5-year OS and DFS were 64.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 45.9% to 78.1%] and 46.2% (95% CI: 29.7% to 61.2%) respectively. In patients without recurrence, 5-year OS was 77% (95% CI: 52.8% to 89.9%), and in patients with recurrence, it was 42.7% (95% CI: 15.8% to 67.6%). Patients treated with RT only had a 5-year OS of 9.2%. Predictors of 5-year DFS were TNM stage, T stage, nodal status, treatment received, and margin status; age, nodal status, treatment received, and margin status predicted 5-year OS. Conclusions: Despite surgery and RT, one third of patients with ACC experience distant recurrence. Patients whose tumours are not amenable to surgery have a poor prognosis, indicating a need for alternative approaches to improve outcomes. Full article
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Article
Hepcidin and Ferroportin Expression in Breast Cancer Tissue and Serum and Their Relationship with Anemia
by X. Pan, Y. Lu, X. Cheng and J. Wang
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 24-26; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2840 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Objective: Our correlation study investigated the relationships of the expression of hepcidin and ferroportin (FPN) in tissues and serum from breast cancer (BCa) patients and the relationships of hepcidin and FPN with anemia. Methods: We used ELISA [...] Read more.
Objective: Our correlation study investigated the relationships of the expression of hepcidin and ferroportin (FPN) in tissues and serum from breast cancer (BCa) patients and the relationships of hepcidin and FPN with anemia. Methods: We used ELISA and immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of hepcidin and FPN in tissue and serum from 62 individuals with BCa, and we analyzed correlations between hepcidin and FPN expression in tissue and in serum. At the same time, we evaluated the relationships between hepcidin, FPN, and anemia. Results: Mean serum hepcidin was 8.18 ± 3.75 μg/L in BCa patients with anemia and 4.53 ± 2.07 μg/L in those without anemia, a statistically significant difference (t = 3.7090, p < 0.01). Mean serum FPN was obviously lower in the anemia group than in the non-anemia group (1.77 ± 0.51 μg/L vs. 2.46 ± 0.52 μg/L, t = 3.5115, p < 0.01). Serum hepcidin and hemoglobin were negatively correlated (r = −0.502, p < 0.01); however, serum FPN was positively correlated with hemoglobin, and serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with FPN. The rates of hepcidin and FPN expression in BCa tissues were 50.0% and 61.2% respectively, but no association with anemia was observed. We also observed no relationship between expression of hepcidin and FPN in serum and in tissue. Conclusions: In BCa patients, expression of hepcidin in serum was high, but expression of FPN was low, suggesting that serum hepcidin plays a major role in anemia in those patients. Expression of hepcidin and FPN in BCa tissue showed no correlation with their expression in serum and no clear relationship with anemia. Full article
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Article
Quebec Public Funding Facilitates Fertility Preservation for Male Cancer Patients
by M.B. Herrero, A. García, W. Buckett, T. Tulandi and P. Chan
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 20-25; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2793 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 442
Abstract
Background: Sperm cryopreservation remains the only clinically feasible option to preserve male fertility. The quality of counselling provided by the treating physicians and the cost of sperm cryopreservation can both influence a patient’s decision about whether to preserve sperm. On 5 August [...] Read more.
Background: Sperm cryopreservation remains the only clinically feasible option to preserve male fertility. The quality of counselling provided by the treating physicians and the cost of sperm cryopreservation can both influence a patient’s decision about whether to preserve sperm. On 5 August 2010, the Quebec government introduced provincial coverage of assisted reproductive technologies, with sperm cryopreservation included as a covered service. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether and how such a program affects the behaviour of cancer patients with respect to sperm cryopreservation. Methods: We analyzed the database derived from male patients undergoing sperm cryopreservation from August 2008 to August 2012 at our centre. The retrieved data included patient age, male infertility or oncologic diagnosis, sperm quality parameters, and details about the number of visits for sperm cryopreservation. Results: The number of cancer patients who cryopreserved sperm before and after the policy change did not differ significantly, but a marked increase in the number of non-cancer patients was observed. Further analysis revealed that, after implementation of the public funding program, the total number of sperm cryopreservation sessions per patient increased significantly in cancer patients but not in non-cancer patients. Conclusions: It appears that cancer patients who are willing to freeze sperm are keen to return for more sessions of sperm banking when no fees are associated with the service. Those findings suggest that cost reduction is an important factor for improving delivery of fertility preservation services to male cancer patients. Full article
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Article
Genetic Polymorphisms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3, Xenoestrogen, Phytoestrogen, and Premenopausal Breast Cancer
by H. Li, M. Zhao, Q. Wang, L. Liu, Y.N. Qi and J.Y. Li
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 17-23; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2835 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 537
Abstract
Background: Previous studies suggest a combined effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) gene polymorphisms, xenoestrogen, and phytoestrogen on the IGF-1 signalling pathway and serum concentrations in the IGF system, which [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies suggest a combined effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) gene polymorphisms, xenoestrogen, and phytoestrogen on the IGF-1 signalling pathway and serum concentrations in the IGF system, which are associated with premenopausal breast cancer (BCa) risk. Methods: Between 2010 and 2012, our study recruited 140 premenopausal BCa patients and 160 community-based premenopausal control subjects. Participants were surveyed about oral contraceptive (OC) use, dietary habits, and other BCa risk factors. TaqMan assays were used to determine IGF-1 rs1520220 and IGFBP-3 rs2854744 genotypes. Daily intakes of energy-adjusted soy isoflavones (EASIs) were calculated by the residual method. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the IGF-1 rs1520220 and IGFBP-3 rs2854744 genotypes, OC use, and intake of EASIs. Stratified analyses were performed to detect the gene–environment combined effect, and multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate interaction coefficients (IORs) by the multiplicative model, with 95% CIs. The delta method was used to calculate interaction coefficients by the additive model [relative excess risk of interaction (RERI), attributable proportions of interaction (APIs)] and 95% CIs. Results: The IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 genotypes, OC use, and EASIs were not found to be associated with BCa risk (p > 0.05). Stratified analysis showed that the risk of BCa was markedly increased in women carrying the IGFBP-3C allele and using OCs compared with women either carrying the IGFBP-3C allele or using ocs (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.04 to 8.79). The interaction coefficients IOR, RERI, and API were 4.89 (95% CI: 1.09 to 21.90), 2.42 (95% CI: −0.76 to 5.61), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.46 to 1.67) respectively. Conclusions: The IGFBP-3 rs2854744 polymorphism and OC use might synergistically increase premenopausal BCa risk. Full article
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Article
Expression and Clinical Significance of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in Lung Cancer Tissues and Perioperative Circulation from Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
by S. Fu, H. Tang, Y. Liao, Q. Xu, C. Liu, Y. Deng, J. Wang, J. Wang and X. Fu
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 12-19; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2669 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
Objective: We explored the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) in the development of lung cancer. We used immunohistochemistry to measure the expression of igf-1 and igf-1 receptor (igf-1r) in specimens of tissue and perioperative [...] Read more.
Objective: We explored the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1) in the development of lung cancer. We used immunohistochemistry to measure the expression of igf-1 and igf-1 receptor (igf-1r) in specimens of tissue and perioperative circulation from 80 patients with primary non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) and from 45 patients with benign pulmonary lesions (bpls). Correlations of those measurements with clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical follow-up were analyzed. Circulating igf-1 was measured before and after surgery in all patients. Results: Compared with bpl specimens, nsclc specimens showed overexpression of igf-1 and igf-1r (p < 0.001). The expression levels of igf-1 and igf-1r were significantly associated with advanced-stage disease (p = 0.034 and 0.029 respectively) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012 and 0.017 respectively), and expression of igf-1 correlated with tumour differentiation and tumour diameter (p = 0.011 and 0.021 respectively). Specimens positive for igf-1 or igf-1r were significantly correlated with shorter patient survival (p = 0.0012 and 0.0016 respectively). After surgery, circulating igf-1 was significantly elevated in patients with bpl (p = 0.0346) and significantly lower in patients with nsclc (p = 0.0030), especially in those with advanced-stage disease, a larger tumour size, regional lymphoid node metastasis, or lesser differentiation (p = 0.0092, 0.0051, 0.0131, and p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions: In nsclc, igf-1 and igf-1r are upregulated, and expression of those factors is correlated with tumour progression and prognosis in nsclc patients. Radical resection of nsclc can directly influence the serum concentration of igf-1. Autocrine/paracrine igf-1 might be playing an important role in the development of lung cancer. Full article
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Editorial
The Second Current Oncology Scholar’s Conference
by Y. Cai
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.3066 - 01 Feb 2016
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Following up on its first workshop—the Current Oncology Scholar’s Forum and Workshop—on 12 May 2012 in China, Current Oncology initiated a 2nd conference in 2015, to communicate with Chinese and other Asian physicians and researchers, with the aim of exploring their current needs [...] Read more.
Following up on its first workshop—the Current Oncology Scholar’s Forum and Workshop—on 12 May 2012 in China, Current Oncology initiated a 2nd conference in 2015, to communicate with Chinese and other Asian physicians and researchers, with the aim of exploring their current needs and interests and receiving updates on their new achievements in oncology diagnosis, treatment, prevention, recovery, and other areas of interest that intersect with oncology research [...]
Full article
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Article
The Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Detection and Quantification of C4NP in Rat Plasma and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies
by J. You, L. Wang, F. Yang and J. Shang
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 8-16; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2842 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 476
Abstract
Introduction: Combretastatins, which are excellent anticancer agents, are isolated from Combretum. A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of a combretastatin analog (C4NP) in rats. Methods: Sample pretreatment was finished [...] Read more.
Introduction: Combretastatins, which are excellent anticancer agents, are isolated from Combretum. A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the pharmacokinetic study of a combretastatin analog (C4NP) in rats. Methods: Sample pretreatment was finished by simple protein precipitation in which methanol was added to plasma containing an internal standard (buspirone hydrochloride). Liquid chromatograph separation was accomplished on a reverse-phase Kinetex XB-C18 column [50 × 4.6 mm; internal diameter: 2.6 μm (Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, U.S.A.)] with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile (0.05% formic acid, volume for volume) and water (0.05% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were analyzed in the positive ion by electrospray ionization and quantified in the selective reaction monitoring mode. The entire procedure was validated following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical methods validation. Results: Our study investigated, for the first time, the detection and pharmacokinetic characteristics of C4NP in Sprague–Dawley rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic results suggest that C4NP is predominantly restricted to blood or extracellular fluid and is not extensively distributed to most organ tissues. In addition, C4NP can be cleared by renal filtration and active tubular secretion in Sprague–Dawley rats. Toxicokinetics of C4NP in these rats indicate that no saturation of the metabolic or excretion process occurs for C4NP, and metabolic induction and accumulation of toxic injury from multiple dosing are both absent. Conclusions: For 100 μL of analyte, recovery plus high accuracy and reproducibility indicate that our new ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is a reliable and high-throughput analytical tool for the pharmacokinetic study of C4NP in rats. Those results should be useful for risk assessment. Full article
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Article
Relationship between HLA-DRB1 Allele Polymorphisms and Familial Aggregations of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by S. Ma, J. Wu, J. Wu, Y. Wei, L. Zhang, Q. Ning and D. Hu
Curr. Oncol. 2016, 23(1), 1-7; https://doi.org/10.3747/co.23.2839 - 01 Feb 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
Objective: We explored the relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregation of hepatocellular carcinoma (fHCC). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers were used to determine HLA-DRB1 genotypes for 130 members of families with 2 or more liver cancer [...] Read more.
Objective: We explored the relationship between HLA-DRB1 allele polymorphisms and familial aggregation of hepatocellular carcinoma (fHCC). Methods: Polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers were used to determine HLA-DRB1 genotypes for 130 members of families with 2 or more liver cancer patients and for 130 members of families without any diagnosed cancers. The genotype profiles were then compared to explore the relationship between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and fHCC. Result: Of 11 selected alleles, the frequencies of DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 were significantly lower in the fHCC group than in no-cancer group (p < 0.05; odds ratio: 0.286; 95% confidence interval: 0.091 to 0.901; and odds ratio: 0.493; 95% confidence interval: 0.292 to 0.893). Differences in the frequencies of the other 9 alleles were not statistically significant in the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Our research suggests that if genetic factors play a role in fHCC, the deficiency in the DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles might be the risk factor at work in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R.C. Full article
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