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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 19 (October-1 2022) – 707 articles

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Review
Current Perspectives of Cross-Country Mountain Biking: Physiological and Mechanical Aspects, Evolution of Bikes, Accidents and Injuries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912552 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
Mountain biking (MTB) is a cycling modality performed on a variety of unpaved terrain. Although the cross-country Olympic race is the most popular cross-country (XC) format, other XC events have gained increased attention. XC-MTB has repeatedly modified its rules and race format. Moreover, [...] Read more.
Mountain biking (MTB) is a cycling modality performed on a variety of unpaved terrain. Although the cross-country Olympic race is the most popular cross-country (XC) format, other XC events have gained increased attention. XC-MTB has repeatedly modified its rules and race format. Moreover, bikes have been modified throughout the years in order to improve riding performance. Therefore, the aim of this review was to present the most relevant studies and discuss the main results on the XC-MTB. Limited evidence on the topic suggests that the XC-MTB events present a variation in exercise intensity, demanding cardiovascular fitness and high power output. Nonetheless, these responses and demands seem to change according to each event. The characteristics of the cyclists differ according to the performance level, suggesting that these parameters may be important to achieve superior performance in XC-MTB. Moreover, factors such as pacing and ability to perform technical sections of the circuit might influence general performance. Bicycles equipped with front and rear suspension (i.e., full suspension) and 29″ wheels have been shown to be effective on the XC circuit. Lastly, strategies such as protective equipment, bike fit, resistance training and accident prevention measures can reduce the severity and the number of injuries. Full article
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Review
Tools to Measure Health Literacy among Adult Hispanic Populations with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12551; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912551 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
Health literacy (HL) is associated with short- and long-term health outcomes, and this is particularly relevant in Hispanics, who are disproportionally affected by lower HL. Hispanics have become the largest minority population in the United States. Also, Hispanics experience higher burdens of chronic [...] Read more.
Health literacy (HL) is associated with short- and long-term health outcomes, and this is particularly relevant in Hispanics, who are disproportionally affected by lower HL. Hispanics have become the largest minority population in the United States. Also, Hispanics experience higher burdens of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, effectively choosing culturally appropriate validated instruments that measure a marker found in health assessments should be a serious consideration. Using a systemized approach, we identified and reviewed 33 publications and found eight different HL and numeracy (separate or combined) instruments. We assessed the study designs and instrument structures to determine how HL was measured across these studies. We categorized the results into direct and indirect measurements of HL. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) family of HL instruments was favored for direct measures of HL, while the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) instrument was favored for indirect measures. Despite identified trends in instruments used, more comprehensive measurement tools have been developed but not validated in Hispanic populations. In conclusion, further validation of more comprehensive HL instruments in adult Hispanic populations with T2DM could better assess HL levels and improve health promotion efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advance in Health Literacy and Health Promotion)
Article
Understanding Health Information Behaviors of Migrant Domestic Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912549 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
Migrant domestic workers (MDWs) in Hong Kong remain vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. Obtaining accurate information is essential for MDWs as it helps them understand their predicament and protect themselves. Therefore, this study delves into the MDWs’ health literacy by scrutinizing how they [...] Read more.
Migrant domestic workers (MDWs) in Hong Kong remain vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. Obtaining accurate information is essential for MDWs as it helps them understand their predicament and protect themselves. Therefore, this study delves into the MDWs’ health literacy by scrutinizing how they acquire, verify, and respond to pandemic-related information. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Indonesian MDWs, recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. The data were examined using a constant comparative approach in grounded theory. The findings reveal that the participants engaged in information seeking and scanning to obtain health crisis information, mainly through their friends, family members, and community organizations. The participants also verified the information using their judgment or by consulting other actors, such as local organizations and media outlets. The messages they obtained informed the means to protect themselves, which motivated them to adopt preventive measures. However, some also engaged in maladaptive coping, such as taking ineffective preventive actions. The participants also disseminated health crisis information throughout their social circle. This study concluded that MDWs performed four health information behaviors during the pandemic, namely information acquisition, authentication, sharing, and adoption of preventive measures. However, their information practices may change at different stages of the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Literacy and Health Equity)
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Article
Exome Sequencing in an ADSHE Family: VUS Identification and Limits
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912548 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
Autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (ADSHE) is the familial form of a focal epilepsy characterized by hyperkinetic focal seizures, mainly arising during non-rapid eye movements (NREM) sleep. Mutations associated with ADSHE account for a small proportion of the genetically determined cases, suggesting the [...] Read more.
Autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (ADSHE) is the familial form of a focal epilepsy characterized by hyperkinetic focal seizures, mainly arising during non-rapid eye movements (NREM) sleep. Mutations associated with ADSHE account for a small proportion of the genetically determined cases, suggesting the existence of other disease-causing genes. Here, we reported the results obtained by performing trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) in an Italian family showing ADSHE and investigated the structural impact of putative variants by in silico modeling analysis. We identified a p.(Trp276Gly) variant in MOXD1 gene encoding the monooxigenase DBH like 1 protein, cosegregating with the disease and annotated as VUS under the ACMG recommendations. Structural bioinformatic analysis predicted a high destabilizing effect of this variant, due to the loss of important hydrophilic bonds and an expansion of cavity volume in the protein hydrophobic core. Although our data support a functional effect of the p.(Trp276Gly) variant, we highlight the need to identify additional families carrying MOXD1 mutations or functional analyses in suitable models to clarify its role in ADSHE pathogenesis. Moreover, we discuss the importance of VUS reporting due to the low rate of pathogenic variant identification by NGS in epilepsy and for future reinterpretation studies. Full article
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Article
Dietary Isorhamnetin Intake Is Inversely Associated with Coronary Artery Disease Occurrence in Polish Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912546 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
The role of antioxidative agents in coronary artery disease (CAD) has been investigated, but the analysis of specific flavonols intake in Polish adults requires validated tools. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of flavonols in CAD patients by [...] Read more.
The role of antioxidative agents in coronary artery disease (CAD) has been investigated, but the analysis of specific flavonols intake in Polish adults requires validated tools. The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of flavonols in CAD patients by creating a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) dedicated for this purpose in Polish adults. The FFQ included 140 products from 12 food groups. The study involved 103 adult respondents (43 CAD patients and 60 healthy controls). Mean daily intakes of total flavonols, quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and isorhamnetin were calculated as absolute values and quartiles. Mean daily intakes of 12 main food categories and 27 subcategories were calculated as portions and quartiles. The validity test revealed high correlation for total flavonols, kaempferol, myricetin and isorhamnetin and moderate for quercetin. In the reproducibility analysis, the correlation was high for total flavonols, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, moderate for isorhamnetin and high for all 12 categories and 25 out of 27 subcategories of the tested food groups. The application of the FFQ in healthy adults and CAD patients revealed that dietary intakes of total flavonols and proportional intakes of kaempferol and isorhamnetin in Polish adults and CAD patients are higher than in most other European countries, while the proportional intakes of quercetin and myricetin are lower than in most European countries. The comparison between CAD patients and the healthy controls revealed significant differences in dietary isorhamnetin intake (p = 0.002). The results suggest that dietary isorhamnetin could have a potential role in CAD prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Cardiovascular Nutrition)
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Article
Recovery Experiences Protect Emotionally Exhausted White-Collar Workers from Gaming Addiction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12543; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912543 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
Gaming addiction and its negative consequences have attracted public concern, but relatively little is known regarding its impact on adult workers. This study aims to test the association between gaming addiction and emotional exhaustion as well as the protective effect of recovery experiences [...] Read more.
Gaming addiction and its negative consequences have attracted public concern, but relatively little is known regarding its impact on adult workers. This study aims to test the association between gaming addiction and emotional exhaustion as well as the protective effect of recovery experiences on such an association among white-collar workers. We recruited 205 working adults (female = 58%) who voluntarily completed an online questionnaire. The results showed that male and younger workers were more vulnerable to gaming addiction. Emotional exhaustion was significantly and positively associated, while two (i.e., relaxation and control) of the four recovery experiences were negatively correlated with gaming addiction. Control experience had an indirect effect on gaming addiction via emotional exhaustion. Moreover, relaxation experience buffered the risk effect of emotional exhaustion on gaming addiction so that the effect is less pronounced at high levels of relaxation. Interventions are suggested to raise workers’ awareness of effective recovery experiences (especially for control and relaxation) and to facilitate their recovery opportunities. Full article
Article
“Ghost”, a Well-Known but Not Fully Explained Echocardiographic Finding during Transvenous Lead Extraction: Clinical Significance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912542 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
“Ghosts” are fibrinous remnants that become visible during transvenous lead extraction (TLE). Methods: Data from transoesophageal echocardiography-guided TLE procedures performed in 1103 patients were analysed to identify predisposing risk factors for the development of so-called disappearing ghosts—flying ghosts (FG), or attached to the [...] Read more.
“Ghosts” are fibrinous remnants that become visible during transvenous lead extraction (TLE). Methods: Data from transoesophageal echocardiography-guided TLE procedures performed in 1103 patients were analysed to identify predisposing risk factors for the development of so-called disappearing ghosts—flying ghosts (FG), or attached to the cardiovascular wall—stable ghosts (SG), and to find out whether the presence of ghosts affected patient prognosis after TLE. Results: Ghosts were detected in 44.67% of patients (FG 15.5%, SG 29.2%). The occurrence of ghosts was associated with patient age at first system implantation [FG (OR = 0.984; p = 0.019), SG (OR = 0.989; p = 0.030)], scar tissue around the lead (s) [FG (OR = 7.106; p < 0.001, OR = 1.372; p = 0.011), SG (OR = 1.940; p < 0.001)], adherence of the lead to the cardiovascular wall [FG (OR = 0.517; p = 0.034)] and the number of leads [SG (OR = 1.450; p < 0.002). The presence of ghosts had no impact on long-term survival after TLE in the whole study group [FG HR = 0.927, 95% CI (0.742–1.159); p = 0.505; SG HR = 0.845, 95% CI (0.638–1.132); p = 0.265]. Conclusions: The degree of growth and maturation of scar tissue surrounding the lead was the strongest factor leading to the development of both types of ghosts. The presence of either form of ghost did not affect long-term survival even after TLE indicated for infection. Full article
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Article
Impact of Physical Activity of Pregnant Women on Obstetric Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912541 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 20
Abstract
Regular and well-planned physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we determine the impact of the PA of pregnant women on the occurrence of certain pregnancy outcomes, such as type of labor, duration of pregnancy, and birthweight. [...] Read more.
Regular and well-planned physical activity (PA) has a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes. In this study, we determine the impact of the PA of pregnant women on the occurrence of certain pregnancy outcomes, such as type of labor, duration of pregnancy, and birthweight. The study is based on the results of a Polish national survey performed between 2011 and 2017 on a group of 9170 women. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) was used to estimate the PA of pregnant women. Light intensity PA accounts for the largest proportion of women’s total energy expenditure. Increase in women’s total energy expenditure was associated with an increase in the birthweight of a child. A similar relationship was observed in the case of light and moderate PA. Vaginal birth was more common among women with higher total energy expenditure. Mothers of preterm children showed lower energy expenditure for each type of PA compared to term pregnancies. There was also a correlation between moderate and vigorous PA and low birthweight. Our study indicates that PA undertaken by pregnant women has a positive impact on pregnancy outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obstetrics and Gynecology in Public Health)
Article
The Lived Experience of Patients Utilizing Second-Generation Direct-Acting Antiviral for Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Phenomenological Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912540 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Abstract
Hepatitis C is a global public health problem, and the aim of this study was to understand the experiences of patients with hepatitis C using second-generation antivirals. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten outpatients, cognitively capable of reporting their experience, followed up at [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C is a global public health problem, and the aim of this study was to understand the experiences of patients with hepatitis C using second-generation antivirals. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten outpatients, cognitively capable of reporting their experience, followed up at a university clinic. Field diaries kept during the interviews were also used. The researchers carried out a thematic analysis to identify the ways in which individuals experienced their medication; then, these ways were reorganized to encompass the essential structures of the experience. The patients experienced the use of DAAs as providing resolution and it was permeated by: the experience of time—stagnant time, waiting for medication and the cure; the experience of spaces, understood as necessary and imposed spaces; the experience of relationships with others, personified by the support provided by healthcare professionals; the experience of sexuality, when patients developed several coping strategies to deal with the challenges imposed by the treatment. To conclude, increasing the knowledge about the patients’ experiences can contribute to improve the healthcare model for hepatitis C, since several patients have severe hepatic impairment, and the eradication of the virus is only one of the stages of patients’ treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy in the Frontlines of Public Health)
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Article
Environmental Regulation, Greenwashing Behaviour, and Green Governance of High-Pollution Enterprises in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12539; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912539 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 27
Abstract
This study analyses the relationship between greenwashing behaviour, a lack of government supervision, and imperfect green certification mechanisms in China. To improve green governance and greenwashing governance in light of rent-seeking behaviour between high-pollution enterprises and third-party green certification institutions (GCIs), we construct [...] Read more.
This study analyses the relationship between greenwashing behaviour, a lack of government supervision, and imperfect green certification mechanisms in China. To improve green governance and greenwashing governance in light of rent-seeking behaviour between high-pollution enterprises and third-party green certification institutions (GCIs), we construct a tripartite game model for the green governance system using an evolutionary game and analyse the interaction and evolutionary trajectory between the three parties. Our results indicate that increasing local government incentives and penalties not only facilitate strengthened green governance by high-pollution enterprises that do not greenwash but also help third-party GCIs to decline to engage in rent-seeking. However, increased incentives lead to relaxed governmental supervision. In addition, the government’s incentives and penalties only meet conditions that each agent’s total incentives and penalties exceed its speculative gain, and green governance systems can be effectively prevented from resulting in unsatisfactory and unstable strategies. Moreover, the accountability that higher levels of government have to local governments effectively enables high-pollution enterprises’ refusal to greenwash and third-party GCIs’ refusal to engage in rent-seeking. Our results counsel further research on environmental regulation, green governance, and enterprises’ greenwashing, with theoretical and practical applications for both policymakers and enterprises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy and Green Environment)
Article
Forecasting Model Based on Lifestyle Risk and Health Factors to Predict COVID-19 Severity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12538; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912538 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has now spread worldwide, becoming a real global health emergency. The main goal of this work is to present a framework for studying the impact of COVID-19 on Italian territory during the first year of the pandemic. Our study was [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has now spread worldwide, becoming a real global health emergency. The main goal of this work is to present a framework for studying the impact of COVID-19 on Italian territory during the first year of the pandemic. Our study was based on different kinds of health features and lifestyle risk factors and exploited the capabilities of machine learning techniques. Furthermore, we verified through our model how these factors influenced the severity of the pandemics. Using publicly available datasets provided by the Italian Civil Protection, Italian Ministry of Health and Italian National Statistical Institute, we cross-validated the regression performance of a Random Forest model over 21 Italian regions. The robustness of the predictions was assessed by comparison with two other state-of-the-art regression tools. Our results showed that the proposed models reached a good agreement with data. We found that the features strongly associated with the severity of COVID-19 in Italy are the people aged over 65 flu vaccinated (24.6%) together with individual lifestyle behaviors. These findings could shed more light on the clinical and physiological aspects of the disease. Full article
Article
The Usefulness of the COVID-GRAM Score in Predicting the Outcomes of Study Population with COVID-19
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912537 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
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Abstract
Background: The COVID-GRAM is a clinical risk rating score for predicting the prognosis of hospitalized COVID-19 infected patients. Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the use of the COVID-GRAM score in patients with COVID-19 based on the data from the COronavirus in the [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-GRAM is a clinical risk rating score for predicting the prognosis of hospitalized COVID-19 infected patients. Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the use of the COVID-GRAM score in patients with COVID-19 based on the data from the COronavirus in the LOwer Silesia (COLOS) registry. Material and methods: The study group (834 patients of Caucasian patients) was retrospectively divided into three arms according to the risk achieved on the COVID-GRAM score calculated at the time of hospital admission (between February 2020 and July 2021): low, medium, and high risk. The Omnibus chi-square test, Fisher test, and Welch ANOVA were used in the statistical analysis. Post-hoc analysis for continuous variables was performed using Tukey’s correction with the Games–Howell test. Additionally, the ROC analysis was performed over time using inverse probability of censorship (IPCW) estimation. The GRAM-COVID score was estimated from the time-dependent area under the curve (AUC). Results: Most patients (65%) had a low risk of complications on the COVID-GRAM scale. There were 113 patients in the high-risk group (13%). In the medium- and high-risk groups, comorbidities occurred statistically significantly more often, e.g., hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and flutter, heart failure, valvular disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compared to low-risk tier subjects. These individuals were also patients with a higher incidence of neurological and cardiac complications in the past. Low saturation of oxygen values on admission, changes in C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, hyperglycemia, and procalcitonin level were associated with an increased risk of death during hospitalization. The troponin level was an independent mortality factor. A change from low to medium category reduced the overall survival probability by more than 8 times and from low to high by 25 times. The factor with the strongest impact on survival was the absence of other diseases. The medium-risk patient group was more likely to require dialysis during hospitalization. The need for antibiotics was more significant in the high-risk group on the GRAM score. Conclusion: The COVID-GRAM score corresponds well with total mortality. The factor with the strongest impact on survival was the absence of other diseases. The worst prognosis was for patients who were unconscious during admission. Patients with higher COVID-GRAM score were significantly less likely to return to full health during follow-up. There is a continuing need to develop reliable, easy-to-adopt tools for stratifying the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment for COVID-19)
Article
Sugar Tax or What? The Perspective and Preferences of Consumers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912536 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 8
Abstract
Reducing high-calorie food and beverages consumption is a multi-dimensional challenge spanning agriculture to food marketing. Adverse health effects resulting from sugar-sweetened beverages such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease or dental carries have been described on numerous occasions. Poland is one of the countries [...] Read more.
Reducing high-calorie food and beverages consumption is a multi-dimensional challenge spanning agriculture to food marketing. Adverse health effects resulting from sugar-sweetened beverages such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease or dental carries have been described on numerous occasions. Poland is one of the countries that have introduced the sugar tax. The study aims to understand the degree of consumers’ awareness of the upcoming changes and their opinions and assessments of the efficiency of various activities. The study was based on Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI). The sample comprised 500 adult consumers. Most of the respondents (69.6%) are aware that a new charge for sweetened beverages is going to be introduced, and for 78.9% of the respondents, it is important to take action aimed at reducing the consumption of sweetened beverages by consumers. Well-educated respondents as well as women perceive a greater degree of need to take specific action within the area of health policy (p-value 0.010 and 0.000 respectively). The sugar tax is considered an effective tool for limiting the purchase of sweetened products. Other types of activities within the framework of preventative healthcare that aim to reduce the consumption of sugar by society should also be developed. Full article
Article
Spatiotemporal of the Coupling Relationship between Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being in Guanzhong Plain Urban Agglomeration
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912535 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 45
Abstract
Understanding the complex relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being during the rapid development of urban agglomerations can promote the sustainable development of urban agglomerations. In this paper, the InVEST model and ArcGIS10.2 were used to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics [...] Read more.
Understanding the complex relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being during the rapid development of urban agglomerations can promote the sustainable development of urban agglomerations. In this paper, the InVEST model and ArcGIS10.2 were used to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of ecosystem services and human well-being in the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration. On this basis, the coupling coordination index is used to reveal the spatiotemporal coupling relationship between them. (1) From 2010 to 2018, the water conservation services, soil conservation services, and carbon sequestration services of the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration showed a fluctuating downward trend. The spatial differences of ecosystem services were significant. (2) From 2010 to 2018, human well-being in the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration showed a fluctuating downward trend, with a decrease of 17%, and regional differences tended to narrow. (3) The coupling coordination degree between ecosystem services and human well-being has slightly decreased while maintaining the basic coordination state. The results show that there was a significant relationship between the decline of ecosystem services and the rapid development of the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration, and policies should be classified according to the coupling coordination types of human well-being and ecosystem services to promote the sustainable development of urban agglomerations. Full article
Article
Epidemiology of Human Adenovirus in Pakistani Children Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Gastroenteritis under the Age of Five Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12534; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912534 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 83
Abstract
Acute gastroenteritis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and children around the globe. Along with other enteropathogens, human adenovirus (HadV) is a major etiological agent associated with diarrhea in young children. However, information about the epidemiology of Adenoviruses in [...] Read more.
Acute gastroenteritis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and children around the globe. Along with other enteropathogens, human adenovirus (HadV) is a major etiological agent associated with diarrhea in young children. However, information about the epidemiology of Adenoviruses in Pakistan is limited or has not been reported. A total of 1082 stool samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis under the age of five years with symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal cramps who visited Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi and Children’s hospital in Lahore of Punjab Province in Pakistan. Of this, 384 cases with no blood in their stool, negative for Rotavirus, and under the age of five years were recruited in this study. Human Adenoviruses were isolated in the human epithelial HEp-2 cell line. Furthermore, adenovirus antigen detection was carried out by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and then all positive and negative samples were confirmed by nested PCR. After inoculating a clear stool supernatant on HEp-2 cell lines, we observed a positive cytopathic effect in 65 (16%) cases. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, HAdV antigens were detected in 54 (14.06%) of the clear supernatant from gastroenteritis cases. However, HAdV hexon coding regions were amplified in 57 (14.80%) fecal samples, mainly from patients ≤24 months of age. The findings of this study suggest that adenovirus circulates significantly in the children population under the age of five years and may be the potential etiological factor of acute gastroenteritis in the mentioned cities. This study provides baseline data about the possible role of adenovirus in causing viral diarrhea in children. Further large-scale epidemiological surveys are recommended to better understand disease burden, etiological agents, and its clinical impact across the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)
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Brief Report
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Respiratory Illness Admissions at a Single Academic Institution in Arkansas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912533 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 86
Abstract
Background: The first reported COVID-19 case in Arkansas was on 11 March 2020, two months after the first reported case in the United States. We sought to analyze rates of respiratory illness and influenza tests during the 2019/2020 influenza season compared to pre-pandemic [...] Read more.
Background: The first reported COVID-19 case in Arkansas was on 11 March 2020, two months after the first reported case in the United States. We sought to analyze rates of respiratory illness and influenza tests during the 2019/2020 influenza season compared to pre-pandemic years to assess whether there were higher rates of respiratory illness than expected, which may suggest undiagnosed COVID-19 cases. Methods: Using data collected from the data warehouse of the largest hospital in Arkansas, ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes related to respiratory illness were identified for 1 October to 1 May 2017–2020. Results: We identified 25,747 patients admitted with respiratory illness during the study. We found no significant difference in the rate of monthly admissions with respiratory illness between seasons (p = 0.14). We saw a significant increase in the number of influenza tests ordered in 2019/2020 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of hospitalizations with respiratory illness did not significantly increase during the 2019/2020 season; however, influenza testing increased without a statistically significant difference in positivity rate. The increase in ordered influenza tests indicates an increased clinical suspicion, which may suggest a rise in pre-hospital viral illness associated with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
Article
Life-Space Mobility and Objectively Measured Movement Behavior in Older Adults with Hypertension after Receiving COVID-19 Vaccination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912532 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
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Abstract
This study examined the changes in life-space (LS) mobility and objectively measured movement behavior in older adults with hypertension after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine and their associations with housing type. A total of 32 participants were included in this exploratory longitudinal study with [...] Read more.
This study examined the changes in life-space (LS) mobility and objectively measured movement behavior in older adults with hypertension after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine and their associations with housing type. A total of 32 participants were included in this exploratory longitudinal study with a 1-year follow-up. LS mobility and accelerometer-based physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were assessed before and ~2 months after receiving COVID-19 vaccination. Participants residing in apartment/row housing showed an increase in LS mobility composite score (β = 14, p < 0.05). In addition, they showed an increase in light PA on weekdays and the weekend (β = 3.5%; β = 6.5%; p < 0.05) and a decrease in SB on weekdays and the weekend (β = −3.7%; β = −6.6%; p < 0.05). Furthermore, changes in SB pattern were found (less time spent in bouts of ≥10 and 30 min, more breaks/day and breaks/hour). Significant associations were found between changes in LS mobility composite score and PA (positive association) and SB (negative association) in older adults residing in apartment/row housing (p < 0.05). Older adults with hypertension, particularly those who resided in houses with limited outdoor space (apartment/row housing), showed positive changes in LS mobility and objectively measured movement behavior in a period after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine and characterized by social distancing policies without mobility restrictions when compared with the period of social distancing policies with high mobility restrictions and without vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Older Adults)
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Article
The Evaluation of Orthotics in Reducing Hallux Valgus Angle in Patients with Hallux Valgus over a Twelve-Month Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912531 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 92
Abstract
Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is one of the most common forefoot deformities among females, and its prevalence increases with age. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of orthotics on the reduction in hallux valgus angle (HVA) for patients [...] Read more.
Background: Hallux valgus (HV) is one of the most common forefoot deformities among females, and its prevalence increases with age. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of orthotics on the reduction in hallux valgus angle (HVA) for patients with mild and moderate hallux valgus deformities. Methods: Twenty-six patients (42 feet) with mild or moderate HV participated in the treatment with three types of orthotics in the current study. Patients were divided into three groups depending on their HV severities and the consideration of different function of the orthotics. Orthotic Type 1 is a biomechanical style orthotic applied to moderated HV in Group 1. Orthotic Type 2 is a wrap style orthotic used on mild and moderate HV with two sub-groups: mild HV in Group 2A and moderate HV in Group 2B. Orthotic Type 3 is a gel style orthotic for mild HV. Patients were required to wear the orthotics for between 6 and 8 h per night over a period of 12 months. The HVA was measured every 3 weeks using a newly designed Measuring Block. A paired t-test was used to compare the differences between initial and final HVA at different stages of HVA treatment with orthotics. Results: After the 12-month treatment, for moderate HV patients treated with the Orthotic Type 1, their HVA reduced by 5.05° (95% CI 1.37, 8.73), (p < 0.05). For moderate HV patients treated with the Orthotic Type 2, their HVA reduced by 1.2° (95% CI −0.71, 3.11) (p > 0.05). For mild HV patients treated with the Orthotic Type 2, their HVA reduced by 2.44° (95% CI 1.39, 3.49) (p < 0.05). For mild HV patients treated with the Orthotic Type 3, their HVA reduced by 3.08° (95% CI −0.68, 6.83) (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Orthotic Type 1 showed a consistent significance in reduction in the HVA during the 12-month treatment, so it could be recommended for treating moderate HV. Orthotic Type 2 reduced the HVA, but it did not show a consistent significance in reduction in the HVA for mild and moderate HV. Orthotic Type 3 reduced the HVA, but it showed a volatile trend during 12 months without significant differences. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Adverse Skin Reactions in Nursing Staff Due to Personal Protective Equipment during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912530 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 92
Abstract
In order to prevent the nosocomial transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it has become necessary for health workers to increase their use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and influencing factors for adverse skin [...] Read more.
In order to prevent the nosocomial transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it has become necessary for health workers to increase their use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and influencing factors for adverse skin reactions (ASR) due to occupational PPE use among nursing staff in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study uses a mixed methods design. A focus group was created with experts from the field of healthcare, and an online survey was then carried out among nursing staff. Influencing factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression via odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2274 nursing staff took part in the survey, with 1967 included in the analysis. The prevalence of ASR was 61%, with 94% affecting at least one area of the face. Statistically significant factors of influence were Filtering Face Peace (FFP) mask wearing duration of ≥4 h, a history of contact allergies, and being female and young. A pre-existing skin disease had a protective effect. The prevalence of PPE-related ASR underlines the necessity for targeted preventive measures for nursing staff during pandemic situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Burden of COVID-19 in Workers)
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Article
Has the Risk of Outpatient Visits for Allergic Rhinitis, Related to Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution, Changed over the Past Years in Beijing, China?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912529 (registering DOI) - 01 Oct 2022
Viewed by 124
Abstract
A number of studies have found associations between the short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and hospital admissions. However, little is known about the temporal variations in ambient air pollution associated with health exposure, especially in China. We evaluated whether the risks of [...] Read more.
A number of studies have found associations between the short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and hospital admissions. However, little is known about the temporal variations in ambient air pollution associated with health exposure, especially in China. We evaluated whether the risks of allergic rhinitis (AR) outpatient visits from short-term exposure to air pollution varied over time (2014–2020) in Beijing, China. A quasi-Poisson generalized additive model was used to evaluate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with the pollutant concentrations during the entire study period and three specific periods. We also analyzed the temporal variations of the period-specific associations and tested the trend of change using the Mann–Kendall test. The concentration-response relationships for the specific periods were further investigated. The RRs (95%CI) for an interquartile range (IQR) increased in PM10 (70 μg/m3) and CO (0.5 mg/m3) decreased from period 1 to period 3. However, The RRs (95%CI) of PM2.5 (55 μg/m3), SO2 (7 μg/m3) and NO2 (27 μg/m3) increased from 1.015 (0.978, 1.054), 1.027 (1.009, 1.044) and 1.086 (1.037, 1.137) in period 1 to 1.069 (1.005, 1.135), 1.074 (1.003, 1.149) and 1.214 (1.149, 1.282) in period 3, respectively. A statistically significant temporal change and the stable effects were observed between the NO2 exposure and AR visits over time. Despite a substantial reduction in ambient air pollution, the short-term effects on AR outpatient visits remained significant. Our findings provide a rationale for continued air pollution control efforts in the future to minimize air pollution and to protect the public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Assessment in Public Health)
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Article
A Hybrid Model Based on Improved Transformer and Graph Convolutional Network for COVID-19 Forecasting
by and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12528; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912528 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 270
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world since 2020, with a significant fatality rate. Until recently, numerous countries were unable to adequately control the pandemic. As a result, COVID-19 trend prediction has become a hot topic in academic circles. [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world since 2020, with a significant fatality rate. Until recently, numerous countries were unable to adequately control the pandemic. As a result, COVID-19 trend prediction has become a hot topic in academic circles. Both traditional models and existing deep learning (DL) models have the problem of low prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model based on an improved Transformer and graph convolution network (GCN) for COVID-19 forecasting. The salient feature of the model in this paper is that rich temporal sequence information is extracted by the multi-head attention mechanism, and then the correlation of temporal sequence information is further aggregated by GCN. In addition, to solve the problem of the high time complexity of the existing Transformer, we use the cosine function to replace the softmax calculation, so that the calculation of query, key and value can be split, and the time complexity is reduced from the original O(N2) to  O(N). We only concentrated on three states in the United States, one of which was the most affected, one of which was the least affected, and one intermediate state, in order to make our predictions more meaningful. We use mean absolute percentage error and mean absolute error as evaluation indexes. The experimental results show that the proposed time series model has a better predictive performance than the current DL models and traditional models. Additionally, our model’s convergence outperforms that of the current DL models, offering a more precise benchmark for the control of epidemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning and Modeling in Epidemiology and Health Policy)
Article
Assessing Smoking Habits, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Needs among University Students at the University of Milan, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12527; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912527 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Background: College campuses and universities are valuable settings for smoking prevention programs targeting young adults. Aim: To investigate smoking habits, electronic cigarette (e-cig) and heated tobacco product (HTP) use, exposure to passive smoke, compliance with smoking bans on campus, attitudes toward the anti-smoking [...] Read more.
Background: College campuses and universities are valuable settings for smoking prevention programs targeting young adults. Aim: To investigate smoking habits, electronic cigarette (e-cig) and heated tobacco product (HTP) use, exposure to passive smoke, compliance with smoking bans on campus, attitudes toward the anti-smoking policies, and educational needs among students at the University of Milan, Italy. Methods: A validated questionnaire was web-submitted to 64,801 students in the period May–July 2021. For each item, the frequency was calculated and χ2 test with Bonferroni correction was used to compare differences among the 10 faculties of the University. Results: 7162 students participated in the survey, while 6605 questionnaires were included in this report (62% female, 84% aged 18–25 years). Sixty-four percent of participants were never smokers, 19% were smokers, 2.8% were e-cig or HTP users, 3.7% were dual smokers, 10% were former smokers, and 66% reported routinely spending free time with smokers. Almost all students were aware of the dangers of active and passive smoking of cigarettes, while about 20% did not have an opinion on the dangers of e-cigs/HTPs. Only 49% were aware of the smoking ban in the outdoor areas of the university. Students from the faculties of Law and Political, Economic, and Social Sciences smoked more frequently and were more frequently exposed to passive smoke than other students. Medicine students were the most aware of the dangers of passive smoking and using e-cigs/HTPs. Conclusions: This is the first study in Italy involving the entire student population of a university and highlighting differences among faculties in terms of active and passive smoking and opinions. The results suggest that prevention campaigns addressed to students should consider their specific study curricula and give information tailored to the different educational needs to efficiently support health promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Article
Impact of Sociodemographic Factors on Use of Formal Social Services in an Older Swedish Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912526 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 138
Abstract
Background: In Sweden, societal support for older people is the responsibility of the municipalities. However, due to Sweden’s current aging-in-place policy for older people, there is a need to assess how the use of such services varies based on sociodemographic factors. The aim [...] Read more.
Background: In Sweden, societal support for older people is the responsibility of the municipalities. However, due to Sweden’s current aging-in-place policy for older people, there is a need to assess how the use of such services varies based on sociodemographic factors. The aim of this study was to describe the use of different forms of social services and institutional long-term care (ILTC) in an older population and to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional register-based study, including all individuals aged 65 years and older in two Swedish municipalities in 2010, 2015, and 2019. The study analyzed the use of social services and ILTC in relation to sex, place of birth, cohabitation status, and type of housing. Results: Women, those born in Sweden, and those living in an apartment were more likely to receive assistance than men, those born abroad, or living in single family houses, respectively. People living alone were consistently more likely to have assistance, as well as ILTC. Conclusions: There may be a discrepancy between the individual’s need and the assistance provided from the municipality in certain sociodemographic groups in the older population in Sweden. Full article
Article
The Impact of Meaningful Use and Electronic Health Records on Hospital Patient Safety
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912525 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 140
Abstract
The HITECH Act aimed to leverage Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to improve efficiency, quality, and patient safety. Patient safety and EHR use have been understudied, making it difficult to determine if EHRs improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
The HITECH Act aimed to leverage Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to improve efficiency, quality, and patient safety. Patient safety and EHR use have been understudied, making it difficult to determine if EHRs improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of EHRs and attesting to Meaningful Use (MU) on Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs). A multivariate regression analysis was performed using a generalized linear model method to examine the impact of EHR use on PSIs. Fully implemented EHRs not attesting to MU had a positive impact on three PSIs, and hospitals that attested to MU had a positive impact on two. Attesting to MU or having a fully implemented EHR were not drivers of PSI-90 composite score, suggesting that hospitals may not see significant differences in patient safety with the use of EHR systems as hospitals move towards pay-for-performance models. Policy and practice may want to focus on defining metrics and PSIs that are highly preventable to avoid penalizing hospitals through reimbursement, and work toward adopting advanced analytics to better leverage EHR data. These findings will assist hospital leaders to find strategies to better leverage EHRs, rather than relying on achieving benchmarks of MU objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Health)
Article
Food Consumption Structure and Food Security—Through Mediating Effect Analysis of Agricultural R&D and Agricultural Investment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912524 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Food security is the cornerstone that ensures the stable development of a country. Based on panel data of 31 provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities) in China from 2015 to 2019, we use the mediating effect model to explore the mechanism by which [...] Read more.
Food security is the cornerstone that ensures the stable development of a country. Based on panel data of 31 provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities) in China from 2015 to 2019, we use the mediating effect model to explore the mechanism by which food consumption structure affects food security. The results indicate that grain consumption has a significant promoting effect on food security, while plant and animal food consumption have significant inhibiting effects on food security. Furthermore, agricultural R&D and investment play mediating roles in the impact of food consumption structure on food security. Obvious differences exist in the relationship between food consumption structure and food security between urban and rural areas, as well as between Eastern, Central, and Western regions. Animal food consumption had a negative and significant impact on food security, with a stronger effect on rural residents than on urban residents. Compared with the central and western regions, grain consumption and animal food consumption in the eastern region had a stronger marginal impact on food security. This paper enriches and expands the research on influencing factors of food security from the perspective of consumer demand, which has important theoretical value and practical significance for ensuring food security. Full article
Article
Effects of Yoga and Mindfulness Programs on Self-Compassion in Medical Professionals during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Intervention Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912523 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 150
Abstract
Stress among healthcare workers (HCWs) increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We aimed to determine whether a yoga and mindfulness program could alleviate burnout and other psychological and physical distress in HCWs, and how this might affect their empathy for patients. A [...] Read more.
Stress among healthcare workers (HCWs) increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We aimed to determine whether a yoga and mindfulness program could alleviate burnout and other psychological and physical distress in HCWs, and how this might affect their empathy for patients. A weekly one-hour yoga and mindfulness program was conducted for three months in 2021. Participants were 18 consenting HCWs and, the final analysis included 13 participants. They responded to online questionnaires before and after the program. We measured salivary cortisol levels before and after the program on the first and last days. Self-measured pulse rates (PRs) were taken before and after each session, which decreased significantly in both cases (before, after the first program: 72, 65 bpm, p < 0.05; before, after the last program: 75, 66, p < 0.05), but salivary cortisol levels did not change. No significant changes were observed in Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Sense of Coherence, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Self-compassion Scale, or Jefferson Scale of Empathy. However, common humanity, a subscale of self-compassion, increased significantly (before the first program: 5.6, after the last program: 6.5, p < 0.05), and over-identification decreased significantly (7.9, 6.7, p < 0.01). Yoga and mindfulness programs may help improve the sense of common humanity and reduce over-identification in HCWs. Full article
Article
Interventions for Maintenance of Essential Health Service Delivery during the COVID-19 Response in Uganda, between March 2020 and April 2021
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912522 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally and affected the delivery of health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe the interventions adopted to maintain the delivery of other health services. Methods: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. [...] Read more.
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally and affected the delivery of health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe the interventions adopted to maintain the delivery of other health services. Methods: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes using the World Health Organization health system building blocks as a guiding framework. Results: Governance strategies included the establishment of coordination committees and the development and dissemination of guidelines. Infrastructure and commodity strategies included the review of drug supply plans and allowing emergency orders. Workforce strategies included the provision of infection prevention and control equipment, recruitment and provision of incentives. Service delivery modifications included the designation of facilities for COVID-19 management, patient self-management, dispensing drugs for longer periods and the leveraging community patient networks to distribute medicines. However, multi-month drug dispensing led to drug stock-outs while community drug distribution was associated with stigma. Conclusions: Health service maintenance during emergencies requires coordination to harness existing health system investments. The essential services continuity committee coordinated efforts to maintain services and should remain a critical element of emergency response. Self-management and leveraging patient networks should address stigma to support service continuity in similar settings and strengthen service delivery beyond the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and the Future of Health)
Article
The Influence of Easing COVID-19 Restrictions on the Physical Activity Intentions and Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity in UK Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912521 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 145
Abstract
COVID-19 has had profound effects on physical activity behaviours of older adults, and understanding this impact is essential to driving public health policies to promote healthy ageing. The present study aimed to determine; (1) intended physical activity behaviours of older adults following the [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has had profound effects on physical activity behaviours of older adults, and understanding this impact is essential to driving public health policies to promote healthy ageing. The present study aimed to determine; (1) intended physical activity behaviours of older adults following the easing of UK COVID-19 restrictions; (2) the relationship between self-reported physical activity and intended physical activity behaviour; (3) perceived barriers to achieving the intended physical activity goal. Ninety-six participants (74.8 ± 4.4 years; 52 female) from a longitudinal study examining the impact of COVID-19 on physical activity were recruited. Participants outlined their future physical activity intentions and completed the COM-B Self Evaluation Questionnaire. Participants were split into groups based on their intention to ‘Maintain’ (n= 29), ‘Increase’ (n = 38) or ‘Return’ (n = 29) to pre-COVID-19 physical activity. Self-reported physical activity undulated over the pandemic but was mostly equivalent between groups. Intended physical activity behaviour was independent of self-report physical activity. Capability and motivation factors were the most frequently cited barriers to the intended physical activity behaviour, with a greater number of capability barriers in the ‘Return’ group. Such barriers should be considered in the COVID-19 recovery public health physical activity strategy for promoting healthy ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Rehabilitation)
Article
Exploring the Relationships of Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour with Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) among the Low-Income Working Population in Malaysia during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912520 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 149
Abstract
This cross-sectional study examined the relationships of financial literacy (FL) and financial behaviour (FB) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during the COVID-19 pandemic among low-income working population (20–60 years old) in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used with HRQOL data were [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study examined the relationships of financial literacy (FL) and financial behaviour (FB) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during the COVID-19 pandemic among low-income working population (20–60 years old) in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used with HRQOL data were gathered using the EuroQol 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) tool. A generalised linear model was employed to examine the hypothesised relationships between the constructs. From 1186 respondents, the majority were employed (73.9%), had a monthly household income of less than RM 2500 (74.5%), and did not have any chronic medical conditions (74.5%). The mean (SD) values of FL, FB, and EQ-5D-5L were 5.95 (1.48), 22.08 (4.79), and 0.96 (0.10), respectively. The results of the adjusted model revealed lower age group, Malay ethnicity, Indian ethnicity, and increased FB score as significant determinants of higher EQ-5D-5L scores. With the addition of the chronic medical condition factor into the saturated model, the lower age group, ethnicity, and no chronic medical condition were significant determinants of higher HRQOL. The effects of FB on QOL were confounded by chronic diseases, implying that interventions that focus on improving FB for those with chronic medical condition may help to improve the QOL among the low-income working population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being)
Article
Validation of the Flexible and Rigid Cognitive Restraint Scales in a General French Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912519 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 140
Abstract
Distinguishing between flexible and rigid cognitive restraint (CR) may be useful for understanding the role of CR in dietary behavior and weight status. This study aimed to translate and adapt the flexible and rigid CR scales to the French context and test their [...] Read more.
Distinguishing between flexible and rigid cognitive restraint (CR) may be useful for understanding the role of CR in dietary behavior and weight status. This study aimed to translate and adapt the flexible and rigid CR scales to the French context and test their psychometric properties. Construct validity, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability were examined in a sample of 620 individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis of the scales found a two-factor structure (flexible CR: 12 items; rigid CR: 15 items) that provided a good fit and supported the initial solution (χ2 = 584.7, df = 322, CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.052 [0.045, 0.059], TLI = 0.95). Higher flexible and rigid CR were associated with higher CR overall, emotional eating (TFEQ-R21) and eating disorders (SCOFF), and lower intuitive eating (IES-2). In addition, higher flexible CR was associated with lower impulsivity (BIS-11) while higher rigid CR was associated with higher uncontrolled eating (TFEQ-R21) and lower self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), and optimism (LOT-R). Flexible and rigid CR internal consistency was satisfactory (McDonald ω = 0.77 and 0.74, respectively) and test–retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.81 and 0.79, respectively). This study validated a flexible and rigid CR tool in a French population and confirmed that these two types of CR represent distinct eating behaviors. Full article
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