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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 19, Issue 19 (October-1 2022) – 1144 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling releases mercury (Hg) into the environment, though Hg levels at such sites has yet to be examined globally. A systematic review of scientific studies was conducted to synthesize data on Hg levels in e-waste products, environments near recycling sites, and in people. Data were extracted from 78 studies from 20 countries. This included Hg levels in 1103 electrical and electronic products, 2072 environmental samples (soil, air, plant, food, water, dust), and 2330 human biomarkers (blood, hair, urine). Based on our analysis, Hg at e-waste sites was generally higher than at control sites. These findings contribute to a growing knowledge base of mercury exposure through diverse source–exposure pathways, and the work has potential policy implications in the context of the Minamata Convention. View this paper
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15 pages, 1543 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Clean Movement Technique in Crossfit® Athletes Using an Optimal Upper-Limb Range of Motion: A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12985; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912985 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4042
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal upper-limb range of motion (ROM) profile for the catch phase of the clean movement (CPCM) and to identify the key ROMs for performing the CPCM in CrossFit® athletes. Methods: A prospective [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal upper-limb range of motion (ROM) profile for the catch phase of the clean movement (CPCM) and to identify the key ROMs for performing the CPCM in CrossFit® athletes. Methods: A prospective cohort study of twenty CrossFit® athletes aged 20–36 years was conducted. Data were collected regarding age, anthropometrics, CrossFit® training experience and upper-limb ROM. The ROM was measured using the ROM-SPORT method. After 7 months, athletes performed a clean movement with a load of 80% one repetition maximum. A Bayesian Student’s t-analysis, binary logistic regression analysis and Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis were performed. Results: The optimal upper-limb ROM profile that predicted correct CPCM performance was 78° in shoulder extension, 173° in shoulder flexion, 107° in shoulder external rotation, 89° in shoulder internal rotation, 153° in elbow flexion, 99° in elbow pronation and 92° in wrist extension (area under the curve ≥ 651; positive predictive value ≥ 80%). Shoulder external rotation, elbow pronation and wrist extension were found to be the most important ROMs for the efficient and safe performance of CPCM (area under the curve ≥ 854; positive predictive value ≥ 85.7%). Conclusion: The upper-limb ROM profile is associated with proper clean performance. Further studies are warranted to determine whether improving flexibility on upper-limb ROM may improve proper clean movement performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Injury Prevention and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation)
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11 pages, 1195 KiB  
Article
Cocktail Effect of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals: Application to Chlorpyrifos in Lavender Essential Oils
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912984 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide that is toxic to human health and has been banned for the past decade. Due to its persistent and bioaccumulative properties, chlorpyrifos is still present in soil. Pregnant women can be exposed to chlorpyrifos through drinking water and herbal [...] Read more.
Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide that is toxic to human health and has been banned for the past decade. Due to its persistent and bioaccumulative properties, chlorpyrifos is still present in soil. Pregnant women can be exposed to chlorpyrifos through drinking water and herbal products, such as essential oils (EOs), resulting in adverse effects to the mother and fetus. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the potential endocrine disrupting effects of chlorpyrifos “free” or in contaminated lavender EO. We studied the release of four hormones and the activation of the P2X7 cell death receptor in human placental JEG-Tox cells as key biomarkers of endocrine toxicity for pregnant women (hPlacentox assay). We observed that “free” chlorpyrifos disrupted placental hormones and activated the P2X7 receptor, whereas chlorpyrifos in lavender EO disrupted only the placental hormones. We confirm that chlorpyrifos can be classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for pregnant women and point out that its endocrine disrupting effect may not be apparent when present in lavender EOs. Our results reveal the existence of specific reverse cocktail effects that may have protective properties against EDCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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23 pages, 1628 KiB  
Review
Feasibility of Biochar Derived from Sewage Sludge to Promote Sustainable Agriculture and Mitigate GHG Emissions—A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912983 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2725
Abstract
Sewage sludge (SS) has been connected to a variety of global environmental problems. Assessing the risk of various disposal techniques can be quite useful in recommending appropriate management. The preparation of sewage sludge biochar (SSB) and its impacts on soil characteristics, plant health, [...] Read more.
Sewage sludge (SS) has been connected to a variety of global environmental problems. Assessing the risk of various disposal techniques can be quite useful in recommending appropriate management. The preparation of sewage sludge biochar (SSB) and its impacts on soil characteristics, plant health, nutrient leaching, and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are critically reviewed in this study. Comparing the features of SSB obtained at various pyrolysis temperatures revealed changes in its elemental content. Lower hydrogen/carbon ratios in SSB generated at higher pyrolysis temperatures point to the existence of more aromatic carbon molecules. Additionally, the preparation of SSB has an increased ash content, a lower yield, and a higher surface area as a result of the rise in pyrolysis temperature. The worldwide potential of SS output and CO2-equivalent emissions in 2050 were predicted as factors of global population and common disposal management in order to create a futuristic strategy and cope with the quantity of abundant global SS. According to estimations, the worldwide SS output and associated CO2-eq emissions were around 115 million tons dry solid (Mt DS) and 14,139 teragrams (Tg), respectively, in 2020. This quantity will rise to about 138 Mt DS sewage sludge and 16985 Tg CO2-eq emissions in 2050, a 20% increase. In this regard, developing and populous countries may support economic growth by utilizing low-cost methods for producing biochar and employing it in local agriculture. To completely comprehend the benefits and drawbacks of SSB as a soil supplement, further study on long-term field applications of SSB is required. Full article
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21 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
“Forced Transformation” or “Regulation Capture”—Research on the Interactive Mechanism between Environmental Regulation and Green Transformation of Dairy Farming Subject Production
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912982 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Under the situation of an increasing resource and environment shortage, the green transformation of dairy farming subject production driven by environmental regulation is the concentrated embodiment of a “promising government” to solve the problem of breeding environmental pollution. Due to the shortcomings of [...] Read more.
Under the situation of an increasing resource and environment shortage, the green transformation of dairy farming subject production driven by environmental regulation is the concentrated embodiment of a “promising government” to solve the problem of breeding environmental pollution. Due to the shortcomings of environmental regulation itself and the undefined connotation of the green transformation of dairy farming subject production, the interactive relationship between the two remains unclear at present. Based on defining the concept of green transformation of dairy farming subject production, this paper aims to analyze the interactive mechanism between the environmental regulation and green transformation of dairy farming main production, build a dynamic game model between the environmental regulators and dairy farming subject, and introduce the constraints and benefits of a reputation mechanism on the behavior in the model to explore whether environmental regulation can drive the green transformation of dairy farming subject production. The results showed that the green transformation of dairy farming subject production followed the “subject substitution view” and emphasized “source reduction, process control and terminal treatment”. Strictly designed environmental regulations could effectively drive the green transformation of dairy farming subject production, but it was inevitable that the environmental regulators were vulnerable to the rent-seeking behavior of dairy farming subjects, which was “regulation capture”. The introduction of the reputation mechanism has greatly improved the rent-seeking behavior of dairy farming subjects and the probability that environmental regulators have “regulation capture”, indirectly forcing dairy farming subjects to participate in the green transformation of production. The greater the punishment for dairy farming subjects who do not participate in the green transformation of production was, the more they can be forced to participate in the green transformation of production. At the same time, it also reduces the risk of damage to the credibility of the government. Based on the studies above, this paper also further discussed the shortcomings of environmental regulation itself, including the “re exit and light implementation” of the environmental regulation policy, “decentralization and light inspection” of the environmental regulation subject, “result and light process” of the environmental regulation mode, and “formal regulation and light informal regulation” of the environmental regulation form, which provides a scientific reference for the formulation of the environmental regulation policy of livestock and poultry breeding in the future. Compared with previous studies, this paper is innovative in two aspects: first, it defines the conceptual connotation of a green transformation of dairy farming subject production, and second, it systematically discusses the interaction mechanism between the environmental regulation and green transformation of dairy farming subject production. This paper provides a scientific reference for the development of future environmental regulation policies for livestock and poultry farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Green Transformation and Sustainable Development)
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12 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Impact of Non-Face-to-Face Teaching with Passive Training on Personal Protective Equipment Use in Health Science Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912981 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Background: In the COVID-19 era, there was a call for the transformation of higher education. Universities had to combine non-face-to-face teaching with traditional procedures. This study analyzed the effectiveness and perceived satisfaction in a cohort of health sciences students of non-face-to-face teaching with [...] Read more.
Background: In the COVID-19 era, there was a call for the transformation of higher education. Universities had to combine non-face-to-face teaching with traditional procedures. This study analyzed the effectiveness and perceived satisfaction in a cohort of health sciences students of non-face-to-face teaching with passive training versus face-to-face teaching with active training in the proper donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) in a clinical simulation scenario. Methods: A total of 142 participants were randomized into two groups: (a) non-face-to-face teaching with passive training; (b) face-to-face teaching with active training. The proper protocol for donning and doffing PPE was assessed. Students evaluated their skills before and after training and satisfaction with training received. Results: Significant differences were observed for the statements “I felt more confident in donning after receiving this training” (p = 0.029) and “I felt more confident in doffing after receiving this training” (p = 0.042) in the face-to-face teaching with active training group compared to the non-face-to-face teaching with passive training group, whose number of tasks violated was significantly higher (p = 0.020). Satisfaction was significantly higher in the face-to-face and active training group (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Face-to-face teaching with active training improves effectiveness and satisfaction more than non-face-to-face teaching with passive training for acquiring skills in donning and doffing PPE properly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Lifestyle: Health Promotion and Prevention)
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12 pages, 2442 KiB  
Article
Inequality of Low Air Quality-Related Health Impacts among Socioeconomic Groups in the World of Work
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912980 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1803
Abstract
This research aimed to assess the perceptions of air quality and health symptoms caused by low urban air quality among vulnerable socio-economic groups in the world of work in Bangkok, Thailand through a questionnaire survey of 400 workers of both formal and informal [...] Read more.
This research aimed to assess the perceptions of air quality and health symptoms caused by low urban air quality among vulnerable socio-economic groups in the world of work in Bangkok, Thailand through a questionnaire survey of 400 workers of both formal and informal sectors in the five districts with different socio-economic characteristics and levels of air pollution. The findings showed symmetry between air quality-monitoring data and health symptoms of different socio-economic groups but asymmetry between air quality-monitoring data and people’s perceptions of air quality in their areas. It also showed inequalities of low air quality-related health impacts on socio-economic groups in the world of work. People working near the streets, highways, and industrial zones tended to have more health symptoms related to low air quality, and informal sector workers faced more health risks than formal sector workers. The study appeals for effective air pollution communication to enhance the public and informal sector worker population’s literacy of air pollution, the sources of air pollution and its critical health impacts, and the available and sufficient primary care organizations and community health care centers to address work-related health needs to reach the informal sector worker population. Full article
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22 pages, 1717 KiB  
Article
Association between Primary Care Utilization and Emergency Room or Hospital Inpatient Services Utilization among the Middle-Aged and Elderly in a Self-Referral System: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2011–2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912979 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
With rapid economic growth and aging, hospital inpatient and emergency services utilization has grown rapidly, and has emphasized an urgent requirement to adjust and optimize the structure of health service utilization. Studies have shown that primary care is an effective way to reduce [...] Read more.
With rapid economic growth and aging, hospital inpatient and emergency services utilization has grown rapidly, and has emphasized an urgent requirement to adjust and optimize the structure of health service utilization. Studies have shown that primary care is an effective way to reduce inpatient and emergency room (ER) service utilization. This study aims to examine whether middle-aged and elderly individuals who selected primary care outpatient services in the last month had less ER and hospital inpatient service utilization than those who selected hospitals outpatient services via the self-referral system. Data were obtained from four waves of the nationally representative China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We pooled respondents who had outpatient visits and were aged 45 years and above. We used logistic regressions to explore the association between types of outpatient and ER visits or hospitalization, and then used zero-truncated negative binomial regression to examine the impact of outpatient visit types on the number of hospitalizations and the length of hospitalization days. A trend test was used to explore the trend of outpatient visit types and the ER or hospital inpatient services utilization with the increase in outpatient visits. Among the 7544 respondents in CHARLS, those with primary care outpatient visits were less likely to have ER visits (adjusted OR = 0.141, 95% CI: 0.101–0.194), hospitalization (adjusted OR = 0.623, 95% CI: 0.546–0.711), and had fewer hospitalization days (adjusted IRR = 0.886, 95% CI: 0.81–0.969). The trend test showed that an increase in the number of total outpatient visits was associated with a lower hospitalizations (p = 0.006), but a higher odds of ER visits (p = 0.023). Our findings suggest that policy makers need to adopt systematic policies that focus on restructuring and balancing the structure of resources and service utilization in the three-tier healthcare system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
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17 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
Subjective Exercise Experience and Group Cohesion among Chinese Participating in Square Dance: A Moderated Mediation Model of Years of Participation and Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912978 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore the relationship between years of participation, subjective exercise experience, and group cohesion among gender-specific square dance practitioners. (2) Methods: The Subjective Exercise Experience Questionnaire (SEEQ) and Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) were used to evaluate Subjective Exercise [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore the relationship between years of participation, subjective exercise experience, and group cohesion among gender-specific square dance practitioners. (2) Methods: The Subjective Exercise Experience Questionnaire (SEEQ) and Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) were used to evaluate Subjective Exercise Experience (SEE) and group cohesion (GC). An analysis was conducted on 130 Chinese (63 males and 67 females) using multiple group analysis within a structural equation model. (3) Results: (a) The positive aspects of Subjective Exercise Experience (SEE) and Positive Well-Being (PWB), had a strongly positive effect on GC in both groups. The negative aspects of SEE, Psychological Fatigue (PF), and Psychological Distress (PD), had negative effects on GC. (b) Only for the male group was there an indirect effect of participation years on the association between SEE and GC in the model (a × b = 0.062, 95% CI [0.001, 0.181]; standard error (SE) = 0.062, p = 0.048). (c) The significant differences between paths coefficients were noticed in the association of years of participation with SEE (t = −2.043) and GC (t = −1.962). (4) Conclusion: Based on these results, gender differences in terms of the partial mediating role of adherence in the relationship of SEE and GC were presented for future research, fitness popularization, and society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Wellbeing and Exercise)
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14 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Influence of Citrate/Fe(II) Molar Ratio on Hydroxyl Radical Production and Pollutant Degradation during Fe(II)-Catalyzed O2 and H2O2 Oxidation Processes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912977 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Ligand-enhanced hydroxyl radical (•OH) production is an important strategy for Fe(II)-catalyzed O2 and H2O2 oxidation processes. However, the influence of the molar ratio of ligands to Fe(II) on •OH production remains elusive. This study employed citrate and inorganic dissolved [...] Read more.
Ligand-enhanced hydroxyl radical (•OH) production is an important strategy for Fe(II)-catalyzed O2 and H2O2 oxidation processes. However, the influence of the molar ratio of ligands to Fe(II) on •OH production remains elusive. This study employed citrate and inorganic dissolved Fe(II) (Fe(II)dis) as the representative ligand and Fe(II) species, respectively, to quantify this relationship. Results showed that •OH production was highly dependent on the citrate/Fe(II) molar ratio. For instance, for the oxygenation of Fe(II)dis, the •OH accumulations were 2.0–8.5, 3.4–28.5 and 8.1–42.3 μM at low (0.25–0.5), moderate (0.5–1), and high (1–2) citrate/Fe(II) molar ratios, respectively. At low citrate/Fe(II) molar ratio (<0.5), inorganic Fe(II)dis mainly contributed to •OH production, with the increase in the citrate/Fe(II) molar ratio to a high level (1–2), Fe(II)-citrate complex turned to the electron source for •OH production. The change in Fe(II) speciation with the increase of citrate/Fe(II) molar ratio elevated •OH production. For pollutant degradation, 1 mg/L phenol was degraded by 53.6% within 40 min during oxygenation of Fe(II)-citrate system (1:1) at pH 7. Our results suggest that a moderate molar ratio of ligand/Fe(II) (0.5–1) may be optimal for Fe(II)-catalyzed O2 and H2O2 oxidation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Research of Soil and Groundwater Remediation)
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16 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
Types of Community Support Services and Self-Efficacy for Continuous Community Living among Individuals with Disabilities and Caregivers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912976 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
This study explored the impacts of five types of community support services (i.e., center-based care, home-based care, respite care, caregiver assistance, and financial subsidies) on self-efficacy for continuous community living among individuals with disabilities and caregivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Method: The sample consisted of [...] Read more.
This study explored the impacts of five types of community support services (i.e., center-based care, home-based care, respite care, caregiver assistance, and financial subsidies) on self-efficacy for continuous community living among individuals with disabilities and caregivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Method: The sample consisted of a group of individuals with disabilities (n = 948) and a group of caregivers (n = 522). A mixed ANOVA was applied to explore the differences in the perceived importance of improvements to community support services between the groups. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the perceived importance of improvements to types of community support services for self-efficacy for continuous community living. Results: Caregivers perceived higher levels of importance for improvements to community support services than individuals with disabilities. Both groups reported that financial subsidies were the most important area for improvement. The greater importance of improvements to financial subsidies reported by caregivers predicted greater odds for self-efficacy for continuous community living. The greater importance of improvements to center-based services reported by individuals with disabilities predicted greater odds for self-efficacy for continuous community living. Conclusions: The findings suggested that financial subsidies for caregivers and center-based services for individuals with disabilities could improve self-efficacy for continuous community living. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Disabilities)
12 pages, 971 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between the Frequency of Breakfast Consumption, Conversation with Parents, and Somatic Symptoms in Children: A Three-Wave Latent Growth Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912975 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Breakfast consumption is essential for children to generate energy for the day. Parents play an important role in children’s breakfast habits and spending time with parents during breakfast greatly influences children’s emotional development. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the frequency of [...] Read more.
Breakfast consumption is essential for children to generate energy for the day. Parents play an important role in children’s breakfast habits and spending time with parents during breakfast greatly influences children’s emotional development. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the frequency of children’s breakfast consumption, time spent in conversation with parents, and children’s somatic symptoms. Data were obtained from the Korea Children and Youth Panel Survey 2018 and were initially collected from fourth-grade elementary school students and followed up for three years. SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 software were used for data analysis. Multivariate latent growth modeling was applied to analyze the effect of the breakfast consumption frequency on children’s somatic symptoms and the mediating effect of parent–child conversation time on this relationship. Consequently, as children’s frequency of breakfast consumption increased, their somatic symptoms decreased. Furthermore, parent–child conversation time mediated the relationship between these two variables. Therefore, students, parents, and teachers should be educated about the importance of having breakfast and communicating with parents for students’ emotional health. Full article
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16 pages, 859 KiB  
Article
Effect of Receiving Financial Support from Adult Children on Depression among Older Persons and the Mediating Role of Social Participation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912974 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Older persons are vulnerable to depression SFduring the ageing process. Financial resources and social participation are expected to have an impact on depressive symptoms. This study investigated the relationship between financial support from children and depression among Chinese older persons, as well as [...] Read more.
Older persons are vulnerable to depression SFduring the ageing process. Financial resources and social participation are expected to have an impact on depressive symptoms. This study investigated the relationship between financial support from children and depression among Chinese older persons, as well as the mediating effect of social participation in this relationship. Data from 7163 participants aged 60 and above were extracted from wave 2015 and 2018 of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS). A multivariate regression analysis was performed on both cross-sectional data and two-wave longitudinal data to test our hypotheses. The results revealed that financial support from children was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in both the short-term and the long-term. In addition, this relationship was partially mediated by social participation in the short-term association and fully mediated by social participation in the long-term, where financial support was positively related to social participation, and social participation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms. This study offers an in-depth insight into the relationship between financial support from children and depression among Chinese older persons. Policies and initiatives to stimulate social participation should be promoted to improve older persons’ mental health. Full article
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20 pages, 7852 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Methods for Water Resource Suitability in Territorial Spatial Planning: A Case Study of Baiyin City in a Semi-Arid Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912973 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Water resources are a major factor in the spatial layout of agricultural production and urban construction, which is an important part of China’s ongoing territorial spatial planning. In order to assess the constraining and guiding effects of water resources on territorial spatial planning, [...] Read more.
Water resources are a major factor in the spatial layout of agricultural production and urban construction, which is an important part of China’s ongoing territorial spatial planning. In order to assess the constraining and guiding effects of water resources on territorial spatial planning, water resources suitability evaluation needs to be carried out at the grid scale. Traditional basin or regional-scale indicators of water resources cannot satisfy the requirements with high spatial accuracy in territorial spatial planning, because the internal differences could not be described. In this study, irrigation water supply cost index (CIA) and urban water supply cost index (CIU) were evaluated to characterize the affordability of potential water supply costs by simulating of optimal water supply path. Further, grid-scale indexes of water resource suitability for agricultural production (WRSA) and for urban construction (WRSU) were constructed. The grades of WRSA and WRSU were classified at a 20 m grid scale in Baiyin City. The areas of water resources that were suitable, relatively suitable, less suitable, and unsuitable for agricultural production were 381.0 km2, 3354.7 km2, 3663.9 km2, and 12,700.7 km2, respectively, accounting for 1.9%, 16.7%, 18.2%, and 63.2% of the total area of Baiyin City. The areas of water resources that were suitable, relatively suitable, less suitable, and unsuitable for urban construction were 1657.7 km2, 4184.5 km2, 1177.7 km2, and 13,075.7 km2, respectively, accounting for 8.2%, 20.8%, 5.9%, and 65.1% of the total area of Baiyin City. Coupling analysis with land use and land resources suitability were carried out in this study, which showed that the grid-scale WRSA and WRSU could well characterize the spatial differences of water resources suitability for agricultural production and urban construction. The results of the Geodetector-based study show that the WRSA and WRSU indicators have better explanatory power for the land-use spatial distribution compared to indicators such as water distance. Therefore, the indexes could provide scientific support to delimit agricultural space and urban space, and are effective means of “determining regional functions by water resources“ in territorial spatial planning. Furthermore, the indexes could be applied to other arid and semi-arid areas, and also hilly areas, where water supply suitability plays a restrictive role in agricultural production and urban construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Management for Territorial Spatial Planning)
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9 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity and Executive Functions in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Sleepiness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912972 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
(1) Background: Both physical activity and sleepiness were found to influence the development of executive functioning. The present study aimed to address the effects of different levels of physical activity on adolescents’ executive performance (i.e., working memory and inhibition), and the role of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Both physical activity and sleepiness were found to influence the development of executive functioning. The present study aimed to address the effects of different levels of physical activity on adolescents’ executive performance (i.e., working memory and inhibition), and the role of sleepiness in this relationship. It was hypothesized that a higher level of physical activity would be associated with better executive functioning, while this relationship was mediated (at least partially) by reduced sleepiness at school. (2) Methods: 212 adolescents aged from 10 to 17 were recruited, and they were requested to wear accelerometers for seven consecutive days to measure daily levels of physical activity. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness questionnaire (CASQ) was used to assess sleepiness. The working memory and inhibition control were assessed to indicate executive functioning. (3) Results: It was found that sedentary activity was negatively associated with working memory performance, while light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities were related to better working memory. The relationship between different levels of physical activity and working memory was mediated by reduced sleepiness at school. (4) Conclusions: Our findings provide nuanced evidence that the benefits of light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on cognitive development could be explained by reduced sleepiness at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Young People)
18 pages, 724 KiB  
Review
Factors Associated with the Acceptability of Mass Drug Administration for Filariasis: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912971 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Mass drug administration (MDA) has been implemented as a tool to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Acceptability among susceptible populations is crucial to achieving MDA effective coverage. This systematic review aims to present and systematically determine the factors associated with the acceptability of MDA. Articles [...] Read more.
Mass drug administration (MDA) has been implemented as a tool to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Acceptability among susceptible populations is crucial to achieving MDA effective coverage. This systematic review aims to present and systematically determine the factors associated with the acceptability of MDA. Articles related to factors associated with acceptability were collected electronically from three different databases (Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed). Four pairs of independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of the collected data, stored in EndnoteX7, against the inclusion criteria. Afterwards, the included articles have been critically appraised to assess the quality of the studies using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Of the 68 articles identified, 11 were included in the final review. Knowledge, awareness, attitude and perceptions, communications, delivery and accessibility of MDA, gender, and age are the factors associated with MDA acceptability. Community acceptance remains a challenge in the implementation of MDA. To expand MDA coverage in all endemic countries, there is a strong need to address the factors influencing community acceptance of MDA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vector-Borne Diseases and Public Health)
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15 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Loneliness in Intimate Relationships Scale (LIRS): Development and Validation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912970 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Intimate relationships have been shown to be loneliness positively related to self-esteem. Happiness and well-being and have also been regarded as a buffer against loneliness. Nevertheless, substantive research indicates that intimate relationships and marriage can produce or result in loneliness and thus seriously [...] Read more.
Intimate relationships have been shown to be loneliness positively related to self-esteem. Happiness and well-being and have also been regarded as a buffer against loneliness. Nevertheless, substantive research indicates that intimate relationships and marriage can produce or result in loneliness and thus seriously affect the person’s physical, emotional and spiritual well-being. Loneliness in intimate relationships may damage the relationship if it goes on, and thus, this newly developed scale has been introduced to aid clinicians and researchers in discovering loneliness in an intimate union so it can be addressed before it negatively affects the union. Since none of the measures of loneliness tap loneliness as experienced in intimate relationships, a new rating scale, the Loneliness in Intimate Relationships Scale (LIRS), was developed and tested psychometrically. The generation of items followed a qualitative approach based on a semi-structured questionnaire administered to 108 volunteers from the general Israeli population, theoretical and empirical literature, and assessments of expert psychologists. In a second study (N = 215), a self-report scale assessing loneliness in intimate relationships was developed. This was followed by psychometric and construct validity evaluations with a new sample of 306 participants. Analyses revealed that loneliness in intimate relationships is experienced mainly in terms of three aspects: detachment, hurt, and guilt. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and validity tests indicate that the final 14-item Loneliness in Intimate Relationship Scale is a well-structured, reliable, and valid scale tapping emotional, behavioral, and cognitive manifestations of loneliness in intimate relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Consequences of Social Isolation and Loneliness)
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24 pages, 4428 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 in Memes: The Adaptive Response of Societies to the Pandemic?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912969 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6020
Abstract
COVID-19 expanded rapidly throughout the world, with enormous health, social, and economic consequences. Mental health is the most affected by extreme negative emotions and stress, but it has been an underestimated part of human life during the pandemic. We hypothesized that people may [...] Read more.
COVID-19 expanded rapidly throughout the world, with enormous health, social, and economic consequences. Mental health is the most affected by extreme negative emotions and stress, but it has been an underestimated part of human life during the pandemic. We hypothesized that people may have responded to the pandemic spontaneously with increased interest in and creation of funny internet memes. Using Google and Google Trends, we revealed that the number of and interest in funny internet memes related to COVID-19 exploded during the spring 2020 lockdown. The interest in coronavirus memes was positively correlated with interest in mortality due to COVID-19 on a global scale, and positively associated with the real number of deaths and cases reported in different countries. We compared content of a random sample of 200 coronavirus memes with a random sample of 200 non-coronavirus memes found on the Internet. The sentiment analysis showed that coronavirus memes had a similar proportion of positive and negative words compared to non-coronavirus memes. However, an internet questionnaire revealed that coronavirus memes gained higher funniness scores than a random sample of non-coronavirus memes. Our results confirm that societies may have turned to humor to cope with the threat of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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14 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Pattern of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Treatment of Neonates Admitted with Suspected Sepsis in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana, 2021
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912968 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening emergency, and empirical antimicrobial prescription is common. In this cross-sectional study of neonates admitted with suspected sepsis in a teaching hospital in Ghana from January–December 2021, we described antimicrobial prescription patterns, compliance with national standard treatment guidelines (STG), [...] Read more.
Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening emergency, and empirical antimicrobial prescription is common. In this cross-sectional study of neonates admitted with suspected sepsis in a teaching hospital in Ghana from January–December 2021, we described antimicrobial prescription patterns, compliance with national standard treatment guidelines (STG), blood culture testing, antimicrobial resistance patterns and treatment outcomes. Of the 549 neonates admitted with suspected sepsis, 283 (52%) were males. Overall, 529 (96%) received empirical antimicrobials. Most neonates (n = 407, 76.9%) were treated empirically with cefuroxime + gentamicin, while cefotaxime was started as a modified treatment in the majority of neonates (46/68, 67.6%). Only one prescription complied with national STGs. Samples of 257 (47%) neonates underwent blood culture testing, of which 70 (27%) were positive. Isolates were predominantly Gram-positive bacteria, with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus accounting for 79% of the isolates. Isolates showed high resistance to most penicillins, while resistance to aminoglycosides and quinolones was relatively low. The majority of neonates (n = 497, 90.5%) were discharged after successfully completing treatment, while 50 (9%) neonates died during treatment. Strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, periodic review of STGs and increased uptake of culture and sensitivity testing are needed to improve management of sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Operational Research to Tackle Antimicrobial Resistance in Ghana)
14 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
Attitude and Performance for Online Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Meta-Analytic Evidence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912967 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic prominently hit almost all the aspects of our life, especially in routine education. For public health security, online learning has to be enforced to replace classroom learning. Thus, it is a priority to clarify how these changes impacted students. We [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic prominently hit almost all the aspects of our life, especially in routine education. For public health security, online learning has to be enforced to replace classroom learning. Thus, it is a priority to clarify how these changes impacted students. We built a random-effect model of a meta-analysis to pool individual effect sizes for published articles concerning the attitudes and performance towards online learning. Databases included Google Scholar, PubMed and (Chinese) CNKI repository. Further, a moderated analysis and meta-regression were further used to clarify potential heterogenous factors impacting this pooled effect. Forty published papers (n = 98,558) were screened that were eligible for formal analysis. Meta-analytic results demonstrated that 13.3% (95% CI: 10.0–17.5) of students possessed negative attitudes towards online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 12.7% (95% CI: 9.6–16.8) students were found to report poor performance in online learning. Moderated analysis revealed poor performance in online learning in the early pandemic (p = 0.006). Results for the meta-regression analysis showed that negative attitudes could predict poor learning performance significantly (p = 0.026). In conclusion, online learning that is caused by COVID-19 pandemic may have brought about negative learning attitudes and poorer learning performance compared to classroom learning, especially in the early pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being)
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16 pages, 3727 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis of Absenteeism in a University Hospital Center between 2007 and 2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912966 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Objectives: To estimate the evolution of compressible absenteeism in a hospital center and identify the professional and sociodemographic factors that influence absenteeism. Method: All hospital center employees have been included over a period of twelve consecutive years (2007 to 2019). Compressible absences and [...] Read more.
Objectives: To estimate the evolution of compressible absenteeism in a hospital center and identify the professional and sociodemographic factors that influence absenteeism. Method: All hospital center employees have been included over a period of twelve consecutive years (2007 to 2019). Compressible absences and occupational and sociodemographic factors were analyzed using Occupational Health data. Since the distribution of the data did not follow a normal distribution, the number of days of absence was presented as a median (interquartile range (IQR): 1st quartile–3rd quartile), and comparisons were made using non-parametric tests followed by a negative binomial model with zero inflation (ZINB). Results: A total of 16,413 employees were included, for a total of 2,828,599 days of absence, of which 2,081,553 were compressible absences (73.6% of total absences). Overall, 42% of employees have at least one absence per year. Absent employees had a median of 15 (IQR 5–53) days of absence per year, with an increase of a factor of 1.9 (CI95 1.8–2.1) between 2007 and 2019 (p < 0.001). Paramedical staff were most at risk of absence (p < 0.001 vs. all other occupational categories). Between 2007 and 2019, the number of days of absence was multiplied by 2.4 (CI95 1.8–3.1) for administrative staff, 2.1 (CI95 1.9–2.3) for tenured, 1.7 (CI95 1.5–2.0) for those living more than 12 km from the workplace, 1.8 (CI95 1.6–2.0) among women, 2.1 (CI95 1.8–2.6) among those over 50 years of age, 2.4 (CI95 1.8–3.0) among “separated” workers, and 2.0 (CI95 1.8–2.2) among those with at least one child. Conclusions: Paramedical personnel are most at risk of absenteeism. Meanwhile, absenteeism is increasing steadily, and overall, the increase is major for administrative staff. The profile of an employee at risk of absenteeism is a titular employee, living at distance from work, probably female, over 50 years old, separated, and with children. Identifying professionals at risk of absenteeism is essential to propose adapted and personalized preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Analysis Using Public Healthcare Data)
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15 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
The Digital Divide Is Aging: An Intergenerational Investigation of Social Media Engagement in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912965 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
The aging-based digital divide has gained increased research attention in recent years. This research focused on two important aspects of the aging society, the digital divide and the intergenerational differences, with regard to social media usage in China. The data were collected through [...] Read more.
The aging-based digital divide has gained increased research attention in recent years. This research focused on two important aspects of the aging society, the digital divide and the intergenerational differences, with regard to social media usage in China. The data were collected through a household interview, using a nationally representative sample (n= 3790) from 58 cities in mainland China. The present study investigated the association between differentiated social media usage with demographic characteristics, social economic status, physical and mental health, and social media perceptions. The results show a significant digital divide and generational differences. The existing socio-economic inequalities and demographic variance largely explained older adults’ social media access and diversity of social media engagement. Social media perceptions play more essential roles in the intensity of social media engagement for each generation group. This study contributes a better understanding of the manner in which different factors are associated with different generations’ social media engagement. A discussion is included regarding the necessity to close the aging-based digital gap in order to cope with the issue of rapid aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Transdisciplinary Approach to Healthy Ageing)
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12 pages, 748 KiB  
Article
Leaving Past Adversities Behind: Gratitude Intervention Compensates for the Undesirable Effects of Past Time Perspectives on Negative Affect
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912964 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Both gratitude and savoring the moment are considered to be well-established “well-being boosters” (WBBs). Each of them has a salient temporal reference: Gratitude is past-related, whereas savoring the moment refers to the present. The temporal match–mismatch model posits that time perspectives (TPs) moderate [...] Read more.
Both gratitude and savoring the moment are considered to be well-established “well-being boosters” (WBBs). Each of them has a salient temporal reference: Gratitude is past-related, whereas savoring the moment refers to the present. The temporal match–mismatch model posits that time perspectives (TPs) moderate the effects of WBBs on well-being if they refer to the same temporal frame (e.g., gratitude and Past-Positive). Our study tested whether TPs moderate the effects of two positive interventions on positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). The participants (N = 174 individuals, 73% women) completed measures of TPs, PA, and NA, followed by a brief intervention of gratitude (N = 86) or savoring (N = 88). Subsequently, they completed the PA/NA measures again. Both interventions significantly decreased NA but did not foster PA. The magnitude of the shift in NA in the gratitude condition depended on the levels of past TPs: Individuals high in Past-Negative and low in Past-Positive displayed greater baseline NA than their counterparts; however, the difference was leveled after the gratitude intervention. No interaction effects between the present TPs and the savoring intervention were observed. The results suggest that practicing gratitude may diminish the undesirable consequences of negative views of the past. Full article
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21 pages, 1645 KiB  
Article
Causes of Stress among Healthcare Professionals and Successful Hospital Management Approaches to Mitigate It during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912963 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic posed an immediate challenge to the management of hospitals in Germany and elsewhere. The risk of stress for front-line healthcare professionals forced occupational health and safety units to adopt a variety of protective measures, not all of [...] Read more.
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic posed an immediate challenge to the management of hospitals in Germany and elsewhere. The risk of stress for front-line healthcare professionals forced occupational health and safety units to adopt a variety of protective measures, not all of which have been thoroughly validated. The main objective of the present analysis is to assess what the most important sources of stress were and which of the protective measures applied to counteract stress among healthcare staff had the greatest impact. A better understanding of these factors will improve hospital management and worker safety in a future health crisis situation and may also prove to be beneficial in non-crisis situations. For this purpose, in 2020, an exploratory, cross-sectional and quantitative study using a questionnaire created for this purpose was carried out on a total of 198 professionals—133 nurses and 65 physicians—at the Klinikum Mittelbaden Balg hospital in Baden-Baden, Germany, during the first wave of the pandemic. Statistical analyses showed that nurses suffer more stress than physicians and that stress is higher among professionals in critical care and emergency units than in units that are less exposed to infected patients. It was also found that measures such as salary incentives, encouragement of work in well-integrated teams, and perceived support from hospital management mitigate stress. These findings highlight the importance of support measures from management and superiors. Knowing the actual effectiveness of the measures applied by management and the factors mentioned above could help to protect healthcare professionals in the event of another pandemic or similar situations and may still be of value in dealing with the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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11 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Social Support Mediates the Association between Health Anxiety and Quality of Life: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912962 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1650
Abstract
This study aimed to test if perceived social support and cyberchondria mediate the association between health anxiety and quality of life (QoL) in a nonclinical sample. Cross-sectional research involved adult internet users (n = 538) between 16 May 2020 and 29 December [...] Read more.
This study aimed to test if perceived social support and cyberchondria mediate the association between health anxiety and quality of life (QoL) in a nonclinical sample. Cross-sectional research involved adult internet users (n = 538) between 16 May 2020 and 29 December 2020 in Poland who completed self-report questionnaires, including the cyberchondria severity scale (CSS-PL), the short health anxiety inventory (SHAI), the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and the quality of life scale (QOLS). A mediation analysis was performed to examine the direct effects of health anxiety on cyberchondria, perceived social support and quality of life. Likewise, the effects of cyberchondria and perceived social support on QoL were analyzed. Hence, indirect effects of health anxiety on QoL through cyberchondria and perceived social support were explored. Health anxiety significantly impaired QoL both directly and indirectly through low-perceived social support. Perceived social support partly mediated the association between health anxiety and QoL. Cyberchondria did not have a significant direct effect on the latter. Thus, cyberchondria did not mediate the relationship between health anxiety and QoL. Boosting-perceived social support may mitigate the detrimental effect of health anxiety on QoL. Cyberchondria was not found to have a significant effect on QoL in contrast to health anxiety alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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13 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing O3 Concentration in Traffic and Urban Environments: A Case Study of Guangzhou City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912961 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Ozone (O3) pollution is a serious issue in China, posing a significant threat to people’s health. Traffic emissions are the main pollutant source in urban areas. NOX and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from traffic emissions are the main precursors of [...] Read more.
Ozone (O3) pollution is a serious issue in China, posing a significant threat to people’s health. Traffic emissions are the main pollutant source in urban areas. NOX and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from traffic emissions are the main precursors of O3. Thus, it is crucial to investigate the relationship between traffic conditions and O3 pollution. This study focused on the potential relationship between O3 concentration and traffic conditions at a roadside and urban background in Guangzhou, one of the largest cities in China. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in the O3 concentration was observed between roadside and urban background environments. However, the O3 concentration was 2 to 3 times higher on sunny days (above 90 μg/m3) than on cloudy days due to meteorological conditions. The results confirmed that limiting traffic emissions may increase O3 concentrations in Guangzhou. Therefore, the focus should be on industrial, energy, and transportation emission mitigation and the influence of meteorological conditions to minimize O3 pollution. The results in this study provide some theoretical basis for mitigation emission policies in China. Full article
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16 pages, 2053 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Transportation Restructuring on the Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Empirical Data from China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912960 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Adjusting transportation structure to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions is an effective way to address climate change issues. This paper selects six transport sectors and constructs a hybrid input-output model to study the impact of transportation restructuring on the intensity of [...] Read more.
Adjusting transportation structure to reduce the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions is an effective way to address climate change issues. This paper selects six transport sectors and constructs a hybrid input-output model to study the impact of transportation restructuring on the intensity of CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions in each sector during different periods. The results show that the effect of transportation restructuring on greenhouse gas emissions is manifested differently in different time periods. After 2008, transportation restructuring had a significant effect on reducing the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors. However, the impact of transportation restructuring on the intensity of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions is limited. It is also found that the railway transport sector has been a low-impact transport sector in terms of greenhouse gas emissions since 2004, which provides insights for the optimization of China’s transportation structure. Full article
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15 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Need for Mobile Application in Stroke Management by Informal Caregivers: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912959 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Background: Mobile health (mHealth) has been considered as a prominent concept in digital health and is widely used and easily accessible. Periodic follow-up visits, previously planned procedures, and rehabilitation services for stroke survivors have been cut down during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Background: Mobile health (mHealth) has been considered as a prominent concept in digital health and is widely used and easily accessible. Periodic follow-up visits, previously planned procedures, and rehabilitation services for stroke survivors have been cut down during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, in this qualitative study we aimed to explore the need for a mobile application in stroke management by informal caregivers. Methods: A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted from November 2020 to June 2021. Thirteen respondents were recruited from two public rehabilitation centers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. In-depth interviews were conducted. A comprehensive representation of perspectives from the respondents was achieved through purposive sampling. The interviews were conducted in the Kelantanese dialect, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by using thematic analysis. Results: Thirteen participants were involved in the interviews. All of them agreed with the need for a mobile application in stroke management. They believed the future stroke application will help them to seek information, continuous stroke home care, and help in the welfare of caregivers and stroke patients. Conclusions: The current study revealed two themes with respective subthemes that were identified, namely, self-seeking for information and reasons for using a stroke mobile application in the future. This application helps in reducing healthcare costs, enhancing the rehabilitation process, facilitating patient engagement in decision making, and the continuous monitoring of patient health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
14 pages, 2828 KiB  
Article
The Economic Burden Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Chronic Diseases in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912958 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Coexisting physical diseases and depressive symptoms exacerbate morbidity and disability, but their incremental economic burden remains unclear. We used cross-sectional data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) survey in 2018 to estimate the economic burden associated with depressive symptoms among [...] Read more.
Coexisting physical diseases and depressive symptoms exacerbate morbidity and disability, but their incremental economic burden remains unclear. We used cross-sectional data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) survey in 2018 to estimate the economic burden associated with depressive symptoms among middle-aged and elderly people with chronic diseases. A multivariable regression model was used to assess the annual health care utilization, expenditures, and productivity loss of depressive symptoms among people with 12 common chronic diseases. We found that depressive symptoms were associated with higher incremental economic burdens, as the total health care costs increased by 3.1% to 85.0% and annual productivity loss increased by 1.6% to 90.1%. Those with cancer or malignant tumors had the largest economic burden associated with depressive symptoms, with CNY 17,273.7 additional annual health care costs and a loss of CNY 2196.2 due to additional annual productivity loss. The effect of depressive symptoms on the economic burden of patients with chronic conditions did not increase by the number of chronic conditions. Considering the high economic burden associated with depressive symptoms among patients with chronic conditions, it is important to consider the mental health of patients in chronic disease treatment and management. Full article
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19 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Does China’s National Demonstration Eco-Industrial Park Reduce Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide—A Study Based on the Upgrading and Transformation Process
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912957 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
With the increasingly serious environmental problems, coordinating the relationship between the environment and economic development has become a crucial task for developing countries, especially China. This paper studies the role of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) in the emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide [...] Read more.
With the increasingly serious environmental problems, coordinating the relationship between the environment and economic development has become a crucial task for developing countries, especially China. This paper studies the role of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) in the emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide in China with the difference-in-difference (DID) approach by focusing on the entire process of EIPs’ establishment—upgrading provincial development zones (DZs) to national DZs and then transforming national DZs into EIPs. Besides, we examined the heterogeneous effect of the different transformations from national economic and technological development zones (ETZs) or national high-tech zones (HTZs) to EIPs. In addition, we studied the spatial spillover effects of EIPs and their paths with the spatial difference-in-difference (SDID) method. The results show that neither provincial DZs nor national DZs can significantly reduce sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions. Only when national DZs are transformed into EIPs can they be reduced significantly. However, the different transformations from the HTZs and ETZs to EIPs have different effects on emissions. Moreover, EIPs have technology spillovers and demonstration effects on surrounding areas. Therefore, EIPs can reduce emissions in the surrounding areas. The results indicate that, in order to achieve high-quality development and coordinate the relationship between environment and economic development, we should take positive steps to promote the transformation of DZs into EIPs. Full article
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13 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
Exploring Saudi Individuals’ Perspectives and Needs to Design a Hypertension Management Mobile Technology Solution: Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912956 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Hypertension is a chronic condition caused by a poor lifestyle that affects patients’ lives. Adherence to self-management programs increases hypertension self-monitoring, and allows greater prevention and disease management. Patient compliance with hypertension self-management is low in general; therefore, mobile health applications (mHealth-Apps) are [...] Read more.
Hypertension is a chronic condition caused by a poor lifestyle that affects patients’ lives. Adherence to self-management programs increases hypertension self-monitoring, and allows greater prevention and disease management. Patient compliance with hypertension self-management is low in general; therefore, mobile health applications (mHealth-Apps) are becoming a daily necessity and provide opportunities to improve the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, including hypertension. This research aims to explore Saudi individuals’ perspectives and needs regarding designing a hypertension management mobile app to be used by hypertension patients to better manage their illnesses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 Saudi participants to explore their perspectives and views about the needs and requirements in designing a hypertension mobile technology solution, as well as usability and culture in the Saudi context. The study used NVivo to analyze data and divided the themes into four main themes: the app’s perceived health benefits, features and usability, suggestions for the app’s content, and security and privacy. The results showed that there are many suggestions for improvements in mobile health apps that developers should take into consideration when designing apps. The mobile health apps should include physical activity tracking, related diet information, and reminders, which are promising, and could increase adherence to healthy lifestyles and consequently improve the self-management of hypertension patients. Mobile health apps provide opportunities to improve hypertension patients’ self-management and self-monitoring. However, this study asserts that mobile health apps should not share users’ data, and that adequate privacy disclosures should be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue uHealth Services and Interventions for Better Prevention and Care)
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