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Open AccessArticle

Associations of Waist Circumference, Socioeconomic, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors with Chronic Kidney Disease in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese People

1
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40201, Taiwan
3
International Master/Ph.D. Program in Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University−Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei 23561, Taiwan
5
School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
6
Health and Clinical Research Data Center, Data Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
7
Master Program in Applied Molecular Epidemiology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
8
Research Center of Geriatric Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
9
Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245093
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Kidney Disease)
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) places a heavy burden on the healthcare system worldwide. The risk factors may vary by body adiposity. We aimed to investigate the associations of socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral factors with CKD in different groups of body mass indexes (BMI). Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 3280 participants (1048 CKD and 2232 non-CKD) from seven hospitals and nearby communities from May 2012 to August 2015. Personal characteristics, anthropometrics, environmental exposures, and health−related behaviors were assessed using a structured questionnaire. The logistic regression models were utilized for analysis. Results: Older age (odd ratio, OR = 2.85; p < 0.001), being men (OR = 4.23; p < 0.001), smoking (OR = 3.36; p < 0.001), stable income (OR = 0.33; p < 0.001), higher education (OR = 0.37~0.38; p < 0.001), and daily adequate water intake (OR = 0.64; p = 0.010) were associated with CKD in normal weight people. Older age (OR = 2.49; p < 0.001), being men (OR = 3.36; p < 0.001), education (OR = 0.44, p = 0.004), hypertension (OR = 2.93; p<0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.83; p = 0.004), and using traditional Chinese medicine (OR = 2.03, p = 0.014) were associated with CKD in overweight people. Older age (OR = 2.71; p < 0.001), being men (OR = 2.69; p < 0.001), hypertension (OR = 2.93; p < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.94; p = 0.001) were associated with CKD in obese people. Conclusions: The associated factors of CKD varied by different groups of BMI. These findings may help to develop potential interventions to manage CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; overweight and obesity; case-control; hypertension; diabetes; socioeconomic; exposing to animal; smoking; plain water; Taiwan chronic kidney disease; overweight and obesity; case-control; hypertension; diabetes; socioeconomic; exposing to animal; smoking; plain water; Taiwan
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Duong, T.V.; Wu, P.-Y.; Yang, E.; Lin, Y.-F.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Yang, S.-H. Associations of Waist Circumference, Socioeconomic, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors with Chronic Kidney Disease in Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese People. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 5093.

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