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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050521
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2312 | PDF Full-text (1489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels
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Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050520
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1644 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis.
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Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050519
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 22 April 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1545 | PDF Full-text (2704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe
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Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Heat Stress and the Indoor Climate Control Requirements for Movable Refuge Chambers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050518
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1520 | PDF Full-text (1219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to
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Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to the metabolism of trapped miners, heat generated by equipment and heat transferred from outside. To investigate the heat stress experienced by miners trapped in a movable refuge chamber, the predicted heat strain (PHS) model was used to simulate the heat transfer process between the person and the thermal environment. The variations of heat stress with the temperature and humidity inside the refuge chamber were analyzed. The effects of air temperature outside the refuge chamber and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the refuge chamber shell on the heat stress inside the refuge chamber was also investigated. The relationship between the limit of exposure duration and the air temperature and humidity was numerically analyzed to determine the upper limits of temperature and humidity inside a refuge chamber. Air temperature of 32 °C and relative humidity of 70% are recommended as the design standard for internal thermal environment control of movable refuge chambers. Full article
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Open AccessReview Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050517
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1948 | PDF Full-text (524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration,
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Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a “tropical” disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050516
Received: 13 March 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1605 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin
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Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Case Study of Community Involvement Influence on Policy Decisions: Victories of a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050515
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
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Abstract
The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a
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The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050514
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4498 | PDF Full-text (338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public
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Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4) out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate the adverse effects of nicotine, and many would not recommend any nicotine-containing product as a long-term smoking substitute. Additionally, they have poor knowledge about the function and characteristics of electronic cigarettes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050513
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1388 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated
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Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050512
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1987 | PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood
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In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Care and Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050511
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1917 | PDF Full-text (740 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is
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Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA presented significantly lower scores on the Externalizing Problem Scale than boys with the lowest exposure levels in the adjusted model. Girls exposed to higher levels of ΣPFAS exposure (T2) showed significantly lower scores on the Externalizing Problem Scale, in both crude and adjusted models. No significant associations with PFOS were found. Conclusions: Results from the current study show that prenatal exposure to PFOA was negatively related to externalizing behavior in boys. Results were different for boys and girls, emphasizing that mechanisms at work might be sex-dependent. However, results should be interpreted with caution as the sample size was small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals)
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Open AccessArticle Applications of a Novel Clustering Approach Using Non-Negative Matrix Factorization to Environmental Research in Public Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050509
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492 | PDF Full-text (3226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Often data can be represented as a matrix, e.g., observations as rows and variables as columns, or as a doubly classified contingency table. Researchers may be interested in clustering the observations, the variables, or both. If the data is non-negative, then Non-negative Matrix
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Often data can be represented as a matrix, e.g., observations as rows and variables as columns, or as a doubly classified contingency table. Researchers may be interested in clustering the observations, the variables, or both. If the data is non-negative, then Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) can be used to perform the clustering. By its nature, NMF-based clustering is focused on the large values. If the data is normalized by subtracting the row/column means, it becomes of mixed signs and the original NMF cannot be used. Our idea is to split and then concatenate the positive and negative parts of the matrix, after taking the absolute value of the negative elements. NMF applied to the concatenated data, which we call PosNegNMF, offers the advantages of the original NMF approach, while giving equal weight to large and small values. We use two public health datasets to illustrate the new method and compare it with alternative clustering methods, such as K-means and clustering methods based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) or Principal Component Analysis (PCA). With the exception of situations where a reasonably accurate factorization can be achieved using the first SVD component, we recommend that the epidemiologists and environmental scientists use the new method to obtain clusters with improved quality and interpretability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodological Innovations and Reflections-1)
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Open AccessArticle Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050508
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1798 | PDF Full-text (2296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol
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We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m−1 to 1.6e-4 m−1) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m−1sr−1 and 1.7e-06 m−1sr−1) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Which Factors Determine Metal Accumulation in Agricultural Soils in the Severely Human-Coupled Ecosystem?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050510
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1414 | PDF Full-text (1380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and
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Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and urbanization indicators all account for considerable differences in metal accumulation in agricultural soils, and the interactions between these factors on metal concentrations were also examined. Results showed that Zn, Cu, and Cd concentrations varied significantly among different land use types. Concentrations of all metals, except for Cd, were higher in calcareous cinnamon soil than in fluvo-aquic soil. Expansion distance and road density were adopted as urbanization indicators, and distance from the urban center was significantly negatively correlated with concentrations of Hg, and negatively correlated with concentrations of Zn, and road density was positively correlated with Cd concentrations. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Hg concentration was significantly influenced by the four-way interaction among all factors. The results in this study provide basic data to support the management of agricultural soils and to help policy makers to plan ahead in Beijing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Unequal Recovery? Federal Resource Distribution after a Midwest Flood Disaster
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050507
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract
Following severe flooding in 2008, three Iowa communities acquired over 1000 damaged properties to support disaster recovery and mitigation. This research applies a distributive justice framework to analyze the distribution of disaster recovery funds for property acquisition. Two research questions drive the analysis:
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Following severe flooding in 2008, three Iowa communities acquired over 1000 damaged properties to support disaster recovery and mitigation. This research applies a distributive justice framework to analyze the distribution of disaster recovery funds for property acquisition. Two research questions drive the analysis: (1) how does recovery vary by acquisition funding source; and (2) what is the relationship between recovery and vulnerable populations? Through spatial econometric modeling, relative recovery is compared between two federal programs that funded the acquisitions, and across socially vulnerable populations. The results indicate both distributive and temporal inequalities in the allocation of federal recovery funds. In particular, Latino and elderly populations were associated with lower recovery rates. Recommendations for future research in flood recovery and acquisitions are provided. Full article
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Open AccessReview Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050506
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening); psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening); and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation). The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050505
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 20 April 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract
Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This
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Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Orange Is the New Green: Exploring the Restorative Capacity of Seasonal Foliage in Schoolyard Trees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050497
Received: 1 January 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract
Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project
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Urban schoolyard environments are increasingly characterized by a proliferation of hard surfaces with little if any greenery. Schoolyard “greening” initiatives are becoming increasingly popular; however, schoolyard designs often fail to realize their restorative potential. In this quasi-experimental study, a proposed schoolyard greening project was used to visualize alternative planting designs and seasonal tree foliage; these design alternatives were subsequently used as visual stimuli in a survey administered to children who will use the schoolyard to assess the perceived restorative capacity of different design features. The findings indicate that seasonal changes in tree foliage enhance the perceived restorative quality of schoolyard environments. Specifically, fall foliage colour, when compared to green foliage, is rated as being perceived to be equally restorative for children. Additionally, seasonal planting, including evergreen conifers, may enhance the restorative quality of the schoolyard especially when deciduous trees are leafless. Landscape design professionals, community-based organizations, and other decision-makers in schoolyard greening efforts should strategically consider their tree choices to maximize year-round support for healthy attention functioning in children through restoration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050502
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2179 | PDF Full-text (755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage
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Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Substance and Drug Abuse Prevention)
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Open AccessReview Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050504
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract
Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that
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Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Environmental Factors on Autism)
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Open AccessArticle Physiological and Molecular Response of Prorocentrum minimum to Tannic Acid: An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Tannic Acid in Controling the Red Tide in a Eutrophic Coastal Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050503
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
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Abstract
Bioassay and gene expression experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the growth and physiology of Prorocentrum minimum isolated from a eutrophic coastal water in response to tannic acid. In the bioassay experiments, variations in abundance, chlorophyll (chl) a concentration, maximum fluorescence (
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Bioassay and gene expression experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the growth and physiology of Prorocentrum minimum isolated from a eutrophic coastal water in response to tannic acid. In the bioassay experiments, variations in abundance, chlorophyll (chl) a concentration, maximum fluorescence (in vivo Fm), and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) were measured over the course of a seven-day incubation. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in both the control and an experimental (2.5 ppm TA treatment) group was observed for 24 h and 48 h. The molecular markers used in this study were the heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90) and cyclophilin (CYP). The findings show that P. minimum can thrive and grow at low concentrations (<2.5 ppm) of tannic acid, and, above this concentration, cells begin to slow down development. In addition, TA concentration of 10 ppm halted photosynthetic activity. At the molecular level, treatment with tannic acid increased the expression of Hsp70, Hsp90, and CYP, and heat shock proteins are more upregulated than the cyclophilin gene. Exposure to tannic acid increased the expression of stress factors over time (48 h) by 10- to 27-fold the expression level of the control group. These results suggest that tannic acid can be used to control harmful algal blooms such as those containing P. minimum in eutrophic coastal waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nonylphenol Toxicity Evaluation and Discovery of Biomarkers in Rat Urine by a Metabolomics Strategy through HPLC-QTOF-MS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050501
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1954 | PDF Full-text (3240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nonylphenol (NP) was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography
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Nonylphenol (NP) was quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the urine and plasma of rats treated with 0, 50, and 250 mg/kg/day of NP for four consecutive days. A urinary metabolomic strategy was originally implemented by high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) to explore the toxicological effects of NP and determine the overall alterations in the metabolite profiles so as to find potential biomarkers. It is essential to point out that from the observation, the metabolic data were clearly clustered and separated for the three groups. To further identify differentiated metabolites, multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), high-resolution MS/MS analysis, as well as searches of Metlin and Massbank databases, were conducted on a series of metabolites between the control and dose groups. Finally, five metabolites, including glycine, glycerophosphocholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, malonaldehyde (showing an upward trend), and tryptophan (showing a downward trend), were identified as the potential urinary biomarkers of NP-induced toxicity. In order to validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted approach. The oxidative stress reflected by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels was elevated in individuals highly exposed to NP, supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction was a result of xenoestrogen accumulation. This study reveals a promising approach to find biomarkers to assist researchers in monitoring NP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050500
Received: 28 March 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to
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The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle Fever and Pain Management in Childhood: Healthcare Providers’ and Parents’ Adherence to Current Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050499
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care
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In order to evaluate the adherence of healthcare providers and parents to the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management, randomized samples of 500 healthcare providers caring for children and 500 families were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. The 378 health care providers (HCPs) responding to the survey (75.6%) included 144 primary care pediatricians (38.1%), 98 hospital pediatricians (25.9%), 62 pediatric residents (16.4%), and 71 pediatric nurses (19.6%); the 464 responding parents (92.8%) included 175 whose youngest (or only) child was ≤5 years old (37.7%), 175 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 6–10 years (37.7%), and 114 whose youngest (or only) child was aged 11–14 years (24.6%). There were gaps in the knowledge of both healthcare providers and parents. Global adherence to the guidelines was lower among the pediatric nurses than the other healthcare providers (odds ratio 0.875; 95% confidence interval 0.795–0.964). Among the parents, those of children aged 6–10 and 11–14 years old, those who were older, and those without a degree answered the questions correctly significantly less frequently than the others. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to improve the dissemination of the current recommendations concerning fever and pain management among healthcare providers and parents in order to avoid mistaken and sometimes risky attitudes, common therapeutic errors, and the unnecessary overloading of emergency department resources. Pediatric nurses and parents with older children, those who are older, and those with a lower educational level should be the priority targets of educational programmes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Brazilian Green Propolis Improves Antioxidant Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050498
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
Propolis contains a variety of bioactive components and possesses many biological properties. This study was designed to evaluate potential effects of Brazilian green propolis on glucose metabolism and antioxidant function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the 18-week randomized controlled
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Propolis contains a variety of bioactive components and possesses many biological properties. This study was designed to evaluate potential effects of Brazilian green propolis on glucose metabolism and antioxidant function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the 18-week randomized controlled study, enrolled patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to Brazilian green propolis group (900 mg/day) (n = 32) and control group (n = 33). At the end of the study, no significant difference was found in serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, aldose reductase or adiponectin between the two groups. However, serum GSH and total polyphenols were significantly increased, and serum carbonyls and lactate dehydrogenase activity were significantly reduced in the Brazilian green propolis group. Serum TNF-α was significantly decreased, whereas serum IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in the Brazilian green propolis group. It is concluded that Brazilian green propolis is effective in improving antioxidant function in T2DM patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Care and Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle Opportunities for Environmental Noise Mapping in Saudi Arabia: A Case of Traffic Noise Annoyance in an Urban Area in Jeddah City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050496
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
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Abstract
As the traffic and other environmental noise generating activities are growing in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), adverse health and other impacts are expected to develop. The management of such problem involves many actions, of which noise mapping has been proven to
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As the traffic and other environmental noise generating activities are growing in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), adverse health and other impacts are expected to develop. The management of such problem involves many actions, of which noise mapping has been proven to be a helpful approach. The objective of the current study was to test the adequacy of the available data in KSA municipalities for generating urban noise maps and to verify the applicability of available environmental noise mapping and noise annoyance models for KSA. Therefore, noise maps were produced for Al-Fayha District in Jeddah City, KSA using commercially available noise mapping software and applying the French national computation method “NMPB” for traffic noise. Most of the data required for traffic noise prediction and annoyance analysis were available, either in the Municipality GIS department or in other governmental authorities. The predicted noise levels during the three time periods, i.e., daytime, evening, and nighttime, were found higher than the maximum recommended levels established in KSA environmental noise standards. Annoyance analysis revealed that high percentages of the District inhabitants were highly annoyed, depending on the type of planning zone and period of interest. These results reflect the urgent need to consider environmental noise reduction in KSA national plans. The accuracy of the predicted noise levels and the availability of most of the necessary data should encourage further studies on the use of noise mapping as part of noise reduction plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050495
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper,
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Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cumulative and Integrated Health Impact Assessment)
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Open AccessReview Prevention of Asbestos-Related Disease in Countries Currently Using Asbestos
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050494
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four
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More than 40 years of evaluation have consistently confirmed the carcinogenicity of asbestos in all of its forms. This notwithstanding, according to recent figures, the annual world production of asbestos is approximatively 2,000,000 tons. Currently, about 90% of world asbestos comes from four countries: Russia, China, Brazil and Kazakhstan; and the wide use of asbestos worldwide represents a global threat. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the asbestos health impact and to discuss the role of epidemiological investigations in countries where asbestos is still used. In these contexts, new, “local” studies can stimulate awareness of the size of the problem by public opinion and other stakeholders and provide important information on the circumstances of exposure, as well as local asbestos-related health impacts. This paper suggests an agenda for an international cooperation framework dedicated to foster a public health response to asbestos, including: new epidemiological studies for assessing the health impact of asbestos in specific contexts; socio-cultural and economic analyses for contributing to identifying stakeholders and to address both the local and global implications of asbestos diffusion; public awareness on the health and socio-economic impact of asbestos use and banning. Full article
Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050493
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze
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The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Systemic Oxidative Stress and Cardiac Function in ApoE−/− Mice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050484
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
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Abstract
Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the toxic mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries induced by ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in atherosclerotic-susceptible ApoE−/− mice. An acute toxicological animal experiment was designed with PM2.5 exposure once a day, every
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Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the toxic mechanisms of cardiovascular injuries induced by ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in atherosclerotic-susceptible ApoE−/− mice. An acute toxicological animal experiment was designed with PM2.5 exposure once a day, every other day, for three days. Methods: ApoE−/− and C57BL/6 mice were randomly categorized into four groups, respectively (n = 6): one control group, three groups exposed to PM2.5 alone at low-, mid-, and high-dose (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg b.w.). Heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored before instillation of PM2.5 and 24 h after the last instillation, respectively. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography (Echo) after the last instillation. Biomarkers of systemic oxidative injuries (MDA, SOD), heart oxidative stress (MDA, SOD), and NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p22phox, p47phox) mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in mice. The results showed that PM2.5 exposure could trigger the significant increase of MDA, and induce the decrease of heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) function with a dose–response manner. Meanwhile, abnormal ECG types were monitored in mice after exposure to PM2.5. The expression of cytokines related with oxidative injuries, and mRNA and protein expression of NADPH, increased significantly in ApoE−/− mice in the high-dose group when compared with the dose-matched C57BL6 mice, but no significant difference was observed at Echo. In conclusion, PM2.5 exposure could cause oxidative and ANS injuries, and ApoE−/− mice displayed more severe oxidative effects induced by PM2.5. Full article
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