Special Issue "Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sir Cary Cooper
Website
Guest Editor
50th Anniversary Professor of Organizational Psychology & Health
Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Booth Street East, Manchester M13 9SS
President of the CIPD, President of the British Academy of Management, President of RELATE, President of the Institute of Welfare
Interests: workplace health and wellbeing; occupational stress; work-life balance; hours of work and impact on health/productivity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague

This Special Issue explores current research in the field of organizational health and wellbeing. Studies highlighting the sources of occupational stress and their implications for employee health and productivity, organizational interventions to enhance health and wellbeing, the impact of employee assistance programmes on employee health and performance, meta-analyses on links between workplace stressors/individual differences and health outcomes or other psychosocial factors and their links to health and/or behavioural change are all welcome.

Professor Sir Cary Cooper
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • occupational stress
  • organizational health and wellbeing
  • workplace interventions to enhance health and wellbeing

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Work and Wellbeing in the 21st Century
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111065 - 31 Oct 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
The nature of work and the way it is conceptualised has been evolving since the dawn of humankind.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060567 - 06 Jun 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In [...] Read more.
The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050500 - 13 May 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to [...] Read more.
The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050459 - 29 Apr 2016
Cited by 29
Abstract
Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to [...] Read more.
Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13050448 - 27 Apr 2016
Cited by 40
Abstract
Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors [...] Read more.
Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Co-Worker Social Support in Isolated Work Groups and Its Mitigating Role on the Work-Family Conflict-Depression Loss Spiral
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040382 - 29 Mar 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining [...] Read more.
This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030338 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Organizational Support Impacts on the Associations of Work-Family Conflict or Family-Work Conflict with Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Doctors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13030326 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
As a common mental disorder, depressive symptoms had been studied extensively all over the world. However, positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors were rarely studied. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) [...] Read more.
As a common mental disorder, depressive symptoms had been studied extensively all over the world. However, positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors were rarely studied. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) with depressive symptoms among Chinese doctors. Meanwhile, the role of perceived organizational support (POS) in this association was explored at an organizational level. The investigation was conducted between March and April 2014. Questionnaires that measured WFC, FWC, depressive symptoms and POS were distributed to 1200 doctors in Shenyang, China. The final study subjects were 931 doctors (effective response rate: 77.6%). In all analyses, male and female doctors were analyzed separately because of possible gender differences. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the moderating role of POS. Baron and Kenny’s technique and asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of POS on the associations of WFC or FWC with depressive symptoms. WFC and FWC had positive relations with depressive symptoms among doctors. POS played a partial mediating role on the correlation of FWC with depressive symptoms among male doctors, and POS played a partial mediating role on the correlation of WFC with depressive symptoms among female doctors. POS had a positive moderating effect on the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms among doctors. WFC and FWC could aggravate doctors’ depressive symptoms, and POS, as an organizational resource, could fight against doctors’ depressive symptoms. When POS functioned as a mediator, FWC had a negative effect on POS, which could increase male doctors’ depressive symptoms, and WFC had a negative effect on POS, which could increase female doctors’ depressive symptoms. In the meantime, POS, as a moderator, could enhance the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational Stress, Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Bank Employees: The Role of Psychological Capital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010134 - 16 Jan 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Although depression is a major problem affecting the physical and mental health of the occupational population worldwide, little research is available among bank employees. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of occupational stress and work-family conflict on depressive symptoms [...] Read more.
Although depression is a major problem affecting the physical and mental health of the occupational population worldwide, little research is available among bank employees. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of occupational stress and work-family conflict on depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was performed from May to June in 2013 in Liaoning province, China. The effort-reward imbalance (ERB) scale, the work-family conflict scale, the PsyCap questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were completed by 1546 employees in state-owned banks. A total of 1239 effective respondents (467 men and 772 women) became our subjects. Hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to explore the effects of extrinsic effort, reward, overcommitment, work-family conflict, and PsyCap on depressive symptoms. The mediating role of PsyCap was examined using Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean score of depressive symptoms was 18.4 (SD = 7.6) among the Chinese bank employees. Extrinsic effort, overcommitment and work-family conflict were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Reward and PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. The significant mediating roles of PsyCap in the associations of extrinsic effort (a*b = 0.046, BCa 95% CI: 0.029, 0.066) and reward (a*b = −0.047, BCa 95% CI: −0.065, −0.030) with depressive symptoms were revealed. There is a high level of depressive symptoms among Chinese bank employees. PsyCap partially mediates the effects of extrinsic effort and reward on depressive symptoms. Investing in PsyCap may provide new approaches to improve mental health among Chinese bank employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010072 - 23 Dec 2015
Cited by 40
Abstract
We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p < 0.001). Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p < 0.001). Co-worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.10; p < 0.001) and presenteeism (β = −0.11; p < 0.001). Supervisor support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001) but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
The Consequence of Combined Pain and Stress on Work Ability in Female Laboratory Technicians: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15834-15842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121215024 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 14
Abstract
Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain in the neck-shoulders, [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain in the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0–10) of the neck and shoulders, and work ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p < 0.001) and pain (p < 0.001) had independent main effects on the work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability decreased gradually with both increased stress and pain. Workers with low stress and low pain had the highest Work Ability Index score (44.6 (95% CI 43.9–45.3)) and workers with high stress and high pain had the lowest score (32.7 (95% CI 30.6–34.9)). This cross-sectional study indicates that increased stress and musculoskeletal pain are independently associated with lower work ability in female laboratory technicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15088-15099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121214973 - 30 Nov 2015
Cited by 10
Abstract
Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and [...] Read more.
Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality of Work: Validation of a New Instrument in Three Languages
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 14988-15006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121214958 - 26 Nov 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
Introduction and objective: A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish) and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. Methods and results: A representative sample (n = 1529) was taken [...] Read more.
Introduction and objective: A new instrument to measure quality of work was developed in three languages (German, French and Luxembourgish) and validated in a study of employees working in Luxembourg. Methods and results: A representative sample (n = 1529) was taken and exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution for the 21-item instrument (satisfaction and respect, mobbing, mental strain at work, cooperation, communication and feedback, and appraisal). Reliability analysis showed satisfying reliability for all six factors and the total questionnaire. In order to examine the construct validity of the new instrument, regression analyses were conducted to test whether the instrument predicted work characteristics’ influence on three components of well-being—burnout, psychological stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. Conclusion: The present validation offers a trilingual inventory for measuring quality of work that may be used, for example, as an assessment tool or for testing the effectiveness of interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction among University Teachers in Northeastern Region of China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12761-12775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121012761 - 14 Oct 2015
Cited by 23
Abstract
Objective: Teachers’ job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be the primary variable by which the effectiveness of an organization’s human resource is evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess the [...] Read more.
Objective: Teachers’ job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be the primary variable by which the effectiveness of an organization’s human resource is evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction among university teachers and to clarify the associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities in Shenyang, China were randomly sampled. The job satisfaction scale Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), perceived organizational support (POS), psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), and effort-reward imbalance scale (ERI) together with questions about demographic and working factors were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1500 university teachers. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the related factors. Results: 1210 effective responses were obtained (effective respondent rate 80.7%). The average score of overall job satisfaction was 69.71. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that turnover intention, occupational stress and chronic disease all had negative impacts on job satisfaction, whereas perceived organizational support, psychological capital and higher monthly income were positively associated with job satisfaction among the university teachers. Age was also linked to the level of job satisfaction. All the variables explained 60.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. Conclusions: Chinese university teachers had a moderate level of job satisfaction. Demographic and working characteristics were associated factors for job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support showed the strongest association with job satisfaction. Results of the study indicate that improving the perceived organizational support may increase the level of job satisfaction for university teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12505-12517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121012505 - 08 Oct 2015
Cited by 15
Abstract
Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school [...] Read more.
Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060618 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 62
Abstract
Compassion fatigue (CF) is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with [...] Read more.
Compassion fatigue (CF) is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with one’s everyday environment. Professionals regularly exposed to the traumatic experiences of the people they service, such as healthcare, emergency and community service workers, are particularly susceptible to developing CF. This can impact standards of patient care, relationships with colleagues, or lead to more serious mental health conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety or depression. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce CF in healthcare, emergency and community service workers was conducted. Thirteen relevant studies were identified, the majority of which were conducted on nurses (n = 10). Three included studies focused on community service workers (social workers, disability sector workers), while no studies targeting emergency service workers were identified. Seven studies reported a significant difference post-intervention in BO (n = 4) or STS (n = 3). This review revealed that evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health and social care professions is relatively recent. Therefore, we recommend more research to determine how best to protect vulnerable workers at work to prevent not only CF, but also the health and economic consequences related to the ensuing, and more disabling, physical and mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessReview
Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040432 - 19 Apr 2016
Cited by 72
Abstract
Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people’s ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. [...] Read more.
Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people’s ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) differs from them as it explicitly combines information on extrinsic and intrinsic factors in studying workers’ health. As a growing number of studies used the ERI model in recent past, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence, with a special focus on the distinct contribution of its intrinsic component, the coping pattern “over-commitment”, towards explaining health. Moreover, we explore whether the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic components exceeds the size of effects on health attributable to single components. Results based on 51 reports document an independent explanatory role of “over-commitment” in explaining workers’ health in a majority of studies. However, support in favour of the interaction hypothesis is limited and requires further exploration. In conclusion, the findings of this review support the usefulness of a work stress model that combines extrinsic and intrinsic components in terms of scientific explanation and of designing more comprehensive worksite stress prevention programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
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