Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser
From the start of 2016, the journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers to identify articles. If you are required to add page numbers to a citation, you can do with using a colon in the format [article number]:1–[last page], e.g. 10:1–20.

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-103
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle City-Specific Spatiotemporal Infant and Neonatal Mortality Clusters: Links with Socioeconomic and Air Pollution Spatial Patterns in France
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060624
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1930 | PDF Full-text (2752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infant and neonatal mortality indicators are known to vary geographically, possibly as a result of socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. To better understand how these factors contribute to spatial and temporal patterns, we conducted a French ecological study comparing two time periods between 2002
[...] Read more.
Infant and neonatal mortality indicators are known to vary geographically, possibly as a result of socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. To better understand how these factors contribute to spatial and temporal patterns, we conducted a French ecological study comparing two time periods between 2002 and 2009 for three (purposefully distinct) Metropolitan Areas (MAs) and the city of Paris, using the French census block of parental residence as the geographic unit of analysis. We identified areas of excess risk and assessed the role of neighborhood deprivation and average nitrogen dioxide concentrations using generalized additive models to generate maps smoothed on longitude and latitude. Comparison of the two time periods indicated that statistically significant areas of elevated infant and neonatal mortality shifted northwards for the city of Paris, are present only in the earlier time period for Lille MA, only in the later time period for Lyon MA, and decrease over time for Marseille MA. These city-specific geographic patterns in neonatal and infant mortality are largely explained by socioeconomic and environmental inequalities. Spatial analysis can be a useful tool for understanding how risk factors contribute to disparities in health outcomes ranging from infant mortality to infectious disease—a leading cause of infant mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-temporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060623
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1
[...] Read more.
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pricing Mechanism Design for Centralized Pollutant Treatment with SME Alliances
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060622
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Viewed by 1386 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we assume that a professional pollutant treatment enterprise treats all of the pollutants emitted by multiple small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In order to determine the treatment price, SMEs can bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, or through forming alliances. We propose a bargaining game model of centralized pollutant treatment to study how the pollutant treatment price is determined through negotiation. Then, we consider that there is a moral hazard from SMEs in centralized pollutant treatment; in other words, they may break their agreement concerning their quantities of production and pollutant emissions with the pollutant treatment enterprise. We study how the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent this by pricing mechanism design. It is found that the pollutant treatment enterprise can prevent SMEs’ moral hazard through tiered pricing. If the marginal treatment cost of the pollutant treatment enterprise is a constant, SMEs could bargain with the pollutant treatment enterprise individually, otherwise, they should form a grand alliance to bargain with it as a whole. Full article
Open AccessArticle Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060621
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Viewed by 1598 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two
[...] Read more.
Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April–6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 μg/m3 (range 4.1–42.3), and that of O3 was 75.0 μg/m3 (range: 51.3–106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 μg/m3 (range: 4.7–31.3), NOx was 82.1 μg/m3 (range: 13.3–165.3), and NO was 65 μg/m3 (range: 8.7–138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0–14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4–14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Trends in Between-Country Health Equity in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2011: Improvement, Convergence and Reversal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060620
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Viewed by 1717 | PDF Full-text (3221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is not clear whether between-country health inequity in Sub-Saharan Africa has been reduced over time due to economic development and increased foreign investments. We used the World Health Organization’s data about 46 nations in Sub-Saharan Africa to test if under-5 mortality rate
[...] Read more.
It is not clear whether between-country health inequity in Sub-Saharan Africa has been reduced over time due to economic development and increased foreign investments. We used the World Health Organization’s data about 46 nations in Sub-Saharan Africa to test if under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and life expectancy (LE) converged or diverged from 1990 to 2011. We explored whether the standard deviation of selected health indicators decreased over time (i.e., sigma convergence), and whether the less developed countries moved toward the average level in the group (i.e., beta convergence). The variation of U5MR between countries became smaller from 1990 to 2001. Yet this sigma convergence trend did not continue after 2002. Life expectancy in Africa from 1990–2011 demonstrated a consistent convergence trend, even after controlling for initial differences of country-level factors. The lack of consistent convergence in U5MR partially resulted from the fact that countries with higher U5MR in 1990 eventually performed better than those countries with lower U5MRs in 1990, constituting a reversal in between-country health inequity. Thus, international aid agencies might consider to reassess the funding priority about which countries to invest in, especially in the field of early childhood health. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Individual and Combined Effects of Four Endocrine Disruptors on Estrogen Receptor Beta Transcription in Cerebellar Cell Culture: The Modulatory Role of Estradiol and Triiodo-Thyronine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060619
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1742 | PDF Full-text (1721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous
[...] Read more.
Background: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous exposure to a combination of such chemicals; Methods: Here, we used an in vitro model to demonstrate how exposure to bisphenol A, zearalenone, arsenic, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, alone or in combination, affect estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA expression in primary cerebellar cell cultures. Additionally, we also show the modulatory role of intrinsic biological factors, such as estradiol (E2), triiodo-thyronine (T3), and glial cells, as potential effect modulators; Results: Results show a wide diversity in ED effects on ERβ mRNA expression, and that the magnitude of these ED effects highly depends on the presence or absence of E2, T3, and glial cells; Conclusion: The observed potency of the EDs to influence ERβ mRNA expression, and the modulatory role of E2, T3, and the glia suggests that environmental ED effects may be masked as long as the hormonal milieu is physiological, but may tend to turn additive or superadditive in case of hormone deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Public Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Compassion Fatigue among Healthcare, Emergency and Community Service Workers: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060618
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4454 | PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compassion fatigue (CF) is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with
[...] Read more.
Compassion fatigue (CF) is stress resulting from exposure to a traumatized individual. CF has been described as the convergence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) and cumulative burnout (BO), a state of physical and mental exhaustion caused by a depleted ability to cope with one’s everyday environment. Professionals regularly exposed to the traumatic experiences of the people they service, such as healthcare, emergency and community service workers, are particularly susceptible to developing CF. This can impact standards of patient care, relationships with colleagues, or lead to more serious mental health conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety or depression. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce CF in healthcare, emergency and community service workers was conducted. Thirteen relevant studies were identified, the majority of which were conducted on nurses (n = 10). Three included studies focused on community service workers (social workers, disability sector workers), while no studies targeting emergency service workers were identified. Seven studies reported a significant difference post-intervention in BO (n = 4) or STS (n = 3). This review revealed that evidence of the effectiveness of CF interventions in at-risk health and social care professions is relatively recent. Therefore, we recommend more research to determine how best to protect vulnerable workers at work to prevent not only CF, but also the health and economic consequences related to the ensuing, and more disabling, physical and mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Profiling of Sediment Microbial Community in Dongting Lake before and after Impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060617
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1697 | PDF Full-text (3480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sediment microbial community in downstream-linked lakes can be affected by the operation of large-scale water conservancy projects. The present study determined Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to analyze and compare the bacterial communities from sediments in Dongting Lake (China) before and
[...] Read more.
The sediment microbial community in downstream-linked lakes can be affected by the operation of large-scale water conservancy projects. The present study determined Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to analyze and compare the bacterial communities from sediments in Dongting Lake (China) before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the largest hydroelectric project in the world. Bacterial communities in sediment samples in Dongting Lake before impoundment of the TGD (the high water period) had a higher diversity than after impoundment of the TGD (the low water period). The most abundant phylum in the sediment samples was Proteobacteria (36.4%–51.5%), and this result was due to the significant abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria in the sediment samples before impoundment of the TGD and the abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in the sediment samples after impoundment of the TGD. In addition, bacterial sequences of the sediment samples are also affiliated with Acidobacteria (11.0% on average), Chloroflexi (10.9% on average), Bacteroidetes (6.7% on average), and Nitrospirae (5.1% on average). Variations in the composition of the bacterial community within some sediment samples from the river estuary into Dongting Lake were related to the pH values. The bacterial community in the samples from the three lake districts of Dongting Lake before and after impoundment of the TGD was linked to the nutrient concentration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Outgroup Threat and Opportunity to Derogate on Salivary Cortisol Levels
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060616
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1447 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perceptions of intergroup threat have been related to both experiences of physiological stress responses and derogation of the outgroup. In this study, a neuroscience perspective was used to investigate the relationship between stress and opportunity to derogate the outgroup, in a threatening intergroup
[...] Read more.
Perceptions of intergroup threat have been related to both experiences of physiological stress responses and derogation of the outgroup. In this study, a neuroscience perspective was used to investigate the relationship between stress and opportunity to derogate the outgroup, in a threatening intergroup context. Research from a social identity perspective suggests that engaging in outgroup derogation alleviates stress when perceiving an intergroup threat. However, in line with the model of intergroup anxiety, opportunity to derogate could exacerbate the negative connotations of a threatening situation, resulting in more stress. Canadian participants (N = 110) were exposed to text describing either discriminatory or favorable comments expressed by Chinese individuals towards Canadians. Half of the participants were given the opportunity to derogate via a bias task. Salivary cortisol was used as a measure of stress and was collected at baseline, post-threat, and post-derogation. As expected, threatening identity led to more stress as evidenced by increased cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, threatened participants who had an opportunity to derogate showed greater cortisol concentrations than those who did not. These results demonstrate a link between stress and the opportunity to derogate, and highlights the value of using biological markers within the intergroup context. Rewrite abstract to remove all the references (they are meaningless because the abstracting services will use the abstract as is but will not provide the references so their presence is useless. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Biomarkers)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV-1 Infection: Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment in the Brazilian Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060615
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465 | PDF Full-text (450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and
[...] Read more.
Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and social factors that might be associated with the caregivers’ role in the treatment adherence of children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV). Based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires applied to 69 caregivers seen at pediatric AIDS services of five Brazilian macro-regions, we observed that adherent caregivers had better acceptance of diagnosis and treatment, were less likely to face discrimination and social isolation secondary to AIDS-related stigma and tended to believe in the efficacy of treatment, and to be more optimistic about life perspectives of CALHIV. Interventions aiming to improve adherence and to promote the health of CALHIV should take in consideration the interplay of such different factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Infectious Diseases)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Wayfinding the Live 5-2-1-0 Initiative—At the Intersection between Systems Thinking and Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060614
Received: 5 April 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2425 | PDF Full-text (1655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Childhood obesity is complex and requires a ‘systems approach’ that collectively engages across multiple community settings. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention through Community Engagement (SCOPE) has implemented Live 5-2-1-0—a multi-sector, multi-component childhood obesity prevention initiative informed by systems thinking and participatory research via an
[...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is complex and requires a ‘systems approach’ that collectively engages across multiple community settings. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention through Community Engagement (SCOPE) has implemented Live 5-2-1-0—a multi-sector, multi-component childhood obesity prevention initiative informed by systems thinking and participatory research via an innovative knowledge translation (KT) model (RE-FRAME). This paper describes the protocol for implementing and evaluating RE-FRAME in two ‘existing’ (>2 years of implementation) and two ‘new’ Live 5-2-1-0 communities to understand how to facilitate and sustain systems/community-level change. In this mixed-methods study, RE-FRAME was implemented via online resources, webinars, a backbone organization (SCOPE) coordinating the initiative, and a linking system supporting KT. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using surveys and stakeholder interviews, analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively. Existing communities described the consistency of Live 5-2-1-0 and extensive local partnerships/champions as catalysts for synergistic community-wide action; new communities felt that the simplicity of the message combined with the transfer of experiential learning would inform their own strategies and policies/programs to broadly disseminate Live 5-2-1-0. RE-FRAME effectively guided the refinement of the initiative and provided a framework upon which evaluation results described how to implement a community-based systems approach to childhood obesity prevention. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases in Spring Dust Storm Season in Lanzhou, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060613
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1907 | PDF Full-text (1341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Air pollution has become a major global public health problem. A number of studies have confirmed the association between air pollutants and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory diseases in developed countries and some Asian countries, but little evidence has been
[...] Read more.
Background: Air pollution has become a major global public health problem. A number of studies have confirmed the association between air pollutants and emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory diseases in developed countries and some Asian countries, but little evidence has been seen in Western China. This study aims to concentrate on this region. Methods: A time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants (PM10, SO2 and NO2) on ER visits for respiratory diseases from 2007 to 2011 in the severely polluted city of Lanzhou. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, accounting for the modifying effect of dust storms in spring to test the possible interaction. Results: Significant associations were found between outdoor air pollution concentrations and respiratory diseases, as expressed by daily ER visits in Lanzhou in the spring dust season. The association between air pollution and ER visits appeared to be more evident on dust days than non-dust days. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs per 10 µg/m3 increase in 3-day PM10 (L3), 5-day SO2 (L5), and the average of current and previous 2-day NO2 (L01) were 1.140 (1.071–1.214), 1.080 (0.967–1.205), and 1.298 (1.158–1.454), respectively, on dust days. More significant associations between PM10, SO2 and NO2 and ER visits were found on dust days for elderly females, elderly males and adult males, respectively. Conclusions: This study strengthens the evidence of dust-exacerbated ER visits for respiratory diseases in Lanzhou. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060612
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2109 | PDF Full-text (1746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)
[...] Read more.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs) and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Walk Score, Transportation Mode Choice, and Walking Among French Adults: A GPS, Accelerometer, and Mobility Survey Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060611
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2619 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Few studies have used GPS data to analyze the relationship between Walk Score, transportation choice and walking. Additionally, the influence of Walk Score is understudied using trips rather than individuals as statistical units. The purpose of this study is to examine associations
[...] Read more.
Background: Few studies have used GPS data to analyze the relationship between Walk Score, transportation choice and walking. Additionally, the influence of Walk Score is understudied using trips rather than individuals as statistical units. The purpose of this study is to examine associations at the trip level between Walk Score, transportation mode choice, and walking among Paris adults who were tracked with GPS receivers and accelerometers in the RECORD GPS Study. Methods: In the RECORD GPS Study, 227 participants were tracked during seven days with GPS receivers and accelerometers. Participants were also surveyed with a GPS-based web mapping application on their activities and transportation modes for all trips (6969 trips). Walk Score, which calculates neighborhood walkability, was assessed for each origin and destination of every trip. Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate associations between Walk Score and walking in the trip or accelerometry-assessed number of steps for each trip, after adjustment for individual/neighborhood characteristics. Results: The mean overall Walk Scores for trip origins were 87.1 (SD = 14.4) and for trip destinations 87.1 (SD = 14.5). In adjusted trip-level associations between Walk Score and walking only in the trip, we found that a walkable neighborhood in the trip origin and trip destination was associated with increased odds of walking in the trip assessed in the survey. The odds of only walking in the trip were 3.48 (95% CI: 2.73 to 4.44) times higher when the Walk Score for the trip origin was “Walker’s Paradise” compared to less walkable neighborhoods (Very/Car-Dependent or Somewhat Walkable), with an identical independent effect of trip destination Walk Score on walking. The number of steps per 10 min (as assessed with accelerometry) was cumulatively higher for trips both originating and ending in walkable neighborhoods (i.e., “Very Walkable”). Conclusions: Walkable neighborhoods were associated with increases in walking among adults in Paris, as documented at the trip level. Creating walkable neighborhoods (through neighborhood design increased commercial activity) may increase walking trips and, therefore, could be a relevant health promotion strategy to increase physical activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060610
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2085 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong
[...] Read more.
Epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children have caused concern in China since 2007. We have conducted a retrospective study to investigate risk factors associated with HFMD. In this non-matching case-control study, 99 HFMD patients and 126 control from Guangdong Province were enlisted as participants. Data comprising demographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavior factors were collected from children’s parents through face-to-face interviews by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Results of the primary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, history of cold food consumption, hand-washing routines, and airing out bedding were significantly associated with HFMD cases. Results of further multivariate analysis indicated that older age (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.56) and hand-washing before meals (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.13–0.70) are protective factors, whereas airing out bedding more than thrice a month (OR = 4.55, 95% CI: 1.19–17.37) was associated with increased risk for HFMD. Therefore, hand-washing should be recommended to prevent HFMD, and the potential threat of airing out bedding should be carefully considered. However, further studies are needed to examine other possible risk factors. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060609
Received: 3 April 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1727 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing
[...] Read more.
Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Safety and Injury Prevention)
Open AccessReview Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060607
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2281 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use
[...] Read more.
Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060606
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2942 | PDF Full-text (4334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy
[...] Read more.
Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L−1 sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves) model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI). Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs) to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r2) greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs’ performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI)/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI) and TCARI) suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060605
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1485 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The
[...] Read more.
For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR) from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT), and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodological Innovations and Reflections-1)
Open AccessArticle Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060608
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1627 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal
[...] Read more.
Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers’ decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers’ efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Control and Priority Groups)
Open AccessReview Analysis of Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic HBV-Infected Chinese: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060604
Received: 15 May 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1973 | PDF Full-text (4062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. At present, there still are 9.3 million chronic HBV-infected Chinese. Numerous studies have explored the association between possible factors and hepatocellular carcinoma risk, however,
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. At present, there still are 9.3 million chronic HBV-infected Chinese. Numerous studies have explored the association between possible factors and hepatocellular carcinoma risk, however, the results remains inconsistent. Therefore, we did this pooled analysis so as to get a precise result. Here, we took the chronic HBV-infected Chinese as the object. We systematically searched for studies evaluating whether the proposed factors changed HCC risk in PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP database and Wanfang data. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Review Manager 5.0 and publication bias was determined by Begg’s test and Egger’s test. In total, 3165 cases and 10,896 controls from 27 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Our results showed that pooled OR with 95% CI for each of the factors investigated were: non-antiviral treatment 2.70 (2.01, 3.62), high HBV DNA levels 2.61 (1.73, 3.94), alcohol consumption 2.19 (1.53, 3.13), a family history of HCC 3.58 (2.53, 5.06) and male gender 2.14 (1.68, 2.73), respectively. Our meta-analysis supports that high HBV DNA levels, non-antiviral treatment, alcohol consumption, a family history of HCC and male gender contributed to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic HBV-infected Chinese from currently available evidence. Given the high prevalence of the non-antiviral treatment and alcohol drinking, behavior interventions for the two factors should be tackled first. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060603
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1878 | PDF Full-text (1394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published
[...] Read more.
Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater under Acidic Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060602
Received: 5 May 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2174 | PDF Full-text (3268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA
[...] Read more.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA using activated persulfate under mild conditions was investigated. The impact of different factors on persulfate activity, including pH, temperature (25 °C–50 °C), persulfate dosage and reaction time, was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Contrary to the traditional alkaline-activated persulfate oxidation, it was found that PFOA can be effectively degraded using activated persulfate under acidic conditions, with the degradation kinetics following the pseudo-first-order decay model. Higher temperature, higher persulfate dosage and increased reaction time generally result in higher PFOA degradation efficiency. Experimental results show that a PFOA degradation efficiency of 89.9% can be achieved by activated persulfate at pH of 2.0, with the reaction temperature of 50 °C, molar ratio of PFOA to persulfate as 1:100, and a reaction time of 100 h. The corresponding defluorination ratio under these conditions was 23.9%, indicating that not all PFOA decomposed via fluorine removal. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer analysis results indicate that both SO4• and •OH contribute to the decomposition of PFOA. It is proposed that PFOA degradation occurs via a decarboxylation reaction triggered by SO4•, followed by a HF elimination process aided by •OH, which produces one-CF2-unit-shortened perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, Cn−1F2n−1COOH). The decarboxylation and HF elimination processes would repeat and eventually lead to the complete mineralization all PFCAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Systems Engineering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Interactions of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Environmental Factors on Hypertension Susceptibility
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060601
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1594 | PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension is considered to be the result of genes, environment, and their interactions. Among them age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and being overweight/obesity are well documented environmental determinants, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is nominated as a potential genetic
[...] Read more.
Hypertension is considered to be the result of genes, environment, and their interactions. Among them age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and being overweight/obesity are well documented environmental determinants, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is nominated as a potential genetic candidate. However, the synergistic effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with these environmental factors on the risk of hypertension has received little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, environmental factors, and their interactions with hypertension predisposition in a Northern Chinese Han population. A total of 708 participants were enrolled in the study. The genotypes of the MTHFR C677T were determined by a TaqMan assay. We found that participants of an older age, being overweight/obesity, with a smoking habit, drinking habit, or carrying the 677T allele were at an increased risk of hypertension. Additionally, there existed marginally significant interactions of the polymorphism with age and overweight/obesity. However, future large, well-designed studies in Chinese and other populations, as well as mechanistic studies, are still needed to validate our findings, especially considering that the interactions observed in our study were only marginally significant. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ecological Niche Modeling of Risk Factors for H7N9 Human Infection in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060600
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2302 | PDF Full-text (1314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9) virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and ecological niche modeling (ENM),
[...] Read more.
China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9) virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and ecological niche modeling (ENM), this research quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the H7N9 occurrence and the main environmental factors, including meteorological variables, human population density, bird migratory routes, wetland distribution, and live poultry farms, markets, and processing factories. Based on these relationships the probability of the presence of H7N9 was predicted. Results indicated that the distribution of live poultry processing factories, farms, and human population density were the top three most important determinants of the H7N9 human infection. The relative contributions to the model of live poultry processing factories, farms and human population density were 39.9%, 17.7% and 17.7%, respectively, while the maximum temperature of the warmest month and mean relative humidity had nearly no contribution to the model. The paper has developed an ecological niche model (ENM) that predicts the spatial distribution of H7N9 cases in China using environmental variables. The area under the curve (AUC) values of the model were greater than 0.9 (0.992 for the training samples and 0.961 for the test data). The findings indicated that most of the high risk areas were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta. These findings have important significance for the Chinese government to enhance the environmental surveillance at multiple human poultry interfaces in the high risk area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-temporal Frameworks for Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Temporal Patterns in Bacterioplankton Community Composition in Three Reservoirs of Similar Trophic Status in Shenzhen, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060599
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Viewed by 1492 | PDF Full-text (2894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bacterioplankton community composition’s (BCC) spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir) of similar trophic status in Bao’an District, Shenzhen (China), were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
[...] Read more.
The bacterioplankton community composition’s (BCC) spatial and temporal variation patterns in three reservoirs (Shiyan, Xikeng, and LuoTian Reservoir) of similar trophic status in Bao’an District, Shenzhen (China), were investigated using PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA gene and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. Water samples were collected monthly in each reservoir during 12 consecutive months. Distinct differences were detected in band number, pattern, and density of DGGE at different sampling sites and time points. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints showed that changes in the bacterial community structure mainly varied with seasons, and the patterns of change indicated that seasonal forces might have a more significant impact on the BCC than eutrophic status in the reservoirs, despite the similar Shannon-Weiner index among the three reservoirs. The sequences obtained from excised bands were affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Measurement of Reduced Gingival Melanosis after Smoking Cessation: A Novel Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060598
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1787 | PDF Full-text (1381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Due to moisture and the anatomical complexity of the oral mucosa, it is difficult to measure the extent of gingival melanosis in an optical manner. Therefore, we developed a new quantitative method using clinical oral photographs and compared the extent of gingival
[...] Read more.
Background: Due to moisture and the anatomical complexity of the oral mucosa, it is difficult to measure the extent of gingival melanosis in an optical manner. Therefore, we developed a new quantitative method using clinical oral photographs and compared the extent of gingival melanosis before and after smoking cessation. Methods: A new analysis method, which we named the gingival melanosis record (GMR), is a quantitative analysis method using clinical oral photographs. We obtained 659 clinical photographs from 263 patients from 16 general dental offices in Japan. Standardized measuring sites were automatically spotted on the screen, and the presence of gingival melanosis was determined at the measuring sites. We assessed the validity of the GMR with the previously reported Hedin’s classification using Spearman’s rank correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The GMR showed a significant association with Hedin’s classification (p < 0.01, correlation coefficient = 0.94). The GMR also showed excellent reproducibility of the substantial repeated agreement intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (1,1) and ICC (2,1), p > 0.61). The longitudinal loss of gingival melanosis was confirmed by a change in the GMR among patients who successfully achieved smoking cessation for a mean of 4.5 years. Conclusion: The GMR is an effective method to assess gingival melanosis. The loss of gingival melanosis after smoking cessation can be objectively confirmed with the use of the GMR. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060597
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1751 | PDF Full-text (2329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal
[...] Read more.
Bacterial pathogens are a leading cause of waterborne disease, and may result in gastrointestinal outbreaks worldwide. Inhabitants of the Bassaseachic Falls National Park in Chihuahua, Mexico show seasonal gastroenteritis problems. This aim of this study was to detect enteropathogenic microorganisms responsible for diarrheal outbreaks in this area. In 2013, 49 surface water samples from 13 selected sampling sites along the Basaseachi waterfall and its main rivers, were collected during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons. Fecal and total coliform counts were determined using standard methods; the AutoScan-4 system was used for identification of isolates and the antibiotic resistance profile by challenging each organism using 21 antibiotics. Significant differences among seasons were detected, where autumn samples resulted in the highest total (p < 0.05) and fecal (p < 0.001) coliform counts, whereas the lowest total coliform counts were recorded in spring. Significant differences between sampling sites were observed, where samples from sites 6, 8, and 11 had the highest total coliform counts (p < 0.009), whereas samples from site 9 exhibited the lowest one. From the microbiological analysis, 33 bacterial isolates from 13 different sites and four sampling seasons were selected; 53% of isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 15% exhibited a multidrug resistance (MDB) phenotype. MDB were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca (two out of four identified isolates), Escherichia coli (2/7), and Enterobacter cloacae (1/3). In addition, some water-borne microorganisms exhibited resistance to cefazoline, cefuroxime, ampicillin, and ampicillin-sulbactam. The presence of these microorganisms near rural settlements suggests that wastewater is the contamination source, providing one possible transmission mechanism for diarrheal outbreaks. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060596
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2005 | PDF Full-text (4132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl
[...] Read more.
An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060595
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1917 | PDF Full-text (1634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate
[...] Read more.
Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia), EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), NaOAc (sodium acetate), CaCl2, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p < 0.01) with the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, however, all of the methods could not reflect plant growth status. Additionally, the capability of Cd to change from solid phase to become available in a soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only reflect the extremely low capability of labile Cd to be released from its solid phase, but may also be applied to evaluate the abnormal growth of the plants. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top