Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 7165-7179; doi:10.3390/ijerph10127165
Article

Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, Košice 042 00, Slovakia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2013; in revised form: 29 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
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Abstract: The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites.
Keywords: cement; cement composites; natural radioactivity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Eštoková, A.; Palaščáková, L. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 7165-7179.

AMA Style

Eštoková A, Palaščáková L. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):7165-7179.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eštoková, Adriana; Palaščáková, Lenka. 2013. "Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 7165-7179.

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