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Sensors, Volume 24, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 440 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Soft robotic grippers mimic the dexterity of human hands. To improve their performance, integrated sensors using flexible electronics enable real-time measurements, contributing to shape sensing, gesture recognition, and pressure mapping, allowing them to adjust their grip based on the object's shape. This paper shows the design, fabrication, and characterization of piezoresistive sensors arranged in a Wheatstone bridge configuration on a flexible polyimide substrate to detect curvature and bending. These sensors are embedded in PDMS with SMA foil (to mimic a human hand's finger movements controlled by temperature) and connected in a five-finger-shaped PCB, providing a voltage output while measuring the resulting finger shapes for future applications in soft robotics and prosthetics. View this paper
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16 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
Self-Calibration for Star Sensors
by Jingneng Fu, Ling Lin and Qiang Li
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3698; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113698 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Aiming to address the chicken-and-egg problem in star identification and the intrinsic parameter determination processes of on-orbit star sensors, this study proposes an on-orbit self-calibration method for star sensors that does not depend on star identification. First, the self-calibration equations of a star [...] Read more.
Aiming to address the chicken-and-egg problem in star identification and the intrinsic parameter determination processes of on-orbit star sensors, this study proposes an on-orbit self-calibration method for star sensors that does not depend on star identification. First, the self-calibration equations of a star sensor are derived based on the invariance of the interstar angle of a star pair between image frames, without any requirements for the true value of the interstar angle of the star pair. Then, a constant constraint of the optical path from the star spot to the center of the star sensor optical system is defined to reduce the biased estimation in self-calibration. Finally, a scaled nonlinear least square method is developed to solve the self-calibration equations, thus accelerating iteration convergence. Our simulation and analysis results show that the bias of the focal length estimation in on-orbit self-calibration with a constraint is two orders of magnitude smaller than that in on-orbit self-calibration without a constraint. In addition, it is shown that convergence can be achieved in 10 iterations when the scaled nonlinear least square method is used to solve the self-calibration equations. The calibrated intrinsic parameters obtained by the proposed method can be directly used in traditional star map identification methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Optical Sensing, Instrumentation and Systems: 2nd Edition)
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22 pages, 5274 KiB  
Article
Development of a Personalized Multiclass Classification Model to Detect Blood Pressure Variations Associated with Physical or Cognitive Workload
by Andrea Valerio, Danilo Demarchi, Brendan O’Flynn, Paolo Motto Ros and Salvatore Tedesco
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3697; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113697 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Comprehending the regulatory mechanisms influencing blood pressure control is pivotal for continuous monitoring of this parameter. Implementing a personalized machine learning model, utilizing data-driven features, presents an opportunity to facilitate tracking blood pressure fluctuations in various conditions. In this work, data-driven photoplethysmograph features [...] Read more.
Comprehending the regulatory mechanisms influencing blood pressure control is pivotal for continuous monitoring of this parameter. Implementing a personalized machine learning model, utilizing data-driven features, presents an opportunity to facilitate tracking blood pressure fluctuations in various conditions. In this work, data-driven photoplethysmograph features extracted from the brachial and digital arteries of 28 healthy subjects were used to feed a random forest classifier in an attempt to develop a system capable of tracking blood pressure. We evaluated the behavior of this latter classifier according to the different sizes of the training set and degrees of personalization used. Aggregated accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score were equal to 95.1%, 95.2%, 95%, and 95.4% when 30% of a target subject’s pulse waveforms were combined with five randomly selected source subjects available in the dataset. Experimental findings illustrated that incorporating a pre-training stage with data from different subjects made it viable to discern morphological distinctions in beat-to-beat pulse waveforms under conditions of cognitive or physical workload. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Technologies and Sensors for Healthcare and Wellbeing)
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15 pages, 6188 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Appropriate Scaling of Networks and Images for Convolutional Neural Network-Based Nerve Detection in Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks
by Takaaki Sugino, Shinya Onogi, Rieko Oishi, Chie Hanayama, Satoki Inoue, Shinjiro Ishida, Yuhang Yao, Nobuhiro Ogasawara, Masahiro Murakawa and Yoshikazu Nakajima
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3696; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113696 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Ultrasound imaging is an essential tool in anesthesiology, particularly for ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks (US-PNBs). However, challenges such as speckle noise, acoustic shadows, and variability in nerve appearance complicate the accurate localization of nerve tissues. To address this issue, this study introduces a [...] Read more.
Ultrasound imaging is an essential tool in anesthesiology, particularly for ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks (US-PNBs). However, challenges such as speckle noise, acoustic shadows, and variability in nerve appearance complicate the accurate localization of nerve tissues. To address this issue, this study introduces a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), specifically Scaled-YOLOv4, and investigates an appropriate network model and input image scaling for nerve detection on ultrasound images. Utilizing two datasets, a public dataset and an original dataset, we evaluated the effects of model scale and input image size on detection performance. Our findings reveal that smaller input images and larger model scales significantly improve detection accuracy. The optimal configuration of model size and input image size not only achieved high detection accuracy but also demonstrated real-time processing capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomedical Imaging and Sensing)
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12 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
A Flexible Ammonia Gas Sensor Based on a Grafted Polyaniline Grown on a Polyethylene Terephthalate Film
by Masanobu Matsuguchi, Kaito Horio, Atsuya Uchida, Rui Kakunaka and Shunsuke Shiba
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3695; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113695 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
A novel NH3 gas sensor is introduced, employing polyaniline (PANI) with a unique structure called a graft film. The preparation method was simple: polydopamine (PD) was coated on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and PANI graft chains were grown on its [...] Read more.
A novel NH3 gas sensor is introduced, employing polyaniline (PANI) with a unique structure called a graft film. The preparation method was simple: polydopamine (PD) was coated on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and PANI graft chains were grown on its surface. This distinctive three-layer sensor showed a response value of 12 for 50 ppm NH3 in a dry atmosphere at 50 °C. This value surpasses those of previously reported sensors using structurally controlled PANI films. Additionally, it is on par with sensors that combine PANI with metal oxide semiconductors or carbon materials, the high sensitivity of which have been reported. To confirm our film’s potential as a flexible sensor, the effect of bending on the its characteristics was investigated. This revealed that although bending decreased the response value, it had no effect on the response time or recovery. This indicated that the sensor film itself was not broken by bending and had sufficient mechanical strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano/Micro-structured Materials for Gas Sensor)
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17 pages, 570 KiB  
Article
Localization Performance Analysis and Algorithm Design of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface-Assisted D2D Systems
by Mengke Wang, Tiejun Lv, Pingmu Huang and Zhipeng Lin
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3694; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113694 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
The research on high-precision and all-scenario localization using the millimeter-wave (mmWave) band is of great urgency. Due to the characteristics of mmWave, blockages make the localization task more complex. This paper proposes a cooperative localization system among user equipment (UEs) assisted by reconfigurable [...] Read more.
The research on high-precision and all-scenario localization using the millimeter-wave (mmWave) band is of great urgency. Due to the characteristics of mmWave, blockages make the localization task more complex. This paper proposes a cooperative localization system among user equipment (UEs) assisted by reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), which considers device-to-device (D2D) communication. RISs are used as anchor points, and position estimation is achieved through signal exchanges between UEs. Firstly, we establish a localization model based on this system and derive the UEs’ positioning error bound (PEB) as a performance metric. Then, a UE-RIS joint beamforming design is proposed to optimize channel state information (CSI) with the objective of achieving the minimum PEB. Finally, simulation analysis demonstrates the advantages of the proposed scheme over RIS-assisted base station positioning, achieving centimeter-level accuracy with a 10 dBm lower transmission power. Full article
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11 pages, 2304 KiB  
Article
The Accuracy of Evaluation of the Requirements of the Standards IEC 61000-3-2(12) with the Application of the Wideband Current Transducer
by Ernest Stano and Slawomir Wiak
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113693 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 237
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to determine the conversion accuracy of the Danisense DC200IF (Danisense A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) wideband current transducer for its possible application to test electromagnetic compatibility requirements of the standards IEC 61000-3-2 and IEC 61000-3-12 with the digital power [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to determine the conversion accuracy of the Danisense DC200IF (Danisense A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) wideband current transducer for its possible application to test electromagnetic compatibility requirements of the standards IEC 61000-3-2 and IEC 61000-3-12 with the digital power meter Yokogawa WT5000 (Yokogawa Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). To obtain this goal for distorted current of main frequency equal to 50 Hz and in the frequencies range of higher harmonics from 100 Hz to 2500 Hz its amplitude error and phase shift are evaluated. Moreover, the measurable level of higher harmonics with the rated accuracy of the used precision power analyzer is also investigated. Finally, the measuring system is applied to determine the RMS values of current harmonics produced by the audio power amplifier in order to assess its compliance with the standard IEC 61000-3-12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Devices and MEMS for Sensing Applications)
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13 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Dependence of Magnetic Properties of As-Prepared Nanocrystalline Ni2MnGa Glass-Coated Microwires on the Geometrical Aspect Ratio
by Mohamed Salaheldeen, Valentina Zhukova, Ricardo Lopez Anton and Arcady Zhukov
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3692; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113692 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 298
Abstract
We have prepared NiMnGa glass-coated microwires with different geometrical aspect ratios, ρ = dmetal/Dtotal (dmetal—diameter of metallic nucleus, and Dtotal—total diameter). The structure and magnetic properties are investigated in a wide range of temperatures [...] Read more.
We have prepared NiMnGa glass-coated microwires with different geometrical aspect ratios, ρ = dmetal/Dtotal (dmetal—diameter of metallic nucleus, and Dtotal—total diameter). The structure and magnetic properties are investigated in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The XRD analysis illustrates stable microstructure in the range of ρ from 0.25 to 0.60. The estimations of average grain size and crystalline phase content evidence a remarkable variation as the ρ-ratio sweeps from 0.25 to 0.60. Thus, the microwires with the lowest aspect ratio, i.e., ρ = 0.25, show the smallest average grain size and the highest crystalline phase content. This change in the microstructural properties correlates with dramatic changes in the magnetic properties. Hence, the sample with the lowest ρ-ratio exhibits an extremely high value of the coercivity, Hc, compared to the value for the sample with the largest ρ-ratio (2989 Oe and 10 Oe, respectively, i.e., almost 300 times higher). In addition, a similar trend is observed for the spontaneous exchange bias phenomena, with an exchange bias field, Hex, of 120 Oe for the sample with ρ = 0.25 compared to a Hex = 12.5 Oe for the sample with ρ = 0.60. However, the thermomagnetic curves (field-cooled—FC and field-heating—FH) show similar magnetic behavior for all the samples. Meanwhile, FC and FH curves measured at low magnetic fields show negative values for ρ = 0.25, whereas positive values are found for the other samples. The obtained results illustrate the substantial effect of the internal stresses on microstructure and magnetic properties, which leads to magnetic hardening of samples with low aspect ratio. Full article
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25 pages, 26872 KiB  
Article
Lightweight Ghost Enhanced Feature Attention Network: An Efficient Intelligent Fault Diagnosis Method under Various Working Conditions
by Huaihao Dong, Kai Zheng, Siguo Wen, Zheng Zhang, Yuyang Li and Bobin Zhu
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113691 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
Recent advancements in applications of deep neural network for bearing fault diagnosis under variable operating conditions have shown promising outcomes. However, these approaches are limited in practical applications due to the complexity of neural networks, which require substantial computational resources, thereby hindering the [...] Read more.
Recent advancements in applications of deep neural network for bearing fault diagnosis under variable operating conditions have shown promising outcomes. However, these approaches are limited in practical applications due to the complexity of neural networks, which require substantial computational resources, thereby hindering the advancement of automated diagnostic tools. To overcome these limitations, this study introduces a new fault diagnosis framework that incorporates a tri-channel preprocessing module for multidimensional feature extraction, coupled with an innovative diagnostic architecture known as the Lightweight Ghost Enhanced Feature Attention Network (GEFA-Net). This system is adept at identifying rolling bearing faults across diverse operational conditions. The FFE module utilizes advanced techniques such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Frequency Weighted Energy Operator (FWEO), and Signal Envelope Analysis to refine signal processing in complex environments. Concurrently, GEFA-Net employs the Ghost Module and the Efficient Pyramid Squared Attention (EPSA) mechanism, which enhances feature representation and generates additional feature maps through linear operations, thereby reducing computational demands. This methodology not only significantly lowers the parameter count of the model, promoting a more streamlined architectural framework, but also improves diagnostic speed. Additionally, the model exhibits enhanced diagnostic accuracy in challenging conditions through the effective synthesis of local and global data contexts. Experimental validation using datasets from the University of Ottawa and our dataset confirms that the framework not only achieves superior diagnostic accuracy but also reduces computational complexity and accelerates detection processes. These findings highlight the robustness of the framework for bearing fault diagnosis under varying operational conditions, showcasing its broad applicational potential in industrial settings. The parameter count was decreased by 63.74% compared to MobileVit, and the recorded diagnostic accuracies were 98.53% and 99.98% for the respective datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fault Diagnosis & Sensors)
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19 pages, 4527 KiB  
Tutorial
A Tutorial on Mechanical Sensors in the 70th Anniversary of the Piezoresistive Effect
by Ferran Reverter
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113690 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
An outstanding event related to the understanding of the physics of mechanical sensors occurred and was announced in 1954, exactly seventy years ago. This event was the discovery of the piezoresistive effect, which led to the development of semiconductor strain gauges with a [...] Read more.
An outstanding event related to the understanding of the physics of mechanical sensors occurred and was announced in 1954, exactly seventy years ago. This event was the discovery of the piezoresistive effect, which led to the development of semiconductor strain gauges with a sensitivity much higher than that obtained before in conventional metallic strain gauges. In turn, this motivated the subsequent development of the earliest micromachined silicon devices and the corresponding MEMS devices. The science and technology related to sensors has experienced noteworthy advances in the last decades, but the piezoresistive effect is still the main physical phenomenon behind many mechanical sensors, both commercial and in research models. On this 70th anniversary, this tutorial aims to explain the operating principle, subtypes, input–output characteristics, and limitations of the three main types of mechanical sensor: strain gauges, capacitive sensors, and piezoelectric sensors. These three sensor technologies are also compared with each other, highlighting the main advantages and disadvantages of each one. Full article
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19 pages, 14168 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Depth Size Based on Layered Magnetization by Double-Sided Scanning for Internal Defects
by Zhiyang Deng, Dingkun Qian, Haifei Hong, Xiaochun Song and Yihua Kang
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113689 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 244
Abstract
The quantitative evaluation of defects is extremely important, as it can avoid harm caused by underevaluation or losses caused by overestimation, especially for internal defects. The magnetic permeability perturbation testing (MPPT) method performs well for thick-walled steel pipes, but the burial depth of [...] Read more.
The quantitative evaluation of defects is extremely important, as it can avoid harm caused by underevaluation or losses caused by overestimation, especially for internal defects. The magnetic permeability perturbation testing (MPPT) method performs well for thick-walled steel pipes, but the burial depth of the defect is difficult to access directly from a single time-domain signal, which is not conducive to the evaluation of defects. In this paper, the phenomenon of layering of magnetization that occurs in ferromagnetic materials under an unsaturated magnetizing field is described. Different magnetization depths are achieved by applying step magnetization. The relationship curves between the magnetization characteristic currents and the magnetization depths are established by finite element simulations. The spatial properties of each layering can be detected by different magnetization layering. The upper and back boundaries of the defect are then localized by a double-sided scan to finally arrive at the depth size of the defect. Defects with depth size of 2 mm are evaluated experimentally. The maximum relative error is 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Nondestructive Testing)
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20 pages, 9178 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting the Situational Awareness of Armored Vehicle Occupants
by Zihan Pei, Wenyu Zhao, Long Hu, Ziye Zhang, Yang Luo, Yixiang Wu and Xiaoping Jin
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3688; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113688 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 276
Abstract
In the field of armored vehicles, up to 70% of accidents are associated with low levels of situational awareness among the occupants, highlighting the importance of situational awareness in improving task performance. In this study, we explored the mechanisms influencing situational awareness by [...] Read more.
In the field of armored vehicles, up to 70% of accidents are associated with low levels of situational awareness among the occupants, highlighting the importance of situational awareness in improving task performance. In this study, we explored the mechanisms influencing situational awareness by simulating an armored vehicle driving platform with 14 levels of experimentation in terms of five factors: experience, expectations, attention, the cueing channel, and automation. The experimental data included SART and SAGAT questionnaire scores, eye movement indicators, and electrocardiographic and electrodermal signals. Data processing and analysis revealed the following conclusions: (1) Experienced operators have higher levels of situational awareness. (2) Operators with certain expectations have lower levels of situational awareness. (3) Situational awareness levels are negatively correlated with information importance affiliations and the frequency of anomalous information in non-primary tasks. (4) Dual-channel cues lead to higher levels of situational awareness than single-channel cues. (5) Operators’ situational awareness is lower at high automation levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicular Sensing)
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13 pages, 1765 KiB  
Article
5G AI-IoT System for Bird Species Monitoring and Song Classification
by Jaume Segura-Garcia, Sean Sturley, Miguel Arevalillo-Herraez, Jose M. Alcaraz-Calero, Santiago Felici-Castell and Enrique A. Navarro-Camba
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113687 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Identification of different species of animals has become an important issue in biology and ecology. Ornithology has made alliances with other disciplines in order to establish a set of methods that play an important role in the birds’ protection and the evaluation of [...] Read more.
Identification of different species of animals has become an important issue in biology and ecology. Ornithology has made alliances with other disciplines in order to establish a set of methods that play an important role in the birds’ protection and the evaluation of the environmental quality of different ecosystems. In this case, the use of machine learning and deep learning techniques has produced big progress in birdsong identification. To make an approach from AI-IoT, we have used different approaches based on image feature comparison (through CNNs trained with Imagenet weights, such as EfficientNet or MobileNet) using the feature spectrogram for the birdsong, but also the use of the deep CNN (DCNN) has shown good performance for birdsong classification for reduction of the model size. A 5G IoT-based system for raw audio gathering has been developed, and different CNNs have been tested for bird identification from audio recordings. This comparison shows that Imagenet-weighted CNN shows a relatively high performance for most species, achieving 75% accuracy. However, this network contains a large number of parameters, leading to a less energy efficient inference. We have designed two DCNNs to reduce the amount of parameters, to keep the accuracy at a certain level, and to allow their integration into a small board computer (SBC) or a microcontroller unit (MCU). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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27 pages, 1416 KiB  
Systematic Review
Accuracy, Validity, and Reliability of Markerless Camera-Based 3D Motion Capture Systems versus Marker-Based 3D Motion Capture Systems in Gait Analysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Sofia Scataglini, Eveline Abts, Cas Van Bocxlaer, Maxime Van den Bussche, Sara Meletani and Steven Truijen
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113686 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
(1) Background: Marker-based 3D motion capture systems (MBS) are considered the gold standard in gait analysis. However, they have limitations for which markerless camera-based 3D motion capture systems (MCBS) could provide a solution. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Marker-based 3D motion capture systems (MBS) are considered the gold standard in gait analysis. However, they have limitations for which markerless camera-based 3D motion capture systems (MCBS) could provide a solution. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare the accuracy, validity, and reliability of MCBS and MBS. (2) Methods: A total of 2047 papers were systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines on 7 February 2024, in two different databases: Pubmed (1339) and WoS (708). The COSMIN-tool and EBRO guidelines were used to assess risk of bias and level of evidence. (3) Results: After full text screening, 22 papers were included. Spatiotemporal parameters showed overall good to excellent accuracy, validity, and reliability. For kinematic variables, hip and knee showed moderate to excellent agreement between the systems, while for the ankle joint, poor concurrent validity and reliability were measured. The accuracy and concurrent validity of walking speed were considered excellent in all cases, with only a small bias. The meta-analysis of the inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of walking speed, step time, and step length resulted in a good-to-excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (0.81; 0.98). (4) Discussion and conclusions: MCBS are comparable in terms of accuracy, concurrent validity, and reliability to MBS in spatiotemporal parameters. Additionally, kinematic parameters for hip and knee in the sagittal plane are considered most valid and reliable but lack valid and accurate measurement outcomes in transverse and frontal planes. Customization and standardization of methodological procedures are necessary for future research to adequately compare protocols in clinical settings, with more attention to patient populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sensing)
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20 pages, 11084 KiB  
Article
Computer Vision and Augmented Reality for Human-Centered Fatigue Crack Inspection
by Rushil Mojidra, Jian Li, Ali Mohammadkhorasani, Fernando Moreu, Caroline Bennett and William Collins
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3685; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113685 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 324
Abstract
A significant percentage of bridges in the United States are serving beyond their 50-year design life, and many of them are in poor condition, making them vulnerable to fatigue cracks that can result in catastrophic failure. However, current fatigue crack inspection practice based [...] Read more.
A significant percentage of bridges in the United States are serving beyond their 50-year design life, and many of them are in poor condition, making them vulnerable to fatigue cracks that can result in catastrophic failure. However, current fatigue crack inspection practice based on human vision is time-consuming, labor intensive, and prone to error. We present a novel human-centered bridge inspection methodology to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of fatigue crack detection by employing advanced technologies including computer vision and augmented reality (AR). In particular, a computer vision-based algorithm is developed to enable near-real-time fatigue crack detection by analyzing structural surface motion in a short video recorded by a moving camera of the AR headset. The approach monitors structural surfaces by tracking feature points and measuring variations in distances between feature point pairs to recognize the motion pattern associated with the crack opening and closing. Measuring distance changes between feature points, as opposed to their displacement changes before this improvement, eliminates the need of camera motion compensation and enables reliable and computationally efficient fatigue crack detection using the nonstationary AR headset. In addition, an AR environment is created and integrated with the computer vision algorithm. The crack detection results are transmitted to the AR headset worn by the bridge inspector, where they are converted into holograms and anchored on the bridge surface in the 3D real-world environment. The AR environment also provides virtual menus to support human-in-the-loop decision-making to determine optimal crack detection parameters. This human-centered approach with improved visualization and human–machine collaboration aids the inspector in making well-informed decisions in the field in a near-real-time fashion. The proposed crack detection method is comprehensively assessed using two laboratory test setups for both in-plane and out-of-plane fatigue cracks. Finally, using the integrated AR environment, a human-centered bridge inspection is conducted to demonstrate the efficacy and potential of the proposed methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-destructive Inspection with Sensors)
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14 pages, 4273 KiB  
Article
Highly Sensitive Balloon-like Fiber Interferometer Based on Ethanol Coated for Temperature Measurement
by Xin Ding, Qiao Lin, Shen Liu, Lianzhen Zhang, Nan Chen, Yuping Zhang and Yiping Wang
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113684 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
A highly sensitivity balloon-like fiber interferometer based on ethanol coating is presented in this paper. The Mach–Zehnder interferometer is formed by bending a single-mode fiber to a balloon-like structure and nested in the Teflon tube. Then, an ethanol solution was filled into the [...] Read more.
A highly sensitivity balloon-like fiber interferometer based on ethanol coating is presented in this paper. The Mach–Zehnder interferometer is formed by bending a single-mode fiber to a balloon-like structure and nested in the Teflon tube. Then, an ethanol solution was filled into the tube of the balloon-like fiber interferometer by the capillary effect. Due to the high sensitivity of the refractive index (RI) of ethanol solutions to temperature, when the external temperature varies, the optical path difference changes. The change in temperature can be detected by the shift in the interference spectrum. Limited by the size of the balloon-like structure, three kinds of these structures with different sensitive lengths were prepared to select the best parameters. The sensitive lengths were 10, 15 and 20 mm, respectively, and the RI detection performance of each structure in 10~26% NaCl solutions was investigated experimentally. The results show that when the sensitive length is 20 mm, the RI sensitivity of the sensor is the highest, which is 212.88 nm/RIU. Ultimately, the sensitive length filled with ethanol is 20 mm. The experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity of the structure is 1.145 nm/°C in the range of 28.1 °C~35 °C, which is 10.3 times higher than that of an unfilled balloon-like structure (0.111 nm/°C). The system has the advantages of low cost and easy fabrication, which can potentially be used in high-precision temperature monitoring processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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24 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Arabic Sign Language Recognition Using a Hybrid Deep Learning Model
by Talal H. Noor, Ayman Noor, Ahmed F. Alharbi, Ahmed Faisal, Rakan Alrashidi, Ahmed S. Alsaedi, Ghada Alharbi, Tawfeeq Alsanoosy and Abdullah Alsaeedi
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3683; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113683 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Sign language is an essential means of communication for individuals with hearing disabilities. However, there is a significant shortage of sign language interpreters in some languages, especially in Saudi Arabia. This shortage results in a large proportion of the hearing-impaired population being deprived [...] Read more.
Sign language is an essential means of communication for individuals with hearing disabilities. However, there is a significant shortage of sign language interpreters in some languages, especially in Saudi Arabia. This shortage results in a large proportion of the hearing-impaired population being deprived of services, especially in public places. This paper aims to address this gap in accessibility by leveraging technology to develop systems capable of recognizing Arabic Sign Language (ArSL) using deep learning techniques. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model to capture the spatio-temporal aspects of sign language (i.e., letters and words). The hybrid model consists of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier to extract spatial features from sign language data and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) classifier to extract spatial and temporal characteristics to handle sequential data (i.e., hand movements). To demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed hybrid model, we created a dataset of 20 different words, resulting in 4000 images for ArSL: 10 static gesture words and 500 videos for 10 dynamic gesture words. Our proposed hybrid model demonstrates promising performance, with the CNN and LSTM classifiers achieving accuracy rates of 94.40% and 82.70%, respectively. These results indicate that our approach can significantly enhance communication accessibility for the hearing-impaired community in Saudi Arabia. Thus, this paper represents a major step toward promoting inclusivity and improving the quality of life for the hearing impaired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning Technology and Image Sensing)
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22 pages, 14584 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Smart Pond Water Quality Monitoring and Fish Farming Recommendation Aquabot System
by Md. Moniruzzaman Hemal, Atiqur Rahman, Nurjahan, Farhana Islam, Samsuddin Ahmed, M. Shamim Kaiser and Muhammad Raisuddin Ahmed
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3682; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113682 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 799
Abstract
The integration of cutting-edge technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, and machine learning (ML) has the potential to significantly enhance the productivity and profitability of traditional fish farming. Farmers using traditional fish farming methods incur enormous economic costs owing to [...] Read more.
The integration of cutting-edge technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, and machine learning (ML) has the potential to significantly enhance the productivity and profitability of traditional fish farming. Farmers using traditional fish farming methods incur enormous economic costs owing to labor-intensive schedule monitoring and care, illnesses, and sudden fish deaths. Another ongoing issue is automated fish species recommendation based on water quality. On the one hand, the effective monitoring of abrupt changes in water quality may minimize the daily operating costs and boost fish productivity, while an accurate automatic fish recommender may aid the farmer in selecting profitable fish species for farming. In this paper, we present AquaBot, an IoT-based system that can automatically collect, monitor, and evaluate the water quality and recommend appropriate fish to farm depending on the values of various water quality indicators. A mobile robot has been designed to collect parameter values such as the pH, temperature, and turbidity from all around the pond. To facilitate monitoring, we have developed web and mobile interfaces. For the analysis and recommendation of suitable fish based on water quality, we have trained and tested several ML algorithms, such as the proposed custom ensemble model, random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), logistic regression (LR), bagging, boosting, and stacking, on a real-time pond water dataset. The dataset has been preprocessed with feature scaling and dataset balancing. We have evaluated the algorithms based on several performance metrics. In our experiment, our proposed ensemble model has delivered the best result, with 94% accuracy, 94% precision, 94% recall, a 94% F1-score, 93% MCC, and the best AUC score for multi-class classification. Finally, we have deployed the best-performing model in a web interface to provide cultivators with recommendations for suitable fish farming. Our proposed system is projected to not only boost production and save money but also reduce the time and intensity of the producer’s manual labor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI, IoT and Smart Sensors for Precision Agriculture)
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12 pages, 3735 KiB  
Article
Detection of α-Galactosidase A Reaction in Samples Extracted from Dried Blood Spots Using Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistors
by Alexander Kuznetsov, Andrey Sheshil, Eugene Smolin, Vitaliy Grudtsov, Dmitriy Ryazantsev, Mark Shustinskiy, Tatiana Tikhonova, Irakli Kitiashvili, Valerii Vechorko and Natalia Komarova
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3681; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113681 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a significant decrease in the activity or absence of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The diagnostics of Fabry disease during newborn screening are reasonable, due to the availability of enzyme replacement therapy. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a significant decrease in the activity or absence of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The diagnostics of Fabry disease during newborn screening are reasonable, due to the availability of enzyme replacement therapy. This paper presents an electrochemical method using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with hafnium oxide-sensitive surfaces for the detection of α-galactosidase A activity in dried blood spot extracts. The capability of ISFETs to detect the reaction catalyzed by α-galactosidase A was demonstrated. The buffer composition was optimized to provide suitable conditions for both enzyme and ISFET performance. The use of ISFET structures as sensor elements allowed for the label-free detection of enzymatic reactions with melibiose, a natural substrate of α-galactosidase A, instead of a synthetic fluorogenic one. ISFET chips were packaged with printed circuit boards and microfluidic reaction chambers to enable long-term signal measurement using a custom device. The packaged sensors were demonstrated to discriminate between normal and inhibited GLA activity in dried blood spots extracts. The described method offers a promising solution for increasing the widespread distribution of newborn screening of Fabry disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrochemical Sensors for Bioanalysis)
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24 pages, 4289 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Person in a Trajectory Based on Wearable Sensor Data Analysis
by Jinzhe Yan, Masahiro Toyoura and Xiangyang Wu
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3680; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113680 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Human trajectories can be tracked by the internal processing of a camera as an edge device. This work aims to match peoples’ trajectories obtained from cameras to sensor data such as acceleration and angular velocity, obtained from wearable devices. Since human trajectory and sensor [...] Read more.
Human trajectories can be tracked by the internal processing of a camera as an edge device. This work aims to match peoples’ trajectories obtained from cameras to sensor data such as acceleration and angular velocity, obtained from wearable devices. Since human trajectory and sensor data differ in modality, the matching method is not straightforward. Furthermore, complete trajectory information is unavailable; it is difficult to determine which fragments belong to whom. To solve this problem, we newly proposed the SyncScore model to find the similarity between a unit period trajectory and the corresponding sensor data. We also propose a Likelihood Fusion algorithm that systematically updates the similarity data and integrates it over time while keeping other trajectories in mind. We confirmed that the proposed method can match human trajectories and sensor data with an accuracy, a sensitivity, and an F1 of 0.725. Our models achieved decent results on the UEA dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in 3D Imaging and Multimodal Sensing Applications)
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11 pages, 3182 KiB  
Communication
Micro-Ring Resonator Assisted Photothermal Spectroscopy of Water Vapor
by Maria V. Kotlyar, Jenitta Johnson Mapranathukaran, Gabriele Biagi, Anton Walsh, Bernhard Lendl and Liam O’Faolain
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113679 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 283
Abstract
We demonstrated, for the first time, micro-ring resonator assisted photothermal spectroscopy measurement of a gas phase sample. The experiment used a telecoms wavelength probe laser that was coupled to a silicon nitride photonic integrated circuit using a fibre array. We excited the photothermal [...] Read more.
We demonstrated, for the first time, micro-ring resonator assisted photothermal spectroscopy measurement of a gas phase sample. The experiment used a telecoms wavelength probe laser that was coupled to a silicon nitride photonic integrated circuit using a fibre array. We excited the photothermal effect in the water vapor above the micro-ring using a 1395 nm diode laser. We measured the 1f and 2f wavelength modulation response versus excitation laser wavelength and verified the power scaling behaviour of the signal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonics for Advanced Spectroscopy and Sensing)
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14 pages, 4151 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Diffusion Study in Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Dimethacrylate-Based Hydrogels
by Eva Melnik, Steffen Kurzhals, Giorgio C. Mutinati, Valerio Beni and Rainer Hainberger
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3678; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113678 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Hydrogels are of great importance for functionalizing sensors and microfluidics, and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) is often used as a viscosifier for printable hydrogel precursor inks. In this study, 1–10 kDa PEG-DMA based hydrogels were characterized by gravimetric and electrochemical methods to investigate [...] Read more.
Hydrogels are of great importance for functionalizing sensors and microfluidics, and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) is often used as a viscosifier for printable hydrogel precursor inks. In this study, 1–10 kDa PEG-DMA based hydrogels were characterized by gravimetric and electrochemical methods to investigate the diffusivity of small molecules and proteins. Swelling ratios (SRs) of 14.43–9.24, as well as mesh sizes ξ of 3.58–6.91 nm were calculated, and it was found that the SR correlates with the molar concentration of PEG-DMA in the ink (MCI) (SR = 0.1127 × MCI + 8.3256, R2 = 0.9692) and ξ correlates with the molecular weight (Mw) (ξ = 0.3382 × Mw + 3.638, R2 = 0.9451). To investigate the sensing properties, methylene blue (MB) and MB-conjugated proteins were measured on electrochemical sensors with and without hydrogel coating. It was found that on sensors with 10 kDa PEG-DMA hydrogel modification, the DPV peak currents were reduced to 92 % for MB, 73 % for MB-BSA, and 23 % for MB-IgG. To investigate the diffusion properties of MB(-conjugates) in hydrogels with 1–10 kDa PEG-DMA, diffusivity was calculated from the current equation. It was found that diffusivity increases with increasing ξ. Finally, the release of MB-BSA was detected after drying the MB-BSA-containing hydrogel, which is a promising result for the development of hydrogel-based reagent reservoirs for biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eurosensors 2023 Selected Papers)
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21 pages, 5602 KiB  
Article
EMR-HRNet: A Multi-Scale Feature Fusion Network for Landslide Segmentation from Remote Sensing Images
by Yuanhang Jin, Xiaosheng Liu and Xiaobin Huang
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113677 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Landslides constitute a significant hazard to human life, safety and natural resources. Traditional landslide investigation methods demand considerable human effort and expertise. To address this issue, this study introduces an innovative landslide segmentation framework, EMR-HRNet, aimed at enhancing accuracy. Initially, a novel data [...] Read more.
Landslides constitute a significant hazard to human life, safety and natural resources. Traditional landslide investigation methods demand considerable human effort and expertise. To address this issue, this study introduces an innovative landslide segmentation framework, EMR-HRNet, aimed at enhancing accuracy. Initially, a novel data augmentation technique, CenterRep, is proposed, not only augmenting the training dataset but also enabling the model to more effectively capture the intricate features of landslides. Furthermore, this paper integrates a RefConv and Multi-Dconv Head Transposed Attention (RMA) feature pyramid structure into the HRNet model, augmenting the model’s capacity for semantic recognition and expression at various levels. Last, the incorporation of the Dilated Efficient Multi-Scale Attention (DEMA) block substantially widens the model’s receptive field, bolstering its capability to discern local features. Rigorous evaluations on the Bijie dataset and the Sichuan and surrounding area dataset demonstrate that EMR-HRNet outperforms other advanced semantic segmentation models, achieving mIoU scores of 81.70% and 71.68%, respectively. Additionally, ablation studies conducted across the comprehensive dataset further corroborate the enhancements’ efficacy. The results indicate that EMR-HRNet excels in processing satellite and UAV remote sensing imagery, showcasing its significant potential in multi-source optical remote sensing for landslide segmentation. Full article
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10 pages, 3207 KiB  
Communication
Visual Strain Sensors Based on Fabry–Perot Structures for Structural Integrity Monitoring
by Qingyuan Chen, Furong Liu, Guofeng Xu, Boshuo Yin, Ming Liu, Yifei Xiong and Feiying Wang
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3676; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113676 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Strain sensors that can rapidly and efficiently detect strain distribution and magnitude are crucial for structural health monitoring and human–computer interactions. However, traditional electrical and optical strain sensors make access to structural health information challenging because data conversion is required, and they have [...] Read more.
Strain sensors that can rapidly and efficiently detect strain distribution and magnitude are crucial for structural health monitoring and human–computer interactions. However, traditional electrical and optical strain sensors make access to structural health information challenging because data conversion is required, and they have intricate, delicate designs. Drawing inspiration from the moisture-responsive coloration of beetle wing sheaths, we propose using Ecoflex as a flexible substrate. This substrate is coated with a Fabry–Perot (F–P) optical structure, comprising a “reflective layer/stretchable interference cavity/reflective layer”, creating a dynamic color-changing visual strain sensor. Upon the application of external stress, the flexible interference chamber of the sensor stretches and contracts, prompting a blue-shift in the structural reflection curve and displaying varying colors that correlate with the applied strain. The innovative flexible sensor can be attached to complex-shaped components, enabling the visual detection of structural integrity. This biomimetic visual strain sensor holds significant promise for real-time structural health monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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28 pages, 9195 KiB  
Article
Transformable Quadruped Wheelchairs Capable of Autonomous Stair Ascent and Descent
by Atsuki Akamisaka and Katashi Nagao
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113675 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Despite advancements in creating barrier-free environments, many buildings still have stairs, making accessibility a significant concern for wheelchair users, the majority of whom check for accessibility information before venturing out. This paper focuses on developing a transformable quadruped wheelchair to address the mobility [...] Read more.
Despite advancements in creating barrier-free environments, many buildings still have stairs, making accessibility a significant concern for wheelchair users, the majority of whom check for accessibility information before venturing out. This paper focuses on developing a transformable quadruped wheelchair to address the mobility challenges posed by stairs and steps for wheelchair users. The wheelchair, inspired by the Unitree B2 quadruped robot, combines wheels for flat surfaces and robotic legs for navigating stairs and is equipped with advanced sensors and force detectors to interact with its surroundings effectively. This research utilized reinforcement learning, specifically curriculum learning, to teach the wheelchair stair-climbing skills, with progressively increasing complexity in a simulated environment crafted in the Unity game engine. The experiments demonstrated high success rates in both stair ascent and descent, showcasing the wheelchair’s potential in overcoming mobility barriers. However, the current model faces limitations in tackling various stair types, like spiral staircases, and requires further enhancements in safety and stability, particularly in the descending phase. The project illustrates a significant step towards enhancing mobility for wheelchair users, aiming to broaden their access to diverse environments. Continued improvements and testing are essential to ensure the wheelchair’s adaptability and safety across different terrains and situations, underlining the ongoing commitment to technological innovation in aiding individuals with mobility impairments. Full article
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14 pages, 4416 KiB  
Article
Measuring DNI with a New Radiometer Based on an Optical Fiber and Photodiode
by Alejandro Carballar, Roberto Rodríguez-Garrido, Manuel Jerez, Jonathan Vera and Joaquín Granado
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3674; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113674 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
A new cost-effective radiometer has been designed, built, and tested to measure direct normal solar irradiance (DNI). The proposed instrument for solar irradiance measurement is based on an optical fiber as the light beam collector, a semiconductor photodiode to measure the optical power, [...] Read more.
A new cost-effective radiometer has been designed, built, and tested to measure direct normal solar irradiance (DNI). The proposed instrument for solar irradiance measurement is based on an optical fiber as the light beam collector, a semiconductor photodiode to measure the optical power, and a calibration algorithm to convert the optical power into solar irradiance. The proposed radiometer offers the advantage of separating the measurement point, where the optical fiber collects the solar irradiation, from the place where the optical power is measured. A calibration factor is mandatory because the semiconductor photodiode is only spectrally responsive to a limited part of the spectral irradiance. Experimental tests have been conducted under different conditions to evaluate the performance of the proposed device. The measurements confirm that the proposed instrument performs similarly to the expensive high-accuracy pyrheliometer used as a reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance of Optical Measurement Based on Sensors)
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10 pages, 895 KiB  
Article
Precision Balance Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease: Utilizing Vision-Based 3D Pose Tracking for Pull Test Analysis
by Nina Ellrich, Kasimir Niermeyer, Daniela Peto, Julian Decker, Urban M. Fietzek, Sabrina Katzdobler, Günter U. Höglinger, Klaus Jahn, Andreas Zwergal and Max Wuehr
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3673; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113673 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Postural instability is a common complication in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) associated with recurrent falls and fall-related injuries. The test of retropulsion, consisting of a rapid balance perturbation by a pull in the backward direction, is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating [...] Read more.
Postural instability is a common complication in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) associated with recurrent falls and fall-related injuries. The test of retropulsion, consisting of a rapid balance perturbation by a pull in the backward direction, is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating postural instability in PD and is a key component of the neurological examination and clinical rating in PD (e.g., MDS-UPDRS). However, significant variability in test execution and interpretation contributes to a low intra- and inter-rater test reliability. Here, we explore the potential for objective, vision-based assessment of the pull test (vPull) using 3D pose tracking applied to single-sensor RGB-Depth recordings of clinical assessments. The initial results in a cohort of healthy individuals (n = 15) demonstrate overall excellent agreement of vPull-derived metrics with the gold standard marker-based motion capture. Subsequently, in a cohort of PD patients and controls (n = 15 each), we assessed the inter-rater reliability of vPull and analyzed PD-related impairments in postural response (including pull-to-step latency, number of steps, retropulsion angle). These quantitative metrics effectively distinguish healthy performance from and within varying degrees of postural impairment in PD. vPull shows promise for straightforward clinical implementation with the potential to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of postural instability assessment and fall risk prediction in PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors for Monitoring Athletic and Clinical Cohorts)
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1 pages, 131 KiB  
Retraction
RETRACTED: Ji, W.; Chen, X. TRUST: A Novel Framework for Vehicle Trajectory Recovery from Urban-Scale Videos. Sensors 2022, 22, 9948
by Wentao Ji and Xing Chen
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3672; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113672 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 190
Abstract
The Sensors Editorial Office retracts the article, “TRUST: A Novel Framework for Vehicle Trajectory Recovery from Urban-Scale Videos” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensing and Imaging)
32 pages, 4861 KiB  
Article
Creating Expressive Social Robots That Convey Symbolic and Spontaneous Communication
by Enrique Fernández-Rodicio, Álvaro Castro-González, Juan José Gamboa-Montero, Sara Carrasco-Martínez and Miguel A. Salichs
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3671; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113671 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Robots are becoming an increasingly important part of our society and have started to be used in tasks that require communicating with humans. Communication can be decoupled in two dimensions: symbolic (information aimed to achieve a particular goal) and spontaneous (displaying the speaker’s [...] Read more.
Robots are becoming an increasingly important part of our society and have started to be used in tasks that require communicating with humans. Communication can be decoupled in two dimensions: symbolic (information aimed to achieve a particular goal) and spontaneous (displaying the speaker’s emotional and motivational state) communication. Thus, to enhance human–robot interactions, the expressions that are used have to convey both dimensions. This paper presents a method for modelling a robot’s expressiveness as a combination of these two dimensions, where each of them can be generated independently. This is the first contribution of our work. The second contribution is the development of an expressiveness architecture that uses predefined multimodal expressions to convey the symbolic dimension and integrates a series of modulation strategies for conveying the robot’s mood and emotions. In order to validate the performance of the proposed architecture, the last contribution is a series of experiments that aim to study the effect that the addition of the spontaneous dimension of communication and its fusion with the symbolic dimension has on how people perceive a social robot. Our results show that the modulation strategies improve the users’ perception and can convey a recognizable affective state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Human-Robot Interactions for Social Robotics)
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31 pages, 10122 KiB  
Article
Construction and Application of Energy Footprint Model for Digital Twin Workshop Oriented to Low-Carbon Operation
by Lei Zhang, Cunbo Zhuang, Ying Tian and Mengqi Yao
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3670; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113670 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 281
Abstract
To address the difficulty of accurately characterizing the fluctuations in equipment energy consumption and the dynamic evolution of whole energy consumption in low-carbon workshops, a low-carbon-operation-oriented construction method of the energy footprint model (EFM) for a digital twin workshop (DTW) is proposed. With [...] Read more.
To address the difficulty of accurately characterizing the fluctuations in equipment energy consumption and the dynamic evolution of whole energy consumption in low-carbon workshops, a low-carbon-operation-oriented construction method of the energy footprint model (EFM) for a digital twin workshop (DTW) is proposed. With a focus on considering the fluctuations in equipment energy consumption and the correlation between multiple pieces of equipment at the workshop production process level (CBMEatWPPL), the EFM of a DTW is obtained to characterize the dynamic evolution of whole energy consumption in the workshop. Taking a production unit as a case, on the one hand, an EFM of the production unit is constructed, which achieved the characterization and visualization of the fluctuations in equipment energy consumption and the dynamic evolution of whole energy consumption in the production unit; on the other hand, based on the EFM, an objective function of workshop energy consumption is established, which is combined with the tool life, robot motion stability, and production time to formulate a multi-objective optimization function. The bee colony algorithm is adopted to solve the multi-objective optimization function, achieving collaborative optimization of cross-equipment process parameters and effectively reducing energy consumption in the production unit. The effectiveness of the proposed method and constructed EFM is demonstrated from the above two aspects. Full article
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14 pages, 3183 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Study of Microwires with an Inhomogeneous Magnetic Structure Using Magnetoimpedance Tomography
by Nikita A. Buznikov and Galina V. Kurlyandskaya
Sensors 2024, 24(11), 3669; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24113669 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The recently proposed magnetoimpedance tomography method is based on the analysis of the frequency dependences of the impedance measured at different external magnetic fields. The method allows one to analyze the distribution of magnetic properties over the cross-section of the ferromagnetic conductor. Here, [...] Read more.
The recently proposed magnetoimpedance tomography method is based on the analysis of the frequency dependences of the impedance measured at different external magnetic fields. The method allows one to analyze the distribution of magnetic properties over the cross-section of the ferromagnetic conductor. Here, we describe the example of theoretical study of the magnetoimpedance effect in an amorphous microwire with inhomogeneous magnetic structure. In the framework of the proposed model, it is assumed that the microwire cross-section consists of several regions with different features of the effective anisotropy. The distribution of the electromagnetic fields and the microwire impedance are found by an analytical solution of Maxwell equations in the particular regions. The field and frequency dependences of the microwire impedance are analyzed taking into account the frequency dependence of the permeability values in the considered regions. Although the calculations are given for the case of amorphous microwires, the obtained results can be useful for the development of the magnetoimpedance tomography method adaptation for different types of ferromagnetic conductors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Future Trends of Magnetic Sensors)
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