Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sensors, Volume 14, Issue 10 (October 2014) , Pages 17864-19925

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-106
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Plant Leaf Chlorophyll Content Retrieval Based on a Field Imaging Spectroscopy System
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19910-19925; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019910
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 27 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2516 | PDF Full-text (2037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A field imaging spectrometer system (FISS; 380–870 nm and 344 bands) was designed for agriculture applications. In this study, FISS was used to gather spectral information from soybean leaves. The chlorophyll content was retrieved using a multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares [...] Read more.
A field imaging spectrometer system (FISS; 380–870 nm and 344 bands) was designed for agriculture applications. In this study, FISS was used to gather spectral information from soybean leaves. The chlorophyll content was retrieved using a multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machine (SVM) regression. Our objective was to verify the performance of FISS in a quantitative spectral analysis through the estimation of chlorophyll content and to determine a proper quantitative spectral analysis method for processing FISS data. The results revealed that the derivative reflectance was a more sensitive indicator of chlorophyll content and could extract content information more efficiently than the spectral reflectance, which is more significant for FISS data compared to ASD (analytical spectral devices) data, reducing the corresponding RMSE (root mean squared error) by 3.3%–35.6%. Compared with the spectral features, the regression methods had smaller effects on the retrieval accuracy. A multivariate linear model could be the ideal model to retrieve chlorophyll information with a small number of significant wavelengths used. The smallest RMSE of the chlorophyll content retrieved using FISS data was 0.201 mg/g, a relative reduction of more than 30% compared with the RMSE based on a non-imaging ASD spectrometer, which represents a high estimation accuracy compared with the mean chlorophyll content of the sampled leaves (4.05 mg/g). Our study indicates that FISS could obtain both spectral and spatial detailed information of high quality. Its image-spectrum-in-one merit promotes the good performance of FISS in quantitative spectral analyses, and it can potentially be widely used in the agricultural sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Open AccessArticle
A Study of Concrete Slab Damage Detection Based on the Electromechanical Impedance Method
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19897-19909; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019897
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 2114 | PDF Full-text (896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is being gradually applied into practice as a new intelligent material for structural health monitoring. In order to study the damage detection properties of PZT on concrete slabs, simply supported reinforced concrete slabs with piezoelectric patches attached to [...] Read more.
Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is being gradually applied into practice as a new intelligent material for structural health monitoring. In order to study the damage detection properties of PZT on concrete slabs, simply supported reinforced concrete slabs with piezoelectric patches attached to their surfaces were chosen as the research objects and the Electromechanical Impedance method (EMI) was adopted for research. Five kinds of damage condition were designed to test the impedance values at different frequency bands. Consistent rules are found by calculation and analysis. Both the root mean square deviation (RMSD) and the correlation coefficient deviation (CCD) damage indices are capable of detecting the structural damage. The newly proposed damage index Ry/Rx can also predict the changes well. The numerical and experimental studies verify that the Electromechanical Impedance method can accurately predict changes in the amount of damage in reinforced concrete slabs. The damage index changes regularly with the distance of damages to the sensor. This relationship can be used to determine the damage location. The newly proposed damage index Ry/Rx is accurate in determining the damage location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19877-19896; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019877
Received: 16 August 2014 / Revised: 14 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2114 | PDF Full-text (2962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network [...] Read more.
This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system’s real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Earth Surface Deformation in the North China Plain Detected by Joint Analysis of GRACE and GPS Data
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19861-19876; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019861
Received: 14 June 2014 / Revised: 2 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2543 | PDF Full-text (2023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mass redistribution of the Earth causes variable loading that deforms the solid Earth. While most recent studies using geodetic techniques focus on regions (such as the Amazon basin and the Nepal Himalayas) with large seasonal deformation amplitudes on the order of 1–4 cm [...] Read more.
Mass redistribution of the Earth causes variable loading that deforms the solid Earth. While most recent studies using geodetic techniques focus on regions (such as the Amazon basin and the Nepal Himalayas) with large seasonal deformation amplitudes on the order of 1–4 cm due to hydrologic loading, few such studies have been conducted on the regions where the seasonal deformation amplitude is half as large. Here, we use joint GPS and GRACE data to investigate the vertical deformation due to hydrologic loading in the North China Plain, where significant groundwater depletion has been reported. We found that the GPS- and GRACE-derived secular trends and seasonal signals are in good agreement, with an uplift magnitude of 1–2 mm/year and a correlation of 85.0%–98.5%, respectively. This uplift rate is consistent with groundwater depletion rate estimated from GRACE data and in-situ groundwater measurements from earlier report studies; whereas the seasonal hydrologic variation reflects human behavior of groundwater pumping for agriculture irrigation in spring, leading to less water storage in summer than that in the winter season. However, less than 20% of weighted root-mean-squared (WRMS) reductions were detected for all the selected GPS stations when GRACE-derived seasonal deformations were removed from detrended GPS height time series. This discrepancy is probably because the GRACE-derived seasonal signals are large-scale, while the GPS-derived signals are local point measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19843-19860; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019843
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 26 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 2533 | PDF Full-text (1158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries [...] Read more.
We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. Full article
Open AccessReview
Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19806-19842; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019806
Received: 18 September 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 89 | Viewed by 4884 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people’s lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency [...] Read more.
According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people’s lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people’s lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various studies. It aims to serve as a point of reference for future research on the mentioned systems. A general description of FD and FP systems is provided, including the different types of sensors used in both approaches. Challenges and current solutions are presented and described in great detail. A 3-level taxonomy associated with the risk factors of a fall is proposed. Finally, cutting edge FD and FP systems are thoroughly reviewed and qualitatively compared, in terms of design issues and other parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19785-19805; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019785
Received: 20 August 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2217 | PDF Full-text (18696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF) capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or [...] Read more.
A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF) capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19767-19784; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019767
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2582 | PDF Full-text (2353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to [...] Read more.
In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS) receivers carried by the human operator: (1) an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2) an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK)-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1) a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI) from the wireless environment; and (2) the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the autonomous tractor. From these preliminary results, future work will address the use of autonomous tractor localization in the hybrid localization approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in the Field of Bionanotechnology: An Insight into Optoelectric Bacteriorhodopsin, Quantum Dots, and Noble Metal Nanoclusters
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19731-19766; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019731
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3024 | PDF Full-text (3146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular sensors and molecular electronics are a major component of a recent research area known as bionanotechnology, which merges biology with nanotechnology. This new class of biosensors and bioelectronics has been a subject of intense research over the past decade and has found [...] Read more.
Molecular sensors and molecular electronics are a major component of a recent research area known as bionanotechnology, which merges biology with nanotechnology. This new class of biosensors and bioelectronics has been a subject of intense research over the past decade and has found application in a wide variety of fields. The unique characteristics of these biomolecular transduction systems has been utilized in applications ranging from solar cells and single-electron transistors (SETs) to fluorescent sensors capable of sensitive and selective detection of a wide variety of targets, both organic and inorganic. This review will discuss three major systems in the area of molecular sensors and electronics and their application in unique technological innovations. Firstly, the synthesis of optoelectric bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and its application in the field of molecular sensors and electronics will be discussed. Next, this article will discuss recent advances in the synthesis and application of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Finally, this article will conclude with a review of the new and exciting field of noble metal nanoclusters and their application in the creation of a new class of fluorescent sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Sensing and Molecular Electronics)
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19713-19730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019713
Received: 6 July 2014 / Revised: 8 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2671 | PDF Full-text (2086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this [...] Read more.
Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19700-19712; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019700
Received: 21 August 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 6165 | PDF Full-text (1726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this [...] Read more.
A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniaturized Wireless Biosensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Lift-Off Effect on the Cut-Off Frequency of the EMAT-Generated Rayleigh Wave Signal
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19687-19699; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019687
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2581 | PDF Full-text (483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), a non-contact NDT tool with large lift-off, is becoming an attractive method for detecting the cracks in the metal parts. However, the lift-off of the transducer has a direct effect on the feature that is used to characterize [...] Read more.
The electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), a non-contact NDT tool with large lift-off, is becoming an attractive method for detecting the cracks in the metal parts. However, the lift-off of the transducer has a direct effect on the feature that is used to characterize the defects. A detailed investigation on the relationship between the feature and the lift-off of the EMAT is crucial in the detection process. This paper investigates the lift-off effect on the feature, cut-off frequency of EMAT in the Rayleigh wave. The study can be divided into two parts. Firstly, with a multi-field coupling environment, 2-D electromagnetic and wave generation EMAT models are built to simulate the interaction of the Rayleigh wave with the surface crack. Then, the lift-off effect on the cut-off frequency is investigated through simulation and experiment. Compared to the previous studies, it is found that lift-off would cause a negative result when the lift-off varies in the testing process. Besides, the calibration obtained from the tests at a random lift-off value can be used in other tests with any different lift off value provided that the lift-off is kept as a constant during the detection process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Model for Robust Multisensor Data Fusion
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19669-19686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019669
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 4 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2234 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an integrated model aimed at obtaining robust and reliable results in decision level multisensor data fusion applications. The proposed model is based on the connection of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and an extreme learning machine. It includes three main improvement aspects: [...] Read more.
This paper presents an integrated model aimed at obtaining robust and reliable results in decision level multisensor data fusion applications. The proposed model is based on the connection of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and an extreme learning machine. It includes three main improvement aspects: a mass constructing algorithm to build reasonable basic belief assignments (BBAs); an evidence synthesis method to get a comprehensive BBA for an information source from several mass functions or experts; and a new way to make high-precision decisions based on an extreme learning machine (ELM). Compared to some universal classification methods, the proposed one can be directly applied in multisensor data fusion applications, but not only for conventional classifications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model is able to yield robust and reliable results in multisensor data fusion problems. In addition, this paper also draws some meaningful conclusions, which have significant implications for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Cystography Using Clinically Relevant Dual Modal Indocyanine Green
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19660-19668; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019660
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2738 | PDF Full-text (1630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG) in vivo. After transurethral injection [...] Read more.
Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG) in vivo. After transurethral injection of ICG into rats through a catheter, their bladders were photoacoustically and fluorescently visualized. A deeply positioned bladder below the skin surface (i.e., ~1.5–5 mm) was clearly visible in the PA and FL image using a laser pulse energy of less than 2 mJ/cm2 (1/15 of the safety limit). Then, the in vivo imaging results were validated through in situ studies. Our results suggest that dual modal cystography can provide a nonionizing and noninvasive imaging tool for bladder mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Low-Cost Open-Hardware Platform for Monitoring Soil Water Content and Multiple Soil-Air-Vegetation Parameters
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19639-19659; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019639
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 14 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3779 | PDF Full-text (950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring soil water content at high spatio-temporal resolution and coupled to other sensor data is crucial for applications oriented towards water sustainability in agriculture, such as precision irrigation or phenotyping root traits for drought tolerance. The cost of instrumentation, however, limits measurement frequency [...] Read more.
Monitoring soil water content at high spatio-temporal resolution and coupled to other sensor data is crucial for applications oriented towards water sustainability in agriculture, such as precision irrigation or phenotyping root traits for drought tolerance. The cost of instrumentation, however, limits measurement frequency and number of sensors. The objective of this work was to design a low cost “open hardware” platform for multi-sensor measurements including water content at different depths, air and soil temperatures. The system is based on an open-source ARDUINO microcontroller-board, programmed in a simple integrated development environment (IDE). Low cost high-frequency dielectric probes were used in the platform and lab tested on three non-saline soils (ECe1: 2.5 < 0.1 mS/cm). Empirical calibration curves were subjected to cross-validation (leave-one-out method), and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) were respectively 0.09 for the overall model, 0.09 for the sandy soil, 0.07 for the clay loam and 0.08 for the sandy loam. The overall model (pooled soil data) fitted the data very well (R2 = 0.89) showing a high stability, being able to generate very similar RMSEs during training and validation (RMSEtraining = 2.63; RMSEvalidation = 2.61). Data recorded on the card were automatically sent to a remote server allowing repeated field-data quality checks. This work provides a framework for the replication and upgrading of a customized low cost platform, consistent with the open source approach whereby sharing information on equipment design and software facilitates the adoption and continuous improvement of existing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
Open AccessArticle
Application of Motion Sensors for Beam-Tracking of Mobile Stations in mmWave Communication Systems
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19622-19638; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019622
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2541 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication system with transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) beamforming antennas, small variation in device behavior or an environmental change can destroy beam alignment, resulting in power loss in the received signal. In this situation, the beam-tracking technique purely based on the [...] Read more.
In a millimeter wave (mmWave) communication system with transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) beamforming antennas, small variation in device behavior or an environmental change can destroy beam alignment, resulting in power loss in the received signal. In this situation, the beam-tracking technique purely based on the received signal is not effective because both behavioral changes (rotation, displacement) and environmental changes (blockage) result in power loss in the received signal. In this paper, a motion sensor based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as well as an electrical signal is used for beam tracking to identify the cause of beam error, and an efficient beam-tracking technique is proposed. The motion sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and geo-magnetic sensor are composed of an attitude heading reference system (AHRS) and a zero-velocity detector (ZVD). The AHRS estimates the rotation angle and the ZVD detects whether the device moves. The proposed technique tracks a beam by handling the specific situation depending on the cause of beam error, minimizing the tracking overhead. The performance of the proposed beam-tracking technique is evaluated by simulations in three typical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Wireless Measurement of Elastic and Plastic Deformation by a Metamaterial-Based Sensor
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19609-19621; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019609
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2816 | PDF Full-text (1785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report remote strain and displacement measurement during elastic and plastic deformation using a metamaterial-based wireless and passive sensor. The sensor is made of a comb-like nested split ring resonator (NSRR) probe operating in the near-field of an antenna, which functions as both [...] Read more.
We report remote strain and displacement measurement during elastic and plastic deformation using a metamaterial-based wireless and passive sensor. The sensor is made of a comb-like nested split ring resonator (NSRR) probe operating in the near-field of an antenna, which functions as both the transmitter and the receiver. The NSRR probe is fixed on a standard steel reinforcing bar (rebar), and its frequency response is monitored telemetrically by a network analyzer connected to the antenna across the whole stress-strain curve. This wireless measurement includes both the elastic and plastic region deformation together for the first time, where wired technologies, like strain gauges, typically fail to capture. The experiments are further repeated in the presence of a concrete block between the antenna and the probe, and it is shown that the sensing system is capable of functioning through the concrete. The comparison of the wireless sensor measurement with those undertaken using strain gauges and extensometers reveals that the sensor is able to measure both the average strain and the relative displacement on the rebar as a result of the applied force in a considerably accurate way. The performance of the sensor is tested for different types of misalignments that can possibly occur due to the acting force. These results indicate that the metamaterial-based sensor holds great promise for its accurate, robust and wireless measurement of the elastic and plastic deformation of a rebar, providing beneficial information for remote structural health monitoring and post-earthquake damage assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterial-Inspired Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19582-19608; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019582
Received: 10 May 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 4267 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent [...] Read more.
Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone’s battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Modal Face Recognition Method Using Complete Local Derivative Patterns and Depth Maps
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19561-19581; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019561
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 3 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2763 | PDF Full-text (1439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, we propose a new feature called Complete Local Derivative Pattern (CLDP). It adopts the idea of layering and has four layers. In the whole system, we apply CLDP separately on Gabor features extracted from a 2D image and depth map. Then, we obtain two features: CLDP-Gabor and CLDP-Depth. The two features weighted by the corresponding coefficients are combined together in the decision level to compute the total classification distance. At last, the probe face is assigned the identity with the smallest classification distance. Extensive experiments are conducted on three different databases. The results demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the new approach. The experimental results also prove that the proposed multi-modal 2D + 3D method is superior to other multi-modal ones and CLDP performs better than other Local Binary Pattern (LBP) based features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Smart Cities)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Indoor Environment on Path Loss in Body Area Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19551-19560; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019551
Received: 1 May 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2734 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both [...] Read more.
In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment—room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario) is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest–back and chest–arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Robust and Energy-Efficient Transport Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19533-19550; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019533
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1915 | PDF Full-text (1291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. CRSNs benefit from cognitive radio capabilities such as dynamic spectrum access and transmission parameters reconfigurability; but cognitive radio also brings additional challenges and [...] Read more.
A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. CRSNs benefit from cognitive radio capabilities such as dynamic spectrum access and transmission parameters reconfigurability; but cognitive radio also brings additional challenges and leads to higher energy consumption. Motivated to improve the energy efficiency in CRSNs, we propose a robust and energy-efficient transport protocol (RETP). The novelties of RETP are two-fold: (I) it combines distributed channel sensing and channel decision with centralized schedule-based data transmission; and (II) it differentiates the types of data transmission on the basis of data content and adopts different acknowledgment methods for different transmission types. To the best of our knowledge, no transport layer protocols have yet been designed for CRSNs. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves remarkably longer network lifetime and shorter event-detection delay compared to those achieved with a conventional transport protocol, while simultaneously preserving event-detection reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle
Gas Sensitivity and Sensing Mechanism Studies on Au-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Detecting SF6 Decomposed Components
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19517-19532; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019517
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2316 | PDF Full-text (1004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The analysis to SF6 decomposed component gases is an efficient diagnostic approach to detect the partial discharge in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for the purpose of accessing the operating state of power equipment. This paper applied the Au-doped TiO2 nanotube array sensor [...] Read more.
The analysis to SF6 decomposed component gases is an efficient diagnostic approach to detect the partial discharge in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for the purpose of accessing the operating state of power equipment. This paper applied the Au-doped TiO2 nanotube array sensor (Au-TiO2 NTAs) to detect SF6 decomposed components. The electrochemical constant potential method was adopted in the Au-TiO2 NTAs’ fabrication, and a series of experiments were conducted to test the characteristic SF6 decomposed gases for a thorough investigation of sensing performances. The sensing characteristic curves of intrinsic and Au-doped TiO2 NTAs were compared to study the mechanism of the gas sensing response. The results indicated that the doped Au could change the TiO2 nanotube arrays’ performances of gas sensing selectivity in SF6 decomposed components, as well as reducing the working temperature of TiO2 NTAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessCommunication
Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19507-19516; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019507
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2257 | PDF Full-text (1395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and [...] Read more.
A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Novel Real-Time Temperature Diagnosis of Conventional Hot-Embossing Process Using an Ultrasonic Transducer
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19493-19506; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019493
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2410 | PDF Full-text (802 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an integrated high temperature ultrasonic transducer (HTUT) on a sensor insert and its application for real-time diagnostics of the conventional hot embossing process to fabricate V-cut patterns. The sensor was directly deposited onto the sensor insert of the hot embossing [...] Read more.
This paper presents an integrated high temperature ultrasonic transducer (HTUT) on a sensor insert and its application for real-time diagnostics of the conventional hot embossing process to fabricate V-cut patterns. The sensor was directly deposited onto the sensor insert of the hot embossing mold by using a sol-gel spray technique. It could operate at temperatures higher than 400 °C and uses an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The ultrasonic velocity could indicate the three statuses of the hot embossing process and also evaluate the replication of V-cut patterns on a plastic plate under various processing conditions. The progression of the process, including mold closure, plastic plate softening, cooling and plate detachment inside the mold, was clearly observed using ultrasound. For an ultrasonic velocity range from 2197.4 to 2435.9 m/s, the height of the V-cut pattern decreased from 23.0 to 3.2 µm linearly, with a ratio of −0.078 µm/(m/s). The incompleteness of the replication of the V-cut patterns could be indirectly observed by the ultrasonic signals. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the ultrasonic sensors and technology for diagnosing the replicating condition of microstructures during the conventional hot embossing process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Simple and Efficient Algorithm for Improving the MDL Estimator of the Number of Sources
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19477-19492; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019477
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1932 | PDF Full-text (1105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a simple algorithm for improving the MDL (minimum description length) estimator of the number of sources of signals impinging on multiple sensors. The algorithm is based on the norms of vectors whose elements are the normalized and nonlinearly scaled eigenvalues of [...] Read more.
We propose a simple algorithm for improving the MDL (minimum description length) estimator of the number of sources of signals impinging on multiple sensors. The algorithm is based on the norms of vectors whose elements are the normalized and nonlinearly scaled eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and the corresponding normalized indexes. Such norms are used to discriminate the largest eigenvalues from the remaining ones, thus allowing for the estimation of the number of sources. The MDL estimate is used as the input data of the algorithm. Numerical results unveil that the so-called norm-based improved MDL (iMDL) algorithm can achieve performances that are better than those achieved by the MDL estimator alone. Comparisons are also made with the well-known AIC (Akaike information criterion) estimator and with a recently-proposed estimator based on the random matrix theory (RMT). It is shown that our algorithm can also outperform the AIC and the RMT-based estimator in some situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Swallowable Body Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19457-19476; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019457
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3571 | PDF Full-text (1595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays [...] Read more.
Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in energy management. This paper investigates an energy efficient MAC protocol design for swallowable BSNs. Multi-hop communication is analyzed and proved more energy efficient than single-hop communication within the human body when the circuitry power is low. Based on this result, a centrally controlled time slotting schedule is proposed. The major workload is shifted from the sensors to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the path-loss map and calculates the schedules, including routing, slot assignment and transmission power. Sensor nodes follow the schedules to send data in a multi-hop way. The proposed protocol is compared with the IEEE 802.15.6 protocol in terms of energy consumption. The results show that it is more energy efficient than IEEE 802.15.6 for swallowable BSN scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Network for Pervasive Medical Care)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19441-19456; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019441
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3170 | PDF Full-text (1156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related [...] Read more.
In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control)
Open AccessReview
Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19402-19440; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019402
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4953 | PDF Full-text (15853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Femtosecond lasers have revolutionized the processing of materials, since their ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity allows high-quality micro- and nanofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures. This unique capability opens up a new route for fabrication of microfluidic sensors for biochemical applications. [...] Read more.
Femtosecond lasers have revolutionized the processing of materials, since their ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity allows high-quality micro- and nanofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures. This unique capability opens up a new route for fabrication of microfluidic sensors for biochemical applications. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in femtosecond laser processing of glass for a variety of microfluidic sensor applications. These include 3D integration of micro-/nanofluidic, optofluidic, electrofluidic, surface-enhanced Raman-scattering devices, in addition to fabrication of devices for microfluidic bioassays and lab-on-fiber sensors. This paper describes the unique characteristics of femtosecond laser processing and the basic concepts involved in femtosecond laser direct writing. Advanced spatiotemporal beam shaping methods are also discussed. Typical examples of microfluidic sensors fabricated using femtosecond lasers are then highlighted, and their applications in chemical and biological sensing are described. Finally, a summary of the technology is given and the outlook for further developments in this field is considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue On-Chip Sensors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
High-Precision Image Aided Inertial Navigation with Known Features: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19371-19401; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019371
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2553 | PDF Full-text (3174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter [...] Read more.
A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Positioning and Tracking Sensors and Technologies in Road Transport)
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Surface and Subsurface Cracks in Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials Using a Complementary Split-Ring Resonator
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19354-19370; https://doi.org/10.3390/s141019354
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2564 | PDF Full-text (3500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection [...] Read more.
Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs). A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top