Next Article in Journal
Simple and Efficient Algorithm for Improving the MDL Estimator of the Number of Sources
Next Article in Special Issue
Early Classification of Pathological Heartbeats on Wireless Body Sensor Nodes
Previous Article in Journal
Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19457-19476;

An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Swallowable Body Sensor Networks

School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China
Singapore Institute of Technology, 138683 Singapore
School of Electronic, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Network for Pervasive Medical Care)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1595 KB, uploaded 17 October 2014]   |  


Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in energy management. This paper investigates an energy efficient MAC protocol design for swallowable BSNs. Multi-hop communication is analyzed and proved more energy efficient than single-hop communication within the human body when the circuitry power is low. Based on this result, a centrally controlled time slotting schedule is proposed. The major workload is shifted from the sensors to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the path-loss map and calculates the schedules, including routing, slot assignment and transmission power. Sensor nodes follow the schedules to send data in a multi-hop way. The proposed protocol is compared with the IEEE 802.15.6 protocol in terms of energy consumption. The results show that it is more energy efficient than IEEE 802.15.6 for swallowable BSN scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: body sensor networks; MAC; multi-hop; energy efficiency body sensor networks; MAC; multi-hop; energy efficiency

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, L.; Yang, C.; Wong, K.J.; Yan, H.; Shen, J.; Phee, S.J. An Energy Efficient MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Swallowable Body Sensor Networks. Sensors 2014, 14, 19457-19476.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top