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Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19609-19621;

Wireless Measurement of Elastic and Plastic Deformation by a Metamaterial-Based Sensor

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, UNAM—Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara TR-06800, Turkey
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara TR-06800, Turkey
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri 38039, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metamaterial-Inspired Sensors)
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We report remote strain and displacement measurement during elastic and plastic deformation using a metamaterial-based wireless and passive sensor. The sensor is made of a comb-like nested split ring resonator (NSRR) probe operating in the near-field of an antenna, which functions as both the transmitter and the receiver. The NSRR probe is fixed on a standard steel reinforcing bar (rebar), and its frequency response is monitored telemetrically by a network analyzer connected to the antenna across the whole stress-strain curve. This wireless measurement includes both the elastic and plastic region deformation together for the first time, where wired technologies, like strain gauges, typically fail to capture. The experiments are further repeated in the presence of a concrete block between the antenna and the probe, and it is shown that the sensing system is capable of functioning through the concrete. The comparison of the wireless sensor measurement with those undertaken using strain gauges and extensometers reveals that the sensor is able to measure both the average strain and the relative displacement on the rebar as a result of the applied force in a considerably accurate way. The performance of the sensor is tested for different types of misalignments that can possibly occur due to the acting force. These results indicate that the metamaterial-based sensor holds great promise for its accurate, robust and wireless measurement of the elastic and plastic deformation of a rebar, providing beneficial information for remote structural health monitoring and post-earthquake damage assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: displacement sensor; strain sensor; elastic-plastic region; metamaterial; structural health monitoring displacement sensor; strain sensor; elastic-plastic region; metamaterial; structural health monitoring

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ozbey, B.; Demir, H.V.; Kurc, O.; Erturk, V.B.; Altintas, A. Wireless Measurement of Elastic and Plastic Deformation by a Metamaterial-Based Sensor. Sensors 2014, 14, 19609-19621.

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