Extraction and Analysis of Impervious Surfaces Based on a Spectral Un-Mixing Method Using Pearl River Delta of China Landsat TM/ETM+ Imagery from 1998 to 2008
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Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered as an indicator of environment change and is regarded as an important input parameter for hydrological cycle simulation, water management and area pollution assessment. The Pearl River Delta (PRD), the 3rd most important economic district of China,
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Impervious surface area (ISA) is considered as an indicator of environment change and is regarded as an important input parameter for hydrological cycle simulation, water management and area pollution assessment. The Pearl River Delta (PRD), the 3rd most important economic district of China, is chosen in this paper to extract the ISA information based on Landsat images of 1998, 2003 and 2008 by using a linear spectral un-mixing method and to monitor impervious surface change by analyzing the multi-temporal Landsat-derived fractional impervious surface. Results of this study were as follows: (1) the area of ISA in the PRD increased 79.09% from 1998 to 2003 and 26.88% from 2003 to 2008 separately; (2) the spatial distribution of ISA was described according to the 1998/2003 percentage respectively. Most of middle and high percentage ISA was located in northwestern and southeastern of the whole delta, and middle percentage ISA was mainly located in the city interior, high percentage ISA was mainly located in the suburban around the city accordingly; (3) the expanding direction and trend of high percentage ISA was discussed in order to understand the change of urban in this delta; High percentage ISA moved from inner city to edge of urban area during 1998–2003 and moved to the suburban area that far from the urban area mixed with jumpily and gradually during 2003–2008. According to the discussion of high percentage ISA spatial expanded direction, it could be found out that high percentage ISA moved outward from the centre line of Pearl River of the whole delta while a high ISA percentage in both shores of the Pearl River Estuary moved toward the Pearl River; (4) combining the change of ISA with social conditions, the driving relationship was analyzed in detail. It was evident that ISA percentage change had a deep relationship with the economic development of this region in the past ten years. Contemporaneous major sport events (16th Asia Games of Guangzhou, 26th Summer Universidad of Shenzhen) and the government policies also promoted the development of the ISA. Meanwhile, topographical features like the National Nature Reserve of China restricted and affected the expansion of the ISA. Above all, this paper attempted to extract ISA in a major region of the PRD; the temporal and spatial analyses to PRD ISA demonstrated the drastic changes in developed areas of China. These results were important and valuable for land use management, ecological protection and policy establishment.