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Diversity, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2015) , Pages 74-205

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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 195-205; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020195
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2219 | PDF Full-text (696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR), Neah Bay Washington (NB), Puget Sound Washington (PS) and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC) for genetic analyses. A suite [...] Read more.
A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR), Neah Bay Washington (NB), Puget Sound Washington (PS) and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC) for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696) and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB). Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Diversity Best Paper Awards for 2015
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 192-194; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020192
Received: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
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Abstract
Diversity is instituting annual awards to recognize the most outstanding papers in the areas of biological, genetical, chemical or environmental diversity published in Diversity. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 170-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020170
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3608 | PDF Full-text (1852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as [...] Read more.
Human pressure on ecosystems is among the major drivers of biodiversity loss. As biodiversity plays a key role in supporting the human enterprise, its decline puts the well-being of human societies at risk. Halting biodiversity loss is therefore a key policy priority, as reflected in the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under strategic goal A. The Ecological Footprint has become a widely used metric for natural capital and ecosystem accounting, and is frequently cited in the sustainability debate, where it is often used for tracking human-induced pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity. Given its potential role as an indirect metric for biodiversity-related policies, this paper breaks down the Ecological Footprint into its components and analyzes resource and ecosystem service flows at an international level. We discuss its usefulness in tracking the underlying drivers of habitat impacts and biodiversity loss. We find that: China is a major net importer of all biomass biocapacity components; the largest net exporters of forest biocapacity are not low-income countries; a very high proportion of the Ecological Footprint of fishing grounds is traded internationally; Singapore and at least three Middle East countries are almost wholly reliant on net imports for the cropland biocapacity they consume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity Loss & Habitat Fragmentation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Indian Sundarban Mangrove Forests: History, Utilization, Conservation Strategies and Local Perception
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 149-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020149
Received: 4 March 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4448 | PDF Full-text (5079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Covering approximately 10,000 km2 the Sundarbans in the Northern Bay of Bengal is the largest contiguous mangrove forest on earth. Mangroves forests are highly productive and diverse ecosystems, providing a wide range of direct ecosystem services for resident populations. In addition, mangroves [...] Read more.
Covering approximately 10,000 km2 the Sundarbans in the Northern Bay of Bengal is the largest contiguous mangrove forest on earth. Mangroves forests are highly productive and diverse ecosystems, providing a wide range of direct ecosystem services for resident populations. In addition, mangroves function as a buffer against frequently occurring cyclones; helping to protect local settlements including the two most populous cities of the world, Kolkata and Dhaka, against their worst effects. While large tracts of the Indian Sundarbans were cleared, drained and reclaimed for cultivation during the British colonial era, the remaining parts have been under various protection regimes since the 1970s, primarily to protect the remaining population of Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. tigris). In view of the importance of such forests, now severely threatened worldwide, we trace the areal change that the Indian Sundarbans have undergone over the last two-and-a-half centuries. We apply a multi-temporal and multi-scale approach based on historical maps and remote sensing data to detect changes in mangrove cover. While the mangroves’ areal extent has not changed much in the recent past, forest health and structure have. These changes result from direct human interference, upstream development, extreme weather events and the slow onset of climate change effects. Moreover, we consider the role of different management strategies affecting mangrove conservation and their intersection with local livelihoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Fauna Diversity of Marudu Bay Mangrove Forest, Sabah, Malaysia, for Future Conservation
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 137-148; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020137
Received: 24 February 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2812 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangrove is an evergreen, salt tolerant plant community, which grows in inter-tidal coastal zones of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are ecologically important for many fauna species and are rich in food resources and consist of many different vegetation structures. [...] Read more.
Mangrove is an evergreen, salt tolerant plant community, which grows in inter-tidal coastal zones of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They are ecologically important for many fauna species and are rich in food resources and consist of many different vegetation structures. They serve as ideal foraging and nursery grounds for a wide array of species such as birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes and aquatic invertebrates. In spite of their crucial role, around 50% of mangrove habitats have been lost and degraded in the past two decades. The fauna diversity of mangrove habitat at Marudu Bay, Sabah, East Malaysia was examined using various methods: i.e. aquatic invertebrates by swap nets, fish by angling rods and cast nets, reptiles, birds, and mammals through direct sighting. The result showed that Marudu Bay mangrove habitats harbored a diversity of fauna species including 22 aquatic invertebrate species (encompassing 11 crustacean species, six mollusk species and four worm species), 36 fish species, 74 bird species, four reptile species, and four mammal species. The wide array of fauna species could be due to the availability of complex vegetation structures, sheltered beaches and tidal mudflats, which are rich in food resources and also offer safe foraging and breeding grounds for them. These heterogeneous habitats must be protected in a sustainable way in order to ensure the continued presence of aquatic and terrestrial fauna species for future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Habitat Heterogeneity in Structuring Mangrove Bird Assemblages
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 118-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020118
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2311 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangrove habitats are under severe land use pressure throughout the world and Australia is no exception. Here we describe the heterogeneity of mangrove habitat and its relationship with mangrove bird diversity. We examined the role of mangrove habitat complexity in determining the richness [...] Read more.
Mangrove habitats are under severe land use pressure throughout the world and Australia is no exception. Here we describe the heterogeneity of mangrove habitat and its relationship with mangrove bird diversity. We examined the role of mangrove habitat complexity in determining the richness of avian mangrove dependent species (MDS) and interior species, overall bird species richness and density. High species richness (overall and MDS) and density in the mangroves was associated with plant species richness, the density of the understory and food resource distribution. Furthermore, habitat heterogeneity rather than patch area per se was a more important predictor of species richness in the mangroves. These findings stress the importance of habitat diversity and quality to the diversity and density of birds in mangroves. Thus, habitat heterogeneity within mangroves is a crucial patch characteristic, independent of mangrove patch size, for maintaining diverse avian species assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Conservation)
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Open AccessCommunication
Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Two Mangrove Species with Morphological Alterations in a Natural Environment
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 105-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020105
Received: 5 December 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2349 | PDF Full-text (828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangrove is an ecosystem subjected to tide, salinity and nutrient variations. These conditions are stressful to most plants, except to mangrove plants that are well-adapted. However, many mangrove areas have extremely stressful conditions, such as salt marshes, and the plants nearby usually present [...] Read more.
Mangrove is an ecosystem subjected to tide, salinity and nutrient variations. These conditions are stressful to most plants, except to mangrove plants that are well-adapted. However, many mangrove areas have extremely stressful conditions, such as salt marshes, and the plants nearby usually present morphological alterations. In Sepetiba Bay, two species of mangrove plants, Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa, have poor development near a salt marsh (SM) compared to plants at the riverside (RS), which is considered a favorable habitat in mangroves. The level of genetic diversity and its possible correlation with the morphological divergence of SM and RS plants of both species were assessed by AFLP molecular markers. We found moderate genetic differentiation between A. schaueriana plants from SM and RS areas and depleted genetic diversity on SM plants. On the other hand, Laguncularia racemosa plants had no genetic differentiation between areas. It is possible that a limited gene flow among the studied areas might be acting more intensely on A. schaueriana plants, resulting in the observed genetic differentiation. The populations of Laguncularia racemosa appear to be well connected, as genetic differentiation was not significant between the SM and RS populations. Gene flow and genetic drift are acting on neutral genetic diversity of these two mangrove species in the studied areas, and the observed genetic differentiation of A. schaueriana plants might be correlated with its morphological variation. For L. racemosa, morphological alterations could be related to epigenetic phenomena or adaptive loci polymorphism that should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Conservation)
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Open AccessReview
An International Assessment of Mangrove Management: Incorporation in Integrated Coastal Zone Management
Diversity 2015, 7(2), 74-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/d7020074
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2294 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the [...] Read more.
Due to increasing recognition of the benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems, protection policies have emerged under both wetland and forestry programs. However, little consistency remains among these programs and inadequate coordination exists among sectors of government. With approximately 123 countries containing mangroves, the need for global management of these ecosystems is crucial to sustain the industries (i.e., fisheries, timber, and tourism) and coastal communities that mangroves support and protect. To determine the most effective form of mangrove management, this review examines management guidelines, particularly those associated with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). Five case studies were reviewed to further explore the fundamentals of mangrove management. The management methodologies of two developed nations as well as three developing nations were assessed to encompass comprehensive influences on mangrove management, such as socioeconomics, politics, and land-use regulations. Based on this review, successful mangrove management will require a blend of forestry, wetland, and ICZM programs in addition to the cooperation of all levels of government. Legally binding policies, particularly at the international level, will be essential to successful mangrove management, which must include the preservation of existing mangrove habitat and restoration of damaged mangroves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Conservation)
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