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Review

Physical Forces in Glioblastoma Migration: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
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Stephenson School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
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Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
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Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Technology (IBEST), University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
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Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
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Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
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Department of Bioengineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
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Department of Urology, The UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giulia Russo and Annapina Russo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 4055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23074055
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 31 March 2022 / Accepted: 4 April 2022 / Published: 6 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Players in Chemioresistance as New Targets for Cancer Treatment)
The invasive capabilities of glioblastoma (GBM) define the cancer’s aggressiveness, treatment resistance, and overall mortality. The tumor microenvironment influences the molecular behavior of cells, both epigenetically and genetically. Current forces being studied include properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), such as stiffness and “sensing” capabilities. There is currently limited data on the physical forces in GBM—both relating to how they influence their environment and how their environment influences them. This review outlines the advances that have been made in the field. It is our hope that further investigation of the physical forces involved in GBM will highlight new therapeutic options and increase patient survival. A search of the PubMed database was conducted through to 23 March 2022 with the following search terms: (glioblastoma) AND (physical forces OR pressure OR shear forces OR compression OR tension OR torsion) AND (migration OR invasion). Our review yielded 11 external/applied/mechanical forces and 2 tumor microenvironment (TME) forces that affect the ability of GBM to locally migrate and invade. Both external forces and forces within the tumor microenvironment have been implicated in GBM migration, invasion, and treatment resistance. We endorse further research in this area to target the physical forces affecting the migration and invasion of GBM. View Full-Text
Keywords: glioblastoma; chemoresistance; physical forces; tumor microenvironment glioblastoma; chemoresistance; physical forces; tumor microenvironment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grossen, A.; Smith, K.; Coulibaly, N.; Arbuckle, B.; Evans, A.; Wilhelm, S.; Jones, K.; Dunn, I.; Towner, R.; Wu, D.; Kim, Y.-T.; Battiste, J. Physical Forces in Glioblastoma Migration: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 4055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23074055

AMA Style

Grossen A, Smith K, Coulibaly N, Arbuckle B, Evans A, Wilhelm S, Jones K, Dunn I, Towner R, Wu D, Kim Y-T, Battiste J. Physical Forces in Glioblastoma Migration: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(7):4055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23074055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grossen, Audrey, Kyle Smith, Nangorgo Coulibaly, Benjamin Arbuckle, Alexander Evans, Stefan Wilhelm, Kenneth Jones, Ian Dunn, Rheal Towner, Dee Wu, Young-Tae Kim, and James Battiste. 2022. "Physical Forces in Glioblastoma Migration: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 7: 4055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23074055

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