Next Issue
Volume 24, January-1
Previous Issue
Volume 23, December-1
 
 
ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 23, Issue 24 (December-2 2022) – 782 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Solid-state nanoparticles are continuing to attract interest for their great medical potential thanks to their countless properties and possible applications. This work aims to give a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in the use of artificial liposomes and naturally derived extracellular vesicles for the coating of solid-state nanoparticles for cancer treatment, starting from in vitro works until the up-to-date advances and current limitations of these nanopharmaceutics in clinical applications, passing through in vivo and 3D cultures studies. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 2970 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient Removal of Uranium from an Aqueous Solution by a Novel Phosphonic Acid-Functionalized Magnetic Microsphere Adsorbent
by Jizhou Zhao, Peng Lu, Tengteng He, Jing Huang, Shiao Zhang, Yan Liu, Yun Wang, Cheng Meng and Dingzhong Yuan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416227 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
The development of adsorption materials which can efficiently isolate and enrich uranium is of great scientific significance to sustainable development and environmental protection. In this work, a novel phosphonic acid-functionalized magnetic microsphere adsorbent Fe3O4/P (GMA-MBA)-PO4 was developed by [...] Read more.
The development of adsorption materials which can efficiently isolate and enrich uranium is of great scientific significance to sustainable development and environmental protection. In this work, a novel phosphonic acid-functionalized magnetic microsphere adsorbent Fe3O4/P (GMA-MBA)-PO4 was developed by functionalized Fe3O4/P (GMA-MBA) prepared by distill-precipitation polymerization with O-phosphoethanolamine. The adsorption process was endothermic, spontaneous and kinetically followed the pseudo second-order model. The maximum uranium adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir model was 333.33 mg g−1 at 298 K. In addition, the adsorbent also had good acid resistance and superparamagnetic properties, which could be quickly separated by a magnetic field. XPS analysis showed that the adsorption of adsorbent mainly depended on the complexation of phosphonic acid group with uranium. This work offers a promising candidate for the application of magnetic adsorbents in the field of uranium separation and enrichment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adsorption Materials and Adsorption Behavior)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 852 KiB  
Review
Fatty Liver Disease-Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic: Similar but Different
by Stephen D. H. Malnick, Pavel Alin, Marina Somin and Manuela G. Neuman
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416226 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7274
Abstract
In alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) and in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are abnormal accumulations of fat in the liver. This phenomenon may be related to excessive alcohol consumption, as well as the combination of alcohol consumption and medications. There is an [...] Read more.
In alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) and in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are abnormal accumulations of fat in the liver. This phenomenon may be related to excessive alcohol consumption, as well as the combination of alcohol consumption and medications. There is an evolution from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatic pathology is very similar regarding non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and ALD. Initially, there is lipid accumulation in parenchyma and progression to lobular inflammation. The morphological changes in the liver mitochondria, perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis, and hepatocellular ballooning, apoptosis and necrosis and accumulation of fibrosis may lead to the development of cirrhosis and HCC. Medical history of ethanol consumption, laboratory markers of chronic ethanol intake, AST/ALT ratio on the one hand and features of the metabolic syndrome on the other hand, may help in estimating the contribution of alcohol intake and the metabolic syndrome, respectively, to liver steatosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3166 KiB  
Article
Acting on the CFTR Membrane-Spanning Domains Interface Rescues Some Misfolded Mutants
by Nesrine Baatallah, Ahmad Elbahnsi, Benoit Chevalier, Solène Castanier, Jean-Paul Mornon, Iwona Pranke, Aleksander Edelman, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle Callebaut and Alexandre Hinzpeter
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416225 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
ABC transporters are large membrane proteins sharing a complex architecture, which comprises two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs). These domains are susceptible to mutations affecting their folding and assembly. In the CFTR (ABCC7) protein, a groove has been highlighted in [...] Read more.
ABC transporters are large membrane proteins sharing a complex architecture, which comprises two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs). These domains are susceptible to mutations affecting their folding and assembly. In the CFTR (ABCC7) protein, a groove has been highlighted in the MSD1 at the level of the membrane inner leaflet, containing both multiple mutations affecting folding and a binding site for pharmaco-chaperones that stabilize this region. This groove is also present in ABCB proteins, however it is covered by a short elbow helix, while in ABCC proteins it remains unprotected, due to a lower position of the elbow helix in the presence of the ABCC-specific lasso motif. Here, we identified a MSD1 second-site mutation located in the vicinity of the CFTR MSD1 groove that partially rescued the folding defect of cystic fibrosis causing mutations located within MSD1, while having no effect on the most frequent mutation, F508del, located within NBD1. A model of the mutated protein 3D structure suggests additional interaction between MSD1 and MSD2, strengthening the assembly at the level of the MSD intracellular loops. Altogether, these results provide insightful information in understanding key features of the folding and function of the CFTR protein in particular, and more generally, of type IV ABC transporters. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 698 KiB  
Review
Hypertriglyceridemia and Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Stenosis
by Yoichi Miura and Hidenori Suzuki
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416224 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
Both fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia have emerged as residual risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. However, it is unclear whether hypertriglyceridemia increases the risks of the progression of carotid artery stenosis. Statins are well known to prevent carotid plaque progression and improve carotid plaque [...] Read more.
Both fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia have emerged as residual risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. However, it is unclear whether hypertriglyceridemia increases the risks of the progression of carotid artery stenosis. Statins are well known to prevent carotid plaque progression and improve carotid plaque instability. In addition, statin therapy is also known to reduce cerebrovascular events in patients with carotid artery stenosis and to improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing revascularization procedures. On the other hand, there have been no randomized controlled trials showing that the combination of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs with statins has additional beneficial effects over statin monotherapy to prevent cerebrovascular events and stenosis progression in patients with carotid artery stenosis. In this article, the authors demonstrate the mechanisms of atherosclerosis formation associated with hypertriglyceridemia and the potential role of lipid-lowering drugs on carotid artery stenosis. The authors also review the articles reporting the relationships between hypertriglyceridemia and carotid artery stenosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1200 KiB  
Review
Cardiac Sarcomere Signaling in Health and Disease
by Ashley A. Martin, Brian R. Thompson, Dongwoo Hahn, Addeli Bez Batti Angulski, Nora Hosny, Houda Cohen and Joseph M. Metzger
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416223 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3953
Abstract
The cardiac sarcomere is a triumph of biological evolution wherein myriad contractile and regulatory proteins assemble into a quasi-crystalline lattice to serve as the central point upon which cardiac muscle contraction occurs. This review focuses on the many signaling components and mechanisms of [...] Read more.
The cardiac sarcomere is a triumph of biological evolution wherein myriad contractile and regulatory proteins assemble into a quasi-crystalline lattice to serve as the central point upon which cardiac muscle contraction occurs. This review focuses on the many signaling components and mechanisms of regulation that impact cardiac sarcomere function. We highlight the roles of the thick and thin filament, both as necessary structural and regulatory building blocks of the sarcomere as well as targets of functionally impactful modifications. Currently, a new focus emerging in the field is inter-myofilament signaling, and we discuss here the important mediators of this mechanism, including myosin-binding protein C and titin. As the understanding of sarcomere signaling advances, so do the methods with which it is studied. This is reviewed here through discussion of recent live muscle systems in which the sarcomere can be studied under intact, physiologically relevant conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Dysregulated Expression of Transposable Elements in TDP-43M337V Human Motor Neurons That Recapitulate Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis In Vitro
by Braulio Valdebenito-Maturana, Matias Ignacio Rojas-Tapia, Mónica Carrasco and Juan Carlos Tapia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16222; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416222 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease that progressively annihilates spinal cord motor neurons, causing severe motor decline and death. The disease is divided into familial and sporadic ALS. Mutations in the TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have been involved in the [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease that progressively annihilates spinal cord motor neurons, causing severe motor decline and death. The disease is divided into familial and sporadic ALS. Mutations in the TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have been involved in the pathological emergence and progression of ALS, although the molecular mechanisms eliciting the disease are unknown. Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA sequences capable of transposing within the genome become dysregulated and transcribed in the presence of TDP-43 mutations. We performed RNA-Seq in human motor neurons (iMNs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from TDP-43 wild-type—iMNs-TDP-43WT—and mutant—iMNs-TDP-43M337V—genotypes at 7 and 14 DIV, and, with state-of-the-art bioinformatic tools, analyzed whether TDP-43M337V alters both gene expression and TE activity. Our results show that TDP-43M337V induced global changes in the gene expression and TEs levels at all in vitro stages studied. Interestingly, many genetic pathways overlapped with that of the TEs activity, suggesting that TEs control the expression of several genes. TEs correlated with genes that played key roles in the extracellular matrix and RNA processing: all the regulatory pathways affected in ALS. Thus, the loss of TE regulation is present in TDP-43 mutations and is a critical determinant of the disease in human motor neurons. Overall, our results support the evidence that indicates TEs are critical regulatory sequences contributing to ALS neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
Telocytes and Other Interstitial Cells 2.0: From Structure to Function
by Sanda Maria Cretoiu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16221; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416221 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Interstitial cells are often seen as those cells that fill the space between parenchymal cells, responsible for fulfilling the function of an organ [...] Full article
19 pages, 3918 KiB  
Article
Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Metabolic Resistance to Cyflumetofen and Bifenthrin in Tetranychus urticae Koch on Cowpea
by Zhenxiu Liu, Fuxing Wu, Weikang Liang, Lijuan Zhou and Jiguang Huang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416220 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) is one of the most tremendous herbivores due to its polyphagous characteristics, and is resistant to most acaricides. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were carried out [...] Read more.
Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) is one of the most tremendous herbivores due to its polyphagous characteristics, and is resistant to most acaricides. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were carried out to analyze the mechanisms of T. urticae metabolic resistance to cyflumetofen and bifenthrin on cowpea. The enzyme activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the cyflumetofen-resistant (R_cfm) strain significantly decreased, while that of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) significantly increased. Meanwhile, the activities of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), CarEs and P450s in the bifenthrin-resistant (R_bft) strain were significantly higher than those in the susceptible strain (Lab_SS). According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses, in the R_cfm mite strain, two carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) genes and two P450 genes were upregulated and one gene was downregulated, namely CYP392E7; in the R_bft mite strain, eleven CCE, nine UGT, two P450, four GST and three ABC genes were upregulated, while four CCE and three P450 genes were downregulated. Additionally, 94 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were common to the two resistant groups. Specifically, TuCCE46 and TuCCE70 were upregulated in both resistant groups. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR validation data were consistent with those from the transcriptome sequencing analysis. Specifically, TuCCE46 (3.37-fold) was significantly upregulated in the R_cfm strain, while in the R_bft strain, TeturUGT22 (5.29-fold), teturUGT58p (1.74-fold), CYP392A11 (2.89-fold) and TuGSTd15 (5.12-fold) were significantly upregulated and TuCCE01 (0.13-fold) and CYP392A2p (0.07-fold) were significantly downregulated. Our study indicates that TuCCE46 might play the most important role in resistance to cyflumetofen, and TuCCE01, teturUGT58p, teturUGT22, CYP392A11, TuGSTd15, TuGSTm09 and TuABCG-13 were prominent in the resistance to bifenthrin. These findings provide further insight into the critical genes involved in the metabolic resistance of T. urticae to cyflumetofen and bifenthrin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 798 KiB  
Review
Mitochondrial Aging and Senolytic Natural Products with Protective Potential
by Andrea Deledda, Emanuele Giordano, Fernanda Velluzzi, Giovanna Flore, Sara Franceschelli, Lorenza Speranza and Patrizio Ripari
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416219 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 9018
Abstract
Living organisms do not disregard the laws of thermodynamics and must therefore consume energy for their survival. In this way, cellular energy exchanges, which aim above all at the production of ATP, a fundamental molecule used by the cell for its metabolisms, favor [...] Read more.
Living organisms do not disregard the laws of thermodynamics and must therefore consume energy for their survival. In this way, cellular energy exchanges, which aim above all at the production of ATP, a fundamental molecule used by the cell for its metabolisms, favor the formation of waste products that, if not properly disposed of, can contribute to cellular aging and damage. Numerous genes have been linked to aging, with some favoring it (gerontogenes) and others blocking it (longevity pathways). Animal model studies have shown that calorie restriction (CR) may promote longevity pathways, but given the difficult application of CR in humans, research is investigating the use of CR-mimetic substances capable of producing the same effect. These include some phytonutrients such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, epigallo-catechin-gallate, fisetin, quercetin, and curcumin and minerals such as magnesium and selenium. Some of them also have senolytic effects, which promote the apoptosis of defective cells that accumulate over the years (senescent cells) and disrupt normal metabolism. In this article, we review the properties of these natural elements that can promote a longer and healthier life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Correlation between Nutrition, Oxidative Stress and Disease 3.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 3831 KiB  
Article
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Salmonids Cells and Efficient Establishment of Edited Clonal Cell Lines
by Trygve A. H. Strømsnes, Sebastian E. Schmidke, Mitra Azad, Øyvind Singstad, Idun M. Grønsberg, Roy A. Dalmo and Arinze S. Okoli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416218 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Finfish production has seen over three-fold increase in the past 30 years (1990–2020), and Atlantic salmon (A. salmon; salmo salar) accounted for approximately 32.6% of the total marine and coastal aquaculture of all finfish species in the year 2020, making it one [...] Read more.
Finfish production has seen over three-fold increase in the past 30 years (1990–2020), and Atlantic salmon (A. salmon; salmo salar) accounted for approximately 32.6% of the total marine and coastal aquaculture of all finfish species in the year 2020, making it one of the most profitable farmed fish species globally. This growth in production is, however, threatened by a number of problems which can be solved using the CRISPR/Cas technology. In vitro applications of CRISPR/Cas using cell lines can complement its in vivo applications, but salmonids-derived cell lines are difficult to gene edit because they grow slowly, are difficult to transfect and isolate single clones of gene-edited cells. While clonal isolation of the gene-edited Chinook salmon cell line (CHSE-214) has successfully been performed, there is no report of successful clonal isolation of the gene-edited A. salmon ASK-1 and SHK-1cell lines. In the current study, two gene loci—cr2 and mmp9 of A. salmon—were efficiently edited using the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and plasmid CRISPR/Cas9 strategies. Edited cells were enriched using flow cytometer-activated cell sorting (FACS), followed by clonal isolation and expansion of edited cells. The study both confirms the recent report of the highly efficient editing of these widely used model cell lines, as well as extends the frontline in the single-cell cloning of gene-edited salmonids cells. The report also highlights the pitfalls and future directions in the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in these cells. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 728 KiB  
Review
Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers in Liver Disease
by Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Ángela Rojas, Sheila Gato, Javier Gallego, Antonio Gil-Gómez, María José Castro, Javier Ampuero and Manuel Romero-Gómez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416217 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived vesicles released by a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, and immune cells in normal and pathological conditions. Depending on their biogenesis, there is a complex repertoire of EVs that differ in size and origin. [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived vesicles released by a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, and immune cells in normal and pathological conditions. Depending on their biogenesis, there is a complex repertoire of EVs that differ in size and origin. EVs can carry lipids, proteins, coding and non-coding RNAs, and mitochondrial DNA causing alterations to the recipient cells, functioning as intercellular mediators of cell–cell communication (auto-, para-, juxta-, or even endocrine). Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered in relation to the function of EVs under physiological and pathological conditions. The development and optimization of methods for EV isolation are crucial for characterizing their biological functions, as well as their potential as a treatment option in the clinic. In this manuscript, we will comprehensively review the results from different studies that investigated the role of hepatic EVs during liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In general, the identification of patients with early-stage liver disease leads to better therapeutic interventions and optimal management. Although more light needs to be shed on the mechanisms of EVs, their use for early diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis has come into the focus of research as a high-potential source of ‘liquid biopsies’, since they can be found in almost all biological fluids. The use of EVs as new targets or nanovectors in drug delivery systems for liver disease therapy is also summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biomarkers in Cancer and Metabolic Disease 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9897 KiB  
Article
iADRGSE: A Graph-Embedding and Self-Attention Encoding for Identifying Adverse Drug Reaction in the Earlier Phase of Drug Development
by Xiang Cheng, Meiling Cheng, Liyi Yu and Xuan Xiao
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416216 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major issue to be addressed by the pharmaceutical industry. Early and accurate detection of potential ADRs contributes to enhancing drug safety and reducing financial expenses. The majority of the approaches that have been employed to identify ADRs [...] Read more.
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major issue to be addressed by the pharmaceutical industry. Early and accurate detection of potential ADRs contributes to enhancing drug safety and reducing financial expenses. The majority of the approaches that have been employed to identify ADRs are limited to determining whether a drug exhibits an ADR, rather than identifying the exact type of ADR. By introducing the “multi-level feature-fusion deep-learning model”, a new predictor, called iADRGSE, has been developed, which can be used to identify adverse drug reactions at the early stage of drug discovery. iADRGSE integrates a self-attentive module and a graph-network module that can extract one-dimensional sub-structure sequence information and two-dimensional chemical-structure graph information of drug molecules. As a demonstration, cross-validation and independent testing were performed with iADRGSE on a dataset of ADRs classified into 27 categories, based on SOC (system organ classification). In addition, experiments comparing iADRGSE with approaches such as NPF were conducted on the OMOP dataset, using the jackknife test method. Experiments show that iADRGSE was superior to existing state-of-the-art predictors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
MicroRNA, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Disorders
by Wan Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416215 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Insulin resistance is a significant health problem worldwide that contributes to a number of disorders, including type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Disorders)
20 pages, 1686 KiB  
Article
DNA Methylation Alterations in Fractionally Irradiated Rats and Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy
by Magy Sallam, Mohamed Mysara, Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane, Radia Tamarat, Susana Constantino Rosa Santos, Anne P. G. Crijns, Daan Spoor, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, Sarah Baatout, Pieter-Jan Guns, An Aerts and Raghda Ramadan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416214 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2055 | Correction
Abstract
Radiation-Induced CardioVascular Disease (RICVD) is an important concern in thoracic radiotherapy with complex underlying pathophysiology. Recently, we proposed DNA methylation as a possible mechanism contributing to RICVD. The current study investigates DNA methylation in heart-irradiated rats and radiotherapy-treated breast cancer (BC) patients. Rats [...] Read more.
Radiation-Induced CardioVascular Disease (RICVD) is an important concern in thoracic radiotherapy with complex underlying pathophysiology. Recently, we proposed DNA methylation as a possible mechanism contributing to RICVD. The current study investigates DNA methylation in heart-irradiated rats and radiotherapy-treated breast cancer (BC) patients. Rats received fractionated whole heart X-irradiation (0, 0.92, 6.9 and 27.6 Gy total doses) and blood was collected after 1.5, 3, 7 and 12 months. Global and gene-specific methylation of the samples were evaluated; and gene expression of selected differentially methylated regions (DMRs) was validated in rat and BC patient blood. In rats receiving an absorbed dose of 27.6 Gy, DNA methylation alterations were detected up to 7 months with differential expression of cardiac-relevant DMRs. Of those, SLMAP showed increased expression at 1.5 months, which correlated with hypomethylation. Furthermore, E2F6 inversely correlated with a decreased global longitudinal strain. In BC patients, E2F6 and SLMAP exhibited differential expression directly and 6 months after radiotherapy, respectively. This study describes a systemic radiation fingerprint at the DNA methylation level, elucidating a possible association of DNA methylation to RICVD pathophysiology, to be validated in future mechanistic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Radiation Toxicity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8717 KiB  
Article
An Isochroman Analog of CD3254 and Allyl-, Isochroman-Analogs of NEt-TMN Prove to Be More Potent Retinoid-X-Receptor (RXR) Selective Agonists Than Bexarotene
by Peter W. Jurutka, Orsola di Martino, Sabeeha Reshi, Sanchita Mallick, Michael A. Sausedo, Grant A. Moen, Isaac J. Lee, Dominic J. Ivan, Tyler D. Krall, Samuel J. Peoples, Anthony Perez, Lucas Tromba, Anh Le, Iraj Khadka, Ryan Petros, Brianna M. Savage, Eleine Salama, Jakline Salama, Joseph W. Ziller, Youngbin Noh, Ming-Yue Lee, Wei Liu, John S. Welch, Pamela A. Marshall and Carl E. Wagneradd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416213 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Bexarotene is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, its use provokes or disrupts other retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-dependent nuclear receptor pathways and thereby incites side effects including hypothyroidism and raised triglycerides. Two novel bexarotene analogs, as well as three [...] Read more.
Bexarotene is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); however, its use provokes or disrupts other retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-dependent nuclear receptor pathways and thereby incites side effects including hypothyroidism and raised triglycerides. Two novel bexarotene analogs, as well as three unique CD3254 analogs and thirteen novel NEt-TMN analogs, were synthesized and characterized for their ability to induce RXR agonism in comparison to bexarotene (1). Several analogs in all three groups possessed an isochroman ring substitution for the bexarotene aliphatic group. Analogs were modeled for RXR binding affinity, and EC50 as well as IC50 values were established for all analogs in a KMT2A-MLLT3 leukemia cell line. All analogs were assessed for liver-X-receptor (LXR) activity in an LXRE system to gauge the potential for the compounds to provoke raised triglycerides by increasing LXR activity, as well as to drive LXRE-mediated transcription of brain ApoE expression as a marker for potential therapeutic use in neurodegenerative disorders. Preliminary results suggest these compounds display a broad spectrum of off-target activities. However, many of the novel compounds were observed to be more potent than 1. While some RXR agonists cross-signal the retinoic acid receptor (RAR), many of the rexinoids in this work displayed reduced RAR activity. The isochroman group did not appear to substantially reduce RXR activity on its own. The results of this study reveal that modifying potent, selective rexinoids like bexarotene, CD3254, and NEt-TMN can provide rexinoids with increased RXR selectivity, decreased potential for cross-signaling, and improved anti-proliferative characteristics in leukemia models compared to 1. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1406 KiB  
Article
New Wolbachia pipientis Genotype Increasing Heat Stress Resistance of Drosophila melanogaster Host Is Characterized by a Large Chromosomal Inversion
by Aleksandra E. Korenskaia, Olga D. Shishkina, Alexandra I. Klimenko, Olga V. Andreenkova, Margarita A. Bobrovskikh, Natalja V. Shatskaya, Gennady V. Vasiliev and Nataly E. Gruntenko
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416212 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
The maternally transmitted endocellular bacteria Wolbachia is a well-known symbiont of insects, demonstrating both negative and positive effects on host fitness. The previously found Wolbachia strain wMelPlus is characterized by a positive effect on the stress-resistance of its host Drosophila melanogaster, under [...] Read more.
The maternally transmitted endocellular bacteria Wolbachia is a well-known symbiont of insects, demonstrating both negative and positive effects on host fitness. The previously found Wolbachia strain wMelPlus is characterized by a positive effect on the stress-resistance of its host Drosophila melanogaster, under heat stress conditions. This investigation is dedicated to studying the genomic underpinnings of such an effect. We sequenced two closely related Wolbachia strains, wMelPlus and wMelCS112, assembled their complete genomes, and performed comparative genomic analysis engaging available Wolbachia genomes from the wMel and wMelCS groups. Despite the two strains under study sharing very close gene-composition, we discovered a large (>1/6 of total genome) chromosomal inversion in wMelPlus, spanning through the region that includes the area of the inversion earlier found in the wMel group of Wolbachia genotypes. A number of genes in unique inversion blocks of wMelPlus were identified that might be involved in the induction of a stress-resistant phenotype in the host. We hypothesize that such an inversion could rearrange established genetic regulatory-networks, causing the observed effects of such a complex fly phenotype as a modulation of heat stress resistance. Based on our findings, we propose that wMelPlus be distinguished as a separate genotype of the wMelCS group, named wMelCS3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 2022)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 20119 KiB  
Article
Effects of Cardiac Stem Cell on Postinfarction Arrhythmogenic Substrate
by Ángel Arenal, Gonzalo R. Ríos-Muñoz, Alejandro Carta-Bergaz, Pablo M. Ruiz-Hernández, Esther Pérez-David, Verónica Crisóstomo, Gerard Loughlin, Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Javier Fernández-Portales, Alejandra Acosta, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Virginia Blanco-Blázquez, María J. Ledesma-Carbayo, Miriam Pareja, María E. Fernández-Santos, Francisco M. Sánchez-Margallo, Javier G. Casado and Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416211 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Clinical data suggest that cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) could modify post-infarction scar and ventricular remodeling and reduce the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT). This paper assesses the effect of CDCs on VT substrate in a pig model of postinfarction monomorphic VT. We studied the [...] Read more.
Clinical data suggest that cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) could modify post-infarction scar and ventricular remodeling and reduce the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT). This paper assesses the effect of CDCs on VT substrate in a pig model of postinfarction monomorphic VT. We studied the effect of CDCs on the electrophysiological properties and histological structure of dense scar and heterogeneous tissue (HT). Optical mapping and histological evaluation were performed 16 weeks after the induction of a myocardial infarction by transient occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in 21 pigs. Four weeks after LAD occlusion, pigs were randomized to receive intracoronary plus trans-myocardial CDCs (IC+TM group, n: 10) or to a control group. Optical mapping (OM) showed an action potential duration (APD) gradient between HT and normal tissue in both groups. CDCs increased conduction velocity (53 ± 5 vs. 45 ± 6 cm/s, p < 0.01), prolonged APD (280 ± 30 ms vs. 220 ± 40 ms, p < 0.01) and decreased APD dispersion in the HT. During OM, a VT was induced in one and seven of the IC+TM and control hearts (p = 0.03), respectively; five of these VTs had their critical isthmus located in intra-scar HT found adjacent to the coronary arteries. Histological evaluation of HT revealed less fibrosis (p < 0.01), lower density of myofibroblasts (p = 0.001), and higher density of connexin-43 in the IC+TM group. Scar and left ventricular volumes did not show differences between groups. Allogeneic CDCs early after myocardial infarction can modify the structure and electrophysiology of post-infarction scar. These findings pave the way for novel therapeutic properties of CDCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cardiovascular Diseases in Basic Research)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
The Association of PLAUR Genotype and Soluble suPAR Serum Level with COVID-19-Related Lung Damage Severity
by Ludmila A. Nekrasova, Anna A. Shmakova, Larisa M. Samokhodskaya, Karina I. Kirillova, Simona S. Stoyanova, Elena A. Mershina, Galina B. Nazarova, Kseniya A. Rubina, Ekaterina V. Semina and Armais A. Kamalov
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416210 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Uncovering the risk factors for acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) severity may help to provide a valuable tool for early patient stratification and proper treatment implementation, improving the patient outcome and lowering the burden on the healthcare system. Here we report the [...] Read more.
Uncovering the risk factors for acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) severity may help to provide a valuable tool for early patient stratification and proper treatment implementation, improving the patient outcome and lowering the burden on the healthcare system. Here we report the results of a single-center retrospective cohort study on 151 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected symptomatic hospitalized adult patients. We assessed the association of several blood test measurements, soluble urokinase receptor (uPAR) serum level and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of ACE (I/D), NOS3 (rs2070744, rs1799983), SERPINE1 (rs1799768), PLAU (rs2227564) and PLAUR (rs344781, rs2302524) genes, with the disease severity classified by the percentage of lung involvement on computerized tomography scans. Our findings reveal that the T/C genotype of PLAUR rs2302524 was independently associated with a less severe lung damage (odds ratio 0.258 [0.071–0.811]). Along with high C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and soluble uPAR serum levels turned out to be independently associated with more severe lung damage in COVID-19 patients. The identified factors may be further employed as predictors of a possibly severe COVID-19 clinical course. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

3 pages, 200 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “Enzymes as Biocatalysts: Current Research Trends and Applications”
by Sérgio F. Sousa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416209 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Enzymes are able to catalyze a wide diversity of chemical reactions in nature, and they do it at an amazing level [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes as Biocatalysts: Current Research Trends and Applications)
14 pages, 2272 KiB  
Article
Febrile-Range Hyperthermia Can Prevent Toxic Effects of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps on Mesenchymal Stem Cells
by Caren Linnemann, Andreas K. Nussler, Tina Histing and Sabrina Ehnert
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416208 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Fracture healing is characterized by an inflammatory phase directly after fracture which has a strong impact on the healing outcome. Neutrophils are strong contributors here and can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are found after trauma, originally thought to capture pathogens. However, [...] Read more.
Fracture healing is characterized by an inflammatory phase directly after fracture which has a strong impact on the healing outcome. Neutrophils are strong contributors here and can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are found after trauma, originally thought to capture pathogens. However, they can lead to tissue damage and impede wound healing processes. Their role in fracture healing remains unclear. In this study, the effect of isolated NETs on the function of bone-forming mesenchymal stem cells (SCP-1 cells) was examined. NETs were isolated from stimulated healthy neutrophils and viability, migration, and differentiation of SCP-1 cells were analyzed after the addition of NETs. NETs severely impaired the viability of SCP-1 cells, induced necrosis and already nontoxic concentrations reduced migration significantly. Short-term incubation with NETs had a persistent negative effect on osteogenic differentiation, as measured by AP activity and matrix formation. The addition of DNase or protease inhibitors failed to reverse the negative effect of NETs, whereas a short febrile-range temperature treatment successfully reduced the toxicity and membrane destruction. Thus, the possible modification of the negative effects of NETs in fracture hematomas could be an interesting new target to improve bone healing, particularly in patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in Immunity and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7803 KiB  
Article
Pharmaceutical Development of Nanostructured Vesicular Hydrogel Formulations of Rifampicin for Wound Healing
by Chantal M. Wallenwein, Verena Weigel, Götz Hofhaus, Namrata Dhakal, Wolfgang Schatton, Svetlana Gelperina, Florian K. Groeber-Becker, Jennifer Dressman and Matthias G. Wacker
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416207 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Chronic wounds exhibit elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes which delay wound-healing processes. In recent years, rifampicin has gained significant attention in the treatment of chronic wounds due to an interesting combination of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds exhibit elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes which delay wound-healing processes. In recent years, rifampicin has gained significant attention in the treatment of chronic wounds due to an interesting combination of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, rifampicin is sensitive to hydrolysis and oxidation. As a result, no topical drug product for wound-healing applications has been approved. To address this medical need two nanostructured hydrogel formulations of rifampicin were developed. The liposomal vesicles were embedded into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) gel or a combination of hyaluronic acid and marine collagen. To protect rifampicin from degradation in aqueous environments, a freeze-drying method was developed. Before freeze-drying, two well-defined hydrogel preparations were obtained. After freeze-drying, the visual appearance, chemical stability, residual moisture content, and redispersion time of both preparations were within acceptable limits. However, the morphological characterization revealed an increase in the vesicle size for collagen–hyaluronic acid hydrogel. This was confirmed by subsequent release studies. Interactions of marine collagen with phosphatidylcholine were held responsible for this effect. The HPMC hydrogel formulation remained stable over 6 months of storage. Moving forward, this product fulfills all criteria to be evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 5373 KiB  
Article
Effect of Novel AKT Inhibitor Vevorisertib as Single Agent and in Combination with Sorafenib on Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Cirrhotic Rat Model
by Keerthi Kurma, Ayca Zeybek Kuyucu, Gaël S. Roth, Nathalie Sturm, Marion Mercey-Ressejac, Giovanni Abbadessa, Yi Yu, Herve Lerat, Patrice N. Marche, Thomas Decaens and Zuzana Macek Jilkova
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416206 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The AKT pathway is often activated in HCC cases, and a longer exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib may lead to over-activation of the AKT pathway, leading to [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The AKT pathway is often activated in HCC cases, and a longer exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib may lead to over-activation of the AKT pathway, leading to HCC resistance. Here, we studied the efficacy of a new generation of allosteric AKT inhibitor, vevorisertib, alone or in combination with sorafenib. To identify specific adverse effects related to the background of cirrhosis, we used a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced cirrhotic rat model. Vevorisertib was tested in vitro on Hep3B, HepG2, HuH7 and PLC/PRF cell lines. Rats were treated weekly with intra-peritoneal injections of DEN for 14 weeks to obtain cirrhosis with fully developed HCC. After that, rats were randomized into four groups (n = 7/group): control, sorafenib, vevorisertib and the combination of vevorisertib + sorafenib, and treated for 6 weeks. Tumor progression was followed by MRI. We demonstrated that the vevorisertib is a highly potent treatment, blocking the phosphorylation of AKT. The tumor progression in the rat liver was significantly reduced by treatment with vevorisertib + sorafenib (49.4%) compared to the control group (158.8%, p < 0.0001). Tumor size, tumor number and tumor cell proliferation were significantly reduced in both the vevorisertib group and vevorisertib + sorafenib groups compared to the control group. Sirius red staining showed an improvement in liver fibrosis by vevorisertib and the combination treatment. Moreover, vevorisertib + sorafenib treatment was associated with a normalization in the liver vasculature. Altogether, vevorisertib as a single agent and its combination with sorafenib exerted a strong suppression of tumor progression and improved liver fibrosis. Thus, results provide a rationale for testing vevorisertib in clinical settings and confirm the importance of targeting AKT in HCC. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
Receptor-Independent Anti-Ferroptotic Activity of TrkB Modulators
by Md. Jakaria, Abdel A. Belaidi, Adam Southon, Krista A. Dent, Darius J. R. Lane, Ashley I. Bush and Scott Ayton
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416205 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Dysregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. A failure of neurotrophic support may participate in neurodegenerative mechanisms, such as ferroptosis, which has likewise been implicated in this disease class. The current [...] Read more.
Dysregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. A failure of neurotrophic support may participate in neurodegenerative mechanisms, such as ferroptosis, which has likewise been implicated in this disease class. The current study investigated whether modulators of TrkB signalling affect ferroptosis. Cell viability, C11 BODIPY, and cell-free oxidation assays were used to observe the impact of TrkB modulators, and an immunoblot assay was used to detect TrkB expression. TrkB modulators such as agonist BDNF, antagonist ANA-12, and inhibitor K252a did not affect RSL3-induced ferroptosis sensitivity in primary cortical neurons expressing detectable TrkB receptors. Several other modulators of the TrkB receptor, including agonist 7,8-DHF, activator phenelzine sulphate, and inhibitor GNF-5837, conferred protection against a range of ferroptosis inducers in several immortalised neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines, such as N27 and HT-1080 cells. We found these immortalised cell lines lack detectable TrkB receptor expression, so the anti-ferroptotic activity of these TrkB modulators was most likely due to their inherent radical-trapping antioxidant properties, which should be considered when interpreting their experimental findings. These modulators or their variants could be potential anti-ferroptotic therapeutics for various diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Metabolism in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4992 KiB  
Article
Growth of GaN Thin Films Using Plasma Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition: Effect of Ammonia-Containing Plasma Power on Residual Oxygen Capture
by Shicong Jiang, Wan-Yu Wu, Fangbin Ren, Chia-Hsun Hsu, Xiaoying Zhang, Peng Gao, Dong-Sing Wuu, Chien-Jung Huang, Shui-Yang Lien and Wenzhang Zhu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416204 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
In recent years, the application of (In, Al, Ga)N materials in photovoltaic devices has attracted much attention. Like InGaN, it is a direct band gap material with high absorption at the band edge, suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic devices. Nonetheless, it is important [...] Read more.
In recent years, the application of (In, Al, Ga)N materials in photovoltaic devices has attracted much attention. Like InGaN, it is a direct band gap material with high absorption at the band edge, suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic devices. Nonetheless, it is important to deposit high-quality GaN material as a foundation. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) combines the advantages of the ALD process with the use of plasma and is often used to deposit thin films with different needs. However, residual oxygen during growth has always been an unavoidable issue affecting the quality of the resulting film, especially in growing gallium nitride (GaN) films. In this study, the NH3-containing plasma was used to capture the oxygen absorbed on the growing surface to improve the quality of GaN films. By diagnosing the plasma, NH2, NH, and H radicals controlled by the plasma power has a strong influence not only on the oxygen content in growing GaN films but also on the growth rate, crystallinity, and surface roughness. The NH and NH2 radicals contribute to the growth of GaN films while the H radicals selectively dissociate Ga-OH bonds on the film surface and etch the grown films. At high plasma power, the GaN film with the lowest Ga-O bond ratio has a saturated growth rate, a better crystallinity, a rougher surface, and a lower bandgap. In addition, the deposition mechanism of GaN thin films prepared with a trimethylgallium metal source and NH3/Ar plasma PEALD involving oxygen participation or not is also discussed in the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Solar Cells and Materials for Photovoltaics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1029 KiB  
Communication
Usnic Acid-Mediated Exchange of Protons for Divalent Metal Cations across Lipid Membranes: Relevance to Mitochondrial Uncoupling
by Tatyana I. Rokitskaya, Alexander M. Arutyunyan, Ljudmila S. Khailova, Alisa D. Kataeva, Alexander M. Firsov, Elena A. Kotova and Yuri N. Antonenko
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416203 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Usnic acid (UA), a unique lichen metabolite, is a protonophoric uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, widely known as a weight-loss dietary supplement. In contrast to conventional proton-shuttling mitochondrial uncouplers, UA was found to carry protons across lipid membranes via the induction of an electrogenic [...] Read more.
Usnic acid (UA), a unique lichen metabolite, is a protonophoric uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, widely known as a weight-loss dietary supplement. In contrast to conventional proton-shuttling mitochondrial uncouplers, UA was found to carry protons across lipid membranes via the induction of an electrogenic proton exchange for calcium or magnesium cations. Here, we evaluated the ability of various divalent metal cations to stimulate a proton transport through both planar and vesicular bilayer lipid membranes by measuring the transmembrane electrical current and fluorescence-detected pH gradient dissipation in pyranine-loaded liposomes, respectively. Thus, we obtained the following selectivity series of calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and copper cations: Zn2+ > Mn2+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ >> Cu2+. Remarkably, Cu2+ appeared to suppress the UA-mediated proton transport in both lipid membrane systems. The data on the divalent metal cation/proton exchange were supported by circular dichroism spectroscopy of UA in the presence of the corresponding cations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Ion Channels and Exchangers in Cellular Pathophysiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification of the CER Gene Family and Significant Features in Climate Adaptation of Castanea mollissima
by Shuqing Zhao, Xinghua Nie, Xueqing Liu, Biyao Wang, Song Liu, Ling Qin and Yu Xing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416202 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The plant cuticle is the outermost layer of the aerial organs and an important barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. The climate varies greatly between the north and south of China, with large differences in temperature and humidity, but Chinese chestnut is found [...] Read more.
The plant cuticle is the outermost layer of the aerial organs and an important barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. The climate varies greatly between the north and south of China, with large differences in temperature and humidity, but Chinese chestnut is found in both regions. This study investigated the relationship between the wax layer of chestnut leaves and environmental adaptation. Firstly, semi-thin sections were used to verify that there is a significant difference in the thickness of the epicuticular wax layer between wild chestnut leaves in northwest and southeast China. Secondly, a whole-genome selective sweep was used to resequence wild chestnut samples from two typical regional populations, and significant genetic divergence was identified between the two populations in the CmCER1-1, CmCER1-5 and CmCER3 genes. Thirty-four CER genes were identified in the whole chestnut genome, and a series of predictive analyses were performed on the identified CmCER genes. The expression patterns of CmCER genes were classified into three trends—upregulation, upregulation followed by downregulation and continuous downregulation—when chestnut seedlings were treated with drought stress. Analysis of cultivars from two resource beds in Beijing and Liyang showed that the wax layer of the northern variety was thicker than that of the southern variety. For the Y-2 (Castanea mollissima genome sequencing material) cultivar, there were significant differences in the expression of CmCER1-1, CmCER1-5 and CmCER3 between the southern variety and the northern one-year-grafted variety. Therefore, this study suggests that the CER family genes play a role in environmental adaptations in chestnut, laying the foundation for further exploration of CmCER genes. It also demonstrates the importance of studying the adaptation of Chinese chestnut wax biosynthesis to the southern and northern environments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 577 KiB  
Review
Dysmenorrhoea: Can Medicinal Cannabis Bring New Hope for a Collective Group of Women Suffering in Pain, Globally?
by Amelia Seifalian, Julian Kenyon and Vik Khullar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416201 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4003
Abstract
Dysmenorrhoea effects up to 90% of women of reproductive age, with medical management options including over-the-counter analgesia or hormonal contraception. There has been a recent surge in medicinal cannabis research and its analgesic properties. This paper aims to critically investigate the current research [...] Read more.
Dysmenorrhoea effects up to 90% of women of reproductive age, with medical management options including over-the-counter analgesia or hormonal contraception. There has been a recent surge in medicinal cannabis research and its analgesic properties. This paper aims to critically investigate the current research of medicinal cannabis for pain relief and to discuss its potential application to treat dysmenorrhoea. Relevant keywords, including medicinal cannabis, pain, cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, dysmenorrhoea, and clinical trial, have been searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library (Wiley) databases and a clinical trial website (clinicaltrials.gov). To identify the relevant studies for this paper, 84 papers were reviewed and 20 were discarded as irrelevant. This review critically evaluated cannabis-based medicines and their mechanism and properties in relation to pain relief. It also tabulated all clinical trials carried out investigating medicinal cannabis for pain relief and highlighted the side effects. In addition, the safety and toxicology of medicinal cannabis and barriers to use are highlighted. Two-thirds of the clinical trials summarised confirmed positive analgesic outcomes, with major side effects reported as nausea, drowsiness, and dry mouth. In conclusion, medicinal cannabis has promising applications in the management of dysmenorrhoea. The global medical cannabis market size was valued at USD 11.0 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.06% from 2022 to 2030. This will encourage academic as well as the pharmaceutical and medical device industries to study the application of medical cannabis in unmet clinical disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabis sativa: From Plants to Humans)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 1941 KiB  
Review
Plant Disease Resistance-Related Signaling Pathways: Recent Progress and Future Prospects
by Li-Na Ding, Yue-Tao Li, Yuan-Zhen Wu, Teng Li, Rui Geng, Jun Cao, Wei Zhang and Xiao-Li Tan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416200 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 8183
Abstract
Plant–pathogen interactions induce a signal transmission series that stimulates the plant’s host defense system against pathogens and this, in turn, leads to disease resistance responses. Plant innate immunity mainly includes two lines of the defense system, called pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and [...] Read more.
Plant–pathogen interactions induce a signal transmission series that stimulates the plant’s host defense system against pathogens and this, in turn, leads to disease resistance responses. Plant innate immunity mainly includes two lines of the defense system, called pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). There is extensive signal exchange and recognition in the process of triggering the plant immune signaling network. Plant messenger signaling molecules, such as calcium ions, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, and plant hormone signaling molecules, such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, play key roles in inducing plant defense responses. In addition, heterotrimeric G proteins, the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in regulating disease resistance and the defense signal transduction network. This paper summarizes the status and progress in plant disease resistance and disease resistance signal transduction pathway research in recent years; discusses the complexities of, and interactions among, defense signal pathways; and forecasts future research prospects to provide new ideas for the prevention and control of plant diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants 3.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
Relationship of Cognition and Alzheimer’s Disease with Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders: A Large-Scale Genetic Overlap and Mendelian Randomisation Analysis
by Emmanuel O. Adewuyi, Eleanor K. O’Brien, Tenielle Porter and Simon M. Laws
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416199 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7426
Abstract
Emerging observational evidence suggests links between cognitive impairment and a range of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders; however, the mechanisms underlying their relationships remain unclear. Leveraging large-scale genome-wide association studies’ summary statistics, we comprehensively assessed genetic overlap and potential causality of cognitive traits and [...] Read more.
Emerging observational evidence suggests links between cognitive impairment and a range of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders; however, the mechanisms underlying their relationships remain unclear. Leveraging large-scale genome-wide association studies’ summary statistics, we comprehensively assessed genetic overlap and potential causality of cognitive traits and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with several GIT disorders. We demonstrate a strong and highly significant inverse global genetic correlation between cognitive traits and GIT disorders—peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastritis-duodenitis, diverticulosis, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but not inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Further analysis detects 35 significant (p < 4.37 × 10−5) bivariate local genetic correlations between cognitive traits, AD, and GIT disorders (including IBD). Mendelian randomisation analysis suggests a risk-decreasing causality of educational attainment, intelligence, and other cognitive traits on PUD and GERD, but not IBD, and a putative association of GERD with cognitive function decline. Gene-based analysis reveals a significant gene-level genetic overlap of cognitive traits with AD and GIT disorders (IBD inclusive, pbinomial-test = 1.18 × 10−3–2.20 × 10−16). Our study supports the protective roles of genetically-influenced educational attainments and other cognitive traits on the risk of GIT disorders and highlights a putative association of GERD with cognitive function decline. Findings from local genetic correlation analysis provide novel insights, indicating that the relationship of IBD with cognitive traits (and AD) will depend largely on their local effects across the genome. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5890 KiB  
Review
Anti-Inflammatory Drug Therapy in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Trials
by Martin Vychopen, Erdem Güresir and Johannes Wach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416198 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
Althoughanti-inflammatory drug therapy has been identified as potentially beneficial for patients suffering from chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH), contemporary literature presents contradictory results. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the impact of anti-inflammatory drug therapy on mortality and outcome. We searched for eligible [...] Read more.
Althoughanti-inflammatory drug therapy has been identified as potentially beneficial for patients suffering from chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH), contemporary literature presents contradictory results. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the impact of anti-inflammatory drug therapy on mortality and outcome. We searched for eligible randomized, placebo-controlled prospective trials (RTCs) on PubMed, Embase and Medline until July 2022. From 97 initially identified articles, five RTCs met the criteria and were included in our meta-analysis. Our results illustrate significantly lower rates of recurrent cSDH (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21–0.58, p = 0.0001) in patients undergoing anti-inflammatory therapy. In the subgroup of patients undergoing primary conservative treatment, anti-inflammatory therapy was associated with lower rates of “switch to surgery” cases (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.14–0.63, p = 0.002). Despite these findings, anti-inflammatory drugs seemed to be associated with higher mortality rates in patients undergoing surgery (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.03–3.01, p = 0.04), although in the case of primary conservative treatment, no effect on mortality has been observed (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 0.35–17.15, p = 0.37). Further multicentric prospective randomized trials are needed to evaluate anti-inflammatory drugs as potentially suitable therapy for asymptomatic patients with cSDH to avoid the necessity of surgical hematoma evacuation on what are predominantly elderly, vulnerable, patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacological Strategies for Neuroinflammation in Brain Injury)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop