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Article

Single and Combined Fe and S Deficiency Differentially Modulate Root Exudate Composition in Tomato: A Double Strategy for Fe Acquisition?

1
Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
2
Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
3
Department for Sustainable Food Process, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114038
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron and Sulfur in Plants)
Fe chlorosis is considered as one of the major constraints on crop growth and yield worldwide, being particularly worse when associated with S shortage, due to the tight link between Fe and S. Plant adaptation to inadequate nutrient availabilities often relies on the release of root exudates that enhance nutrients, mobilization from soil colloids and favour their uptake by roots. This work aims at characterizing the exudomic profile of hydroponically grown tomato plants subjected to either single or combined Fe and S deficiency, as well as at shedding light on the regulation mechanisms underlying Fe and S acquisition processes by plants. Root exudates have been analysed by untargeted metabolomics, through liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry as well as gas chromatography–mass spectrometry following derivatization. More than 200 metabolites could be putatively annotated. Venn diagrams show that 23%, 10% and 21% of differential metabolites are distinctively modulated by single Fe deficiency, single S deficiency or combined Fe–S deficiency, respectively. Interestingly, for the first time, a mugineic acid derivative is detected in dicot plants root exudates. The results seem to support the hypothesis of the co-existence of the two Fe acquisition strategies in tomato plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; mugineic acid; iron; nutrient deficiency; nutrient interaction; phytosiderophores; root exudates; sulfur; strategy I; strategy II metabolomics; mugineic acid; iron; nutrient deficiency; nutrient interaction; phytosiderophores; root exudates; sulfur; strategy I; strategy II
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MDPI and ACS Style

Astolfi, S.; Pii, Y.; Mimmo, T.; Lucini, L.; Miras-Moreno, M.B.; Coppa, E.; Violino, S.; Celletti, S.; Cesco, S. Single and Combined Fe and S Deficiency Differentially Modulate Root Exudate Composition in Tomato: A Double Strategy for Fe Acquisition? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4038. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114038

AMA Style

Astolfi S, Pii Y, Mimmo T, Lucini L, Miras-Moreno MB, Coppa E, Violino S, Celletti S, Cesco S. Single and Combined Fe and S Deficiency Differentially Modulate Root Exudate Composition in Tomato: A Double Strategy for Fe Acquisition? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):4038. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Astolfi, Stefania, Youry Pii, Tanja Mimmo, Luigi Lucini, Maria B. Miras-Moreno, Eleonora Coppa, Simona Violino, Silvia Celletti, and Stefano Cesco. 2020. "Single and Combined Fe and S Deficiency Differentially Modulate Root Exudate Composition in Tomato: A Double Strategy for Fe Acquisition?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 4038. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114038

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