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3D Bioprinted Artificial Trachea with Epithelial Cells and Chondrogenic-Differentiated Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

1
Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
3
Department of Nature-Inspired Nanoconvergence System, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103, Korea
4
Gene Therapy Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-Ro, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061624
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering 2018)
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Abstract

Tracheal resection has limited applicability. Although various tracheal replacement strategies were performed using artificial prosthesis, synthetic stents and tissue transplantation, the best method in tracheal reconstruction remains to be identified. Recent advances in tissue engineering enabled 3D bioprinting using various biocompatible materials including living cells, thereby making the product clinically applicable. Moreover, clinical interest in mesenchymal stem cell has dramatically increased. Here, rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSC) and rabbit respiratory epithelial cells were cultured. The chondrogenic differentiation level of bMSC cultured in regular media (MSC) and that in chondrogenic media (d-MSC) were compared. Dual cell-containing artificial trachea were manufactured using a 3D bioprinting method with epithelial cells and undifferentiated bMSC (MSC group, n = 6) or with epithelial cells and chondrogenic-differentiated bMSC (d-MSC group, n = 6). d-MSC showed a relatively higher level of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and chondrogenic marker gene expression than MSC in vitro. Neo-epithelialization and neo-vascularization were observed in all groups in vivo but neo-cartilage formation was only noted in d-MSC. The epithelial cells in the 3D bioprinted artificial trachea were effective in respiratory epithelium regeneration. Chondrogenic-differentiated bMSC had more neo-cartilage formation potential in a short period. Nevertheless, the cartilage formation was observed only in a localized area. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell; chondrogenic differentiation; three-dimensional bioprinting; artificial trachea; tissue engineering bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell; chondrogenic differentiation; three-dimensional bioprinting; artificial trachea; tissue engineering
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Bae, S.-W.; Lee, K.-W.; Park, J.-H.; Lee, J.; Jung, C.-R.; Yu, J.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kim, D.-H. 3D Bioprinted Artificial Trachea with Epithelial Cells and Chondrogenic-Differentiated Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1624.

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