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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2266;

Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) for the Isolation of Willow Lignin (Salix matsudana cv. Zhuliu)

Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Science and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong, China
College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021, Shaanxi, China
Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Box 8005, Raleigh, NC 27695-8005, USA
Center of Fibers, Papers and Recycling, Faculty of Textiles, University of Gezira, Box 20, Wad Medani 79371, Sudan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Lignin Challenge: Exploring Innovative Applications)
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Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a potentially high-value lignin extraction methodology. DESs prepared from choline chloride (ChCl) and three hydrogen-bond donors (HBD)—lactic acid (Lac), glycerol, and urea—were evaluated for isolation of willow (Salix matsudana cv. Zhuliu) lignin. DESs types, mole ratio of ChCl to HBD, extraction temperature, and time on the fractionated DES-lignin yield demonstrated that the optimal DES-lignin yield (91.8 wt % based on the initial lignin in willow) with high purity of 94.5% can be reached at a ChCl-to-Lac molar ratio of 1:10, extraction temperature of 120 °C, and time of 12 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) , 13C-NMR, and 31P-NMR showed that willow lignin extracted by ChCl-Lac was mainly composed of syringyl and guaiacyl units. Serendipitously, a majority of the glucan in willow was preserved after ChCl-Lac treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents; DES-lignin; choline chloride; lactic acid deep eutectic solvents; DES-lignin; choline chloride; lactic acid

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Li, T.; Lyu, G.; Liu, Y.; Lou, R.; Lucia, L.A.; Yang, G.; Chen, J.; Saeed, H.A.M. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) for the Isolation of Willow Lignin (Salix matsudana cv. Zhuliu). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2266.

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