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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 15, Issue 6 (June 2014) , Pages 9173-11203

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Open AccessArticle
A-769662 Protects Osteoblasts from Hydrogen Dioxide-Induced Apoptosis through Activating of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11190-11203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611190
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2576 | PDF Full-text (1844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here we report that 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist A-769662 inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced viability loss and apoptosis of human and mouse osteoblast cells. H2O2-induced moderate AMPK activation in osteoblast cells, which was enhanced [...] Read more.
Here we report that 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist A-769662 inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced viability loss and apoptosis of human and mouse osteoblast cells. H2O2-induced moderate AMPK activation in osteoblast cells, which was enhanced by A-769662. Inactivation of AMPK by its inhibitor compound C, or by target shRNA-mediated silencing and kinase dead (KD) mutation exacerbated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in osteoblast cells. A-769662-mediated protective effect against H2O2 was also blocked by AMPK inhibition or depletion. A-769662 inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by H2O2 in osteoblast cells. Meanwhile, H2O2-induced ATP depletion was inhibited by A-769662, but was aggravated by compound C. Further, H2O2 induced AMPK-dependent and pro-survival autophagy in cultured osteoblast cells, which was enhanced by A-769662. Our results suggested that activation of AMPK by H2O2 is anti-apoptosis and pro-survival in osteoblast cells, probably due to its anti-oxidant, pro-autophagy and ATP preservation abilities, and A-769662-mediated cell-protective effect in osteoblast cells requires AMPK activation. Our study suggests that A-769662 might be further investigated as a novel anti-osteonecrosis agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Halophyte Atriplex canescens to Explore Salt-Responsive Related Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11172-11189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611172
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2303 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Little information is available on gene expression profiling of halophyte A. canescens. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for stress tolerance in A. canescens, a full-length complementary DNA library was generated from A. canescens exposed to 400 mM NaCl, and provided 343 [...] Read more.
Little information is available on gene expression profiling of halophyte A. canescens. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for stress tolerance in A. canescens, a full-length complementary DNA library was generated from A. canescens exposed to 400 mM NaCl, and provided 343 high-quality ESTs. In an evaluation of 343 valid EST sequences in the cDNA library, 197 unigenes were assembled, among which 190 unigenes (83.1% ESTs) were identified according to their significant similarities with proteins of known functions. All the 343 EST sequences have been deposited in the dbEST GenBank under accession numbers JZ535802 to JZ536144. According to Arabidopsis MIPS functional category and GO classifications, we identified 193 unigenes of the 311 annotations EST, representing 72 non-redundant unigenes sharing similarities with genes related to the defense response. The sets of ESTs obtained provide a rich genetic resource and 17 up-regulated genes related to salt stress resistance were identified by qRT-PCR. Six of these genes may contribute crucially to earlier and later stage salt stress resistance. Additionally, among the 343 unigenes sequences, 22 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also identified contributing to the study of A. canescens resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metagenomics: a Powerful Lens Viewing the Microbial World)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variations of TAP1 Gene Exon 3 Affects Gene Expression and Escherichia coli F18 Resistance in Piglets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11161-11171; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611161
Received: 12 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2375 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Firstly, our research group identified Sutai pigs’ phenotypes that exhibited extreme resistance and susceptibility to the Escherichia coli F18 respectively, and then eight ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) F18-resistant piglets and eight ETEC F18-sensitive piglets were selected. Then, the TAP1 ( [...] Read more.
Firstly, our research group identified Sutai pigs’ phenotypes that exhibited extreme resistance and susceptibility to the Escherichia coli F18 respectively, and then eight ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) F18-resistant piglets and eight ETEC F18-sensitive piglets were selected. Then, the TAP1 (Transporter associated with antigen processing) mRNA relative expression levels were analyzed in 11 tissues of the resistant and susceptible phenotypes. Simultaneously, we detected the genetic variations in exon 3 of the TAP1 gene and evaluated the TAP1 mRNA expression levels among the different genotype pigs to study the effects of the genetic variation on gene expression, and the E. coli F18 resistance. The results revealed higher expression levels in the resistant genotypes than that in the susceptible genotypes in 11 tissues, with significant differences in the spleen, lymph node, lung, thymus, duodenum and jejunum. Furthermore, a G729A mutation was identified in the TAP1 gene exon 3, and this mutation deviates from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.01). The TAP1 mRNA levels in GG genotype were significantly higher than that in the other two genotypes, with significant differences in the liver, lung, kidney, thymus, lymph node, duodenum and jejunum tissues. We speculated that high expression of the TAP1 gene might confer resistance against the E. coli F18, the G729A mutation had a significant effect on the mRNA expression, and individuals with the GG genotype possessed a stronger ability to resist the E. coli F18 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Identification of Drivers from Cancer Genome Diversity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11142-11160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611142
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3188 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers with a dismal outcome. The complicated molecular pathogenesis of HCC caused by tumor heterogeneity makes it difficult to identify druggable targets useful for treating HCC patients. One approach that has a potential for [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers with a dismal outcome. The complicated molecular pathogenesis of HCC caused by tumor heterogeneity makes it difficult to identify druggable targets useful for treating HCC patients. One approach that has a potential for the improvement of patient prognosis is the identification of cancer driver genes that play a critical role in the development of HCC. Recent technological advances of high-throughput methods, such as gene expression profiles, DNA copy number alterations and somatic mutations, have expanded our understanding of the comprehensive genetic profiles of HCC. Integrative analysis of these omics profiles enables us to classify the molecular subgroups of HCC patients. As each subgroup classified according to genetic profiles has different clinical features, such as recurrence rate and prognosis, the tumor subclassification tools are useful in clinical practice. Furthermore, a global genetic analysis, including genome-wide RNAi functional screening, makes it possible to identify cancer vulnerable genes. Identification of common cancer driver genes in HCC leads to the development of an effective molecular target therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
TRAF6 Inhibition Rescues Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11126-11141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611126
Received: 2 May 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3334 | PDF Full-text (2878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase and adaptor protein, is involved in activation of various signaling cascades. Recent studies identify TRAF6 as one of the novel regulators of skeletal muscle atrophy. The role of TRAF6 in glucocorticoid-induced [...] Read more.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase and adaptor protein, is involved in activation of various signaling cascades. Recent studies identify TRAF6 as one of the novel regulators of skeletal muscle atrophy. The role of TRAF6 in glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that TRAF6 and its downstream signaling molecules, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFBx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1), were all upregulated in dexamethasone-induced atrophy of mouse C2C12 myotubes or mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. To further investigate the role of TRAF6 in dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy, TRAF6-siRNA was used to transfect cultured C2C12 myotubes or was injected into the TA muscle of mice respectively, and we note that TRAF6 knockdown attenuated dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo, and concomitantly decreased the expression of MuRF1 and MAFBx. Our findings suggest that a decreased expression of TRAF6 could rescue dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy through, at least in part, regulation of the expression of MAFBx and MuRF1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
New Dihydro-β-agarofuran Sesquiterpenes from Parnassia wightiana Wall: Isolation, Identification and Cytotoxicity against Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11111-11125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611111
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 1 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2052 | PDF Full-text (499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Five new (48) and three known (13) dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters were isolated from the whole plants of Parnassia wightiana. The structures of all compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR and HR-MS. The [...] Read more.
Five new (48) and three known (13) dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters were isolated from the whole plants of Parnassia wightiana. The structures of all compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR and HR-MS. The absolute configuration of these compounds was established by X-ray diffraction analysis, comparison of NOESY spectra and biogenetic means. The cytotoxities of compounds 28 were evaluated in vitro against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7 and SW480 cell lines. Compounds 57 exhibited the highest activities with IC50 values of 11.8–30.1 μM in most cases. The SAR revealed that the introduction of hydroxyl group was able to significantly improve the activities of the compounds for most of the cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Coactivator Recruitment of AhR/ARNT1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11100-11110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611100
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2532 | PDF Full-text (1081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common feature of nuclear receptors (NRs) is the transformation of external cell signals into specific transcriptions of the signal molecule. Signal molecules function as ligands for NRs and, after their uptake, activated NRs form homo- or heterodimers at promoter recognition sequences of [...] Read more.
A common feature of nuclear receptors (NRs) is the transformation of external cell signals into specific transcriptions of the signal molecule. Signal molecules function as ligands for NRs and, after their uptake, activated NRs form homo- or heterodimers at promoter recognition sequences of the specific genes in the nucleus. Another common feature of NRs is their dependence on coactivators, which bridge the basic transcriptional machinery and other cofactors to the target genes, in order to initiate transcription and to unwind histone-bound DNA for exposing additional promoter recognition sites via their histone acetyltransferase (HAT) function. In this review, we focus on our recent findings related to the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1/NCoA1) by the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and by the arylhydrocarbon receptor/arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 (AhR/ARNT1) complex. We also describe the extension of our previously published findings regarding the binding between ARNT1.1 exon16 and SRC1e exon 21, via in silico analyses of androgen receptor (AR) NH2-carboxyl-terminal interactions, the results of which were verified by in vitro experiments. Based on these data, we suggest a newly derived tentative binding site of nuclear coactivator 2/glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein-1/transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (NCOA-2/ GRIP-1/TIF-2) for ARNT1.1 exon 16. Furthermore, results obtained by immunoprecipitation have revealed a second leucine-rich binding site for hARNT1.1 exon 16 in SRC1e exon 21 (LSSTDLL). Finally, we discuss the role of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as an endocrine disruptor for estrogen related transcription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Toxicity of Dioxins and Related Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle
The Structure and Dynamics of BmR1 Protein from Brugia malayi: In Silico Approaches
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11082-11099; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611082
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2570 | PDF Full-text (1772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for [...] Read more.
Brugia malayi is a filarial nematode, which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. In 1995, the disease has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the second leading causes of permanent and long-term disability and thus it is targeted for elimination by year 2020. Therefore, accurate filariasis diagnosis is important for management and elimination programs. A recombinant antigen (BmR1) from the Bm17DIII gene product was used for antibody-based filariasis diagnosis in “Brugia Rapid”. However, the structure and dynamics of BmR1 protein is yet to be elucidated. Here we study the three dimensional structure and dynamics of BmR1 protein using comparative modeling, threading and ab initio protein structure prediction. The best predicted structure obtained via an ab initio method (Rosetta) was further refined and minimized. A total of 5 ns molecular dynamics simulation were performed to investigate the packing of the protein. Here we also identified three epitopes as potential antibody binding sites from the molecular dynamics average structure. The structure and epitopes obtained from this study can be used to design a binder specific against BmR1, thus aiding future development of antigen-based filariasis diagnostics to complement the current diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Prop-2-ynylideneamine, HC≡CCH=NH, Exist in Space? A Theoretical and Computational Investigation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11064-11081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611064
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1996 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MP2, DFT and CCSD methods with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets have been used to probe the structural changes and relative energies of E-prop-2-ynylideneamine (I), Z-prop-2-ynylideneamine (II), prop-1,2-diene-1-imine (III) and vinyl cyanide (IV). The energy near-equivalence and provenance of preference of isomers and [...] Read more.
MP2, DFT and CCSD methods with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets have been used to probe the structural changes and relative energies of E-prop-2-ynylideneamine (I), Z-prop-2-ynylideneamine (II), prop-1,2-diene-1-imine (III) and vinyl cyanide (IV). The energy near-equivalence and provenance of preference of isomers and tautomers were investigated by NBO calculations using HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. All substrates have Cs symmetry. The optimized geometries were found to be mainly theoretical method dependent. All elected levels of theory have computed I/II total energy of isomerization (ΔE) of 1.707 to 3.707 kJ/mol in favour of II at 298.15 K. MP2 and CCSD methods have indicated clearly the preference of II over III; while the B3LYP functional predicted nearly similar total energies. All tested levels of theory yielded a global II/IV tautomerization total energy (ΔE) of 137.3–148.4 kJ/mol in support of IV at 298.15 K. The negative values of ΔS indicated that IV is favoured at low temperature. At high temperature, a reverse tautomerization becomes spontaneous and II is preferred. The existence of II in space was debated through the interpretation and analysis of the thermodynamic and kinetic studies of this tautomerization reaction and the presence of similar compounds in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Gene Is Associated with Coronary Heart Disease in Chinese Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11054-11063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611054
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2213 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent globally and a major cause of mortality. Genetic predisposition is a non-modifiable risk factor associated with CHD. Eighty-four Chinese patients with CHD and 253 healthy Chinese controls without CHD were recruited. Major clinical data were collected, [...] Read more.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent globally and a major cause of mortality. Genetic predisposition is a non-modifiable risk factor associated with CHD. Eighty-four Chinese patients with CHD and 253 healthy Chinese controls without CHD were recruited. Major clinical data were collected, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) gene at position 801 (G to A, rs1801157) in the 3'-untranslated region was identified. The correlation between rs1801157 genotypes and CHD was evaluated by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The allele frequency in the CHD and control groups was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) (p > 0.05). The frequency of the GG genotype in the CHD group (59.5%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (49.8%) (p = 0.036). A number of variables, including male sex, age, presence of hypertension, and the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), uric acid, and total bilirubin, were associated with CHD in a primary univariate analysis. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the GG genotype (GG:AA, odds ratio (OR) = 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21–5.23), male sex, advanced age (≥60 years), presence of hypertension, LDL-C level ≥ 3.33 mg/dL, HDL-C level < 1.03 mg/dL, and TG level ≥ 1.7 mg/dL were independent risk factors for CHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Cellulose Nanocrystals/ZnO as a Bifunctional Reinforcing Nanocomposite for Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Chitosan Blend Films: Fabrication, Characterization and Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11040-11053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611040
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 14 May 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3395 | PDF Full-text (689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, cellulose nanocrystals/zinc oxide (CNCs/ZnO) nanocomposites were dispersed as bifunctional nano-sized fillers into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Cs) blend by a solvent casting method to prepare PVA/Cs/CNCs/ZnO bio-nanocomposites films. The morphology, thermal, mechanical and UV-vis absorption properties, as well antimicrobial [...] Read more.
In this study, cellulose nanocrystals/zinc oxide (CNCs/ZnO) nanocomposites were dispersed as bifunctional nano-sized fillers into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Cs) blend by a solvent casting method to prepare PVA/Cs/CNCs/ZnO bio-nanocomposites films. The morphology, thermal, mechanical and UV-vis absorption properties, as well antimicrobial effects of the bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. It demonstrated that CNCs/ZnO were compatible with PVA/Cs and dispersed homogeneously in the polymer blend matrix. CNCs/ZnO improved tensile strength and modulus of PVA/Cs significantly. Tensile strength and modulus of bio-nanocomposite films increased from 55.0 to 153.2 MPa and from 395 to 932 MPa, respectively with increasing nano-sized filler amount from 0 to 5.0 wt %. The thermal stability of PVA/Cs was also enhanced at 1.0 wt % CNCs/ZnO loading. UV light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PVA/Cs matrix, signifying that these bio-nanocomposite films show good UV-shielding effects. Moreover, the biocomposites films showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The improved physical properties obtained by incorporating CNCs/ZnO can be useful in variety uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Materials)
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Open AccessReview
Contribution of Chitinase A’s C-Terminal Vacuolar Sorting Determinant to the Study of Soluble Protein Compartmentation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11030-11039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611030
Received: 28 March 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2256 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that [...] Read more.
Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD) of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin’s tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr) and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD) and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Compartmentation and Volume Control)
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Open AccessArticle
Celecoxib Suppresses the Phosphorylation of STAT3 Protein and Can Enhance the Radiosensitivity of Medulloblastoma-Derived Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 11013-11029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150611013
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 27 May 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2928 | PDF Full-text (4407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DPs) exhibit cancer stem-like cell (CSC)-like properties that may contribute to chemoradioresistance, tumorigenesis and recurrence. In various tumors, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) upregulation including [...] Read more.
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DPs) exhibit cancer stem-like cell (CSC)-like properties that may contribute to chemoradioresistance, tumorigenesis and recurrence. In various tumors, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) upregulation including MB which can regulate the expression of Nestin. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to potentially reduce STAT3 phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of celecoxib in enhancing the effects of ionizing radiotherapy (IR) on MB-DP. MB-DPs and MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-negative cells (MB-DNs) were isolated from medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. Then, both of them were treated with celecoxib in different concentrations, and cell viability was assessed. The assays of cell survival, sphere formation, radiosensitivity, colony formation, apoptotic activity and mouse xenografting experiments in MB-DPs and MB-DNs treated with celecoxib alone, radiation alone, or celecoxib combined with radiation were further evaluated. We isolated MB-DPs from MB cell line Daoy, which exhibited typical CSC-like characteristics. Microarray analysis and Western blotting both indicated the upregulation of Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT cascade and STAT3 phosphorylation. Incubation with celecoxib dose-dependently suppressed the CSC-like properties and enhanced the IR effect on the induction of apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL assay and staining for Caspase 3 and Annexin V. Finally, celecoxib also enhanced the IR effect to suppress tumorigenesis and synergistically improve the recipient survival in orthotopic MB-derived CD133/Nestin double-positive cells (MB-DP cells) bearing mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of CoCl2 on HIF-1α Protein under Experimental Conditions of Autoprogressive Hypoxia Using Mouse Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10999-11012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610999
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2671 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is well known that cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can enhance the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. The aim of this study is to detect the effect of CoCl2 on the hypoxia tolerance of mice which were repeatedly exposed to autoprogressive [...] Read more.
It is well known that cobalt chloride (CoCl2) can enhance the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. The aim of this study is to detect the effect of CoCl2 on the hypoxia tolerance of mice which were repeatedly exposed to autoprogressive hypoxia. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into groups of chemical pretreatment and normal saline (NS), respectively injected with CoCl2 and NS 3 h before exposure to hypoxia for 0 run (H0), 1 run (H1), and 4 runs (H4). Western Blot, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), extracellular recordings population spikes in area cornus ammonis I (CA 1) of mouse hippocampal slices and real-time were used in this study. Our results demonstrated that the tolerance of mice to hypoxia, the changes of HIF-1α protein level and HIF-1 DNA binding activity in mice hippocampus, the mRNA level of erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the disappearance time of population spikes of hippocampal slices were substantially different between the control group and the CoCl2 group. Over-induction of HIF-1α by pretreatment with CoCl2 before hypoxia did not increase the hypoxia tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between BPI Gene Upstream CpG Island Methylation and mRNA Expression in Piglets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10989-10998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610989
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2237 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diarrhea and edematous disease are two major causes of mortality in postweaning piglets, and these conditions lead to huge economic losses in the swine industry. E. coli F18 is the primary causative agent of these two diseases. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) plays an important [...] Read more.
Diarrhea and edematous disease are two major causes of mortality in postweaning piglets, and these conditions lead to huge economic losses in the swine industry. E. coli F18 is the primary causative agent of these two diseases. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) plays an important role in the natural defense of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between BPI gene upstream CpG island methylation and mRNA expression. In this study, bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was used to detect the methylation status of the BPI gene upstream CpG island and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect BPI expression in the duodenum of piglets from birth to weaning age. BPI upstream CpG islands were shown to have many putative transcription factor binding sites, 10 CpG sites and every CpG site was methylated. The CpG island methylation level was lowest in 30-day piglets and was significantly lower than levels in 8-day piglets (p < 0.05). BPI mRNA expression was significantly higher in 30-day piglets than at any other age (p < 0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that the methylation status of the CpG island was negatively correlated with BPI mRNA expression. Statistical significances were found in CpG_1, CpG_3, CpG_4, CpG_7 and CpG_10 (p < 0.05). The data indicate that BPI expression is improved by demethylation of the BPI gene upstream CpG island. Furthermore, CpG_1, CpG_3, CpG_4, CpG_7 and CpG_10 may be critical sites in the regulation of BPI gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Exercise Promotes Recovery of Neurological Function after Ischemic Stroke in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10974-10988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610974
Received: 23 February 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2858 | PDF Full-text (1521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although physical exercise is an effective strategy for treatment of ischemic stroke, the underlying protective mechanisms are still not well understood. It has been recently demonstrated that neural progenitor cells play a vital role in the recovery of neurological function (NF) through differentiation [...] Read more.
Although physical exercise is an effective strategy for treatment of ischemic stroke, the underlying protective mechanisms are still not well understood. It has been recently demonstrated that neural progenitor cells play a vital role in the recovery of neurological function (NF) through differentiation into mature neurons. In the current study, we observed that physical exercise significantly reduced the infarct size and improved damaged neural functional recovery after an ischemic stroke. Furthermore, we found that the treatment not only exhibited a significant increase in the number of neural progenitor cells and neurons but also decreased the apoptotic cells in the peri-infarct region, compared to a control in the absence of exercise. Importantly, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/Akt signaling pathway was dramatically activated in the peri-infarct region of rats after physical exercise training. Therefore, our findings suggest that physical exercise directly influences the NF recovery process by increasing neural progenitor cell count via activation of the IGF-1/Akt signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/ZnO Bionanocomposites with Improved Mechanical, Barrier and Antibacterial Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10950-10973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610950
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 80 | Viewed by 3184 | PDF Full-text (1780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based bionanocomposites incorporating different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were prepared via solution casting technique. The nanoparticles were dispersed within the biopolymer without the need for surfactants or coupling agents. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, barrier, migration and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposites were [...] Read more.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based bionanocomposites incorporating different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were prepared via solution casting technique. The nanoparticles were dispersed within the biopolymer without the need for surfactants or coupling agents. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, barrier, migration and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents, increasing the crystallization temperature and the degree of crystallinity of the matrix, and as mass transport barriers, hindering the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process, leading to higher thermal stability. The Young’s modulus, tensile and impact strength of the biopolymer were enhanced by up to 43%, 32% and 26%, respectively, due to the strong matrix-nanofiller interfacial adhesion attained via hydrogen bonding interactions, as revealed by the FT-IR spectra. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited reduced water uptake and superior gas and vapour barrier properties compared to neat PHB. They also showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was progressively improved upon increasing ZnO concentration. The migration levels of PHB/ZnO composites in both non-polar and polar simulants decreased with increasing nanoparticle content, and were well below the current legislative limits for food packaging materials. These biodegradable nanocomposites show great potential as an alternative to synthetic plastic packaging materials especially for use in food and beverage containers and disposable applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
HSPC117 Is Regulated by Epigenetic Modification and Is Involved in the Migration of JEG-3 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10936-10949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610936
Received: 23 October 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2422 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell 117 (HSPC117) protein is an essential component of protein complexes and has been identified to be involved in many important functions. However, how this gene expression is regulated and whether the HSPC117 gene affects cell migration is still [...] Read more.
The human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell 117 (HSPC117) protein is an essential component of protein complexes and has been identified to be involved in many important functions. However, how this gene expression is regulated and whether the HSPC117 gene affects cell migration is still unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether HSPC117 mRNA expression is regulated by epigenetic modification and whether HSPC117 expression level affects the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2), matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP 14), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP 2), and further affects human placenta choriocarcinoma cell (JEG-3) migration speed. In our epigenetic modification experiment, JEG-3 cells were cultured in medium with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), or both inhibitors. Then, the HSPC117 mRNA and protein expressions were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot assay. The results showed that, compared to the control, HSPC117 mRNA expression was increased by TSA or 5-aza-dC. The highest HSPC117 expression level was found after treatment with both 5-aza-dC and TSA. Further, in order to investigate the effect of HSPC117 on MMP 2, MMP 14, and TIMP 2 mRNA expressions, pEGFP-C1-HSPC117 plasmids were transfected into JEG-3 cells to improve the expression of HSPC117 in the JEG-3 cells. Then, the mRNA expression levels of MMP 2, MMP 14, TIMP 2, and the speed of cell migration were assessed using the scratch wound assay. The results showed that over-expression of HSPC117 mRNA reduced MMP 2 and MMP 14 mRNA expression, while TIMP 2 mRNA expression was up-regulated. The scratch wound assay showed that the migration speed of JEG-3 cells was slower than the non-transfected group and the C1-transfected group. All of these results indicate that HSPC117 mRNA expression is regulated by epigenetic modification; over-expression of HSPC117 decreases MMP 2 and MMP 14 transcription, reduces cell migration speed, and increases TIMP 2 transcription. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Constituents of Michelia compressa var. formosana and Their Bioactivities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10926-10935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610926
Received: 2 April 2014 / Revised: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2358 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Michelia compressa afforded forty-four compounds, which were identified by comparison of experimental and literature analytical and spectroscopic data. Some compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer bioactivities. The result showed that soemerine (1) and [...] Read more.
Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Michelia compressa afforded forty-four compounds, which were identified by comparison of experimental and literature analytical and spectroscopic data. Some compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer bioactivities. The result showed that soemerine (1) and cyathisterol (2) exhibited significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibition, with IC50 values of 8.5 ± 0.3 and 9.6 ± 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, liriodenine (3) and oliveroline (4) exhibited cytotoxicity to human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC-TW01), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H226), T cell leukemia (Jurkat), renal carcinoma (A498), lung carcinoma (A549) and fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 15.7–3.68 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of New Compounds from Hydrazinecarbothioamide and 1,2,4-Triazole Class Containing Diarylsulfone and 2,4-Difluorophenyl Moieties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10908-10925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610908
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 7 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 2857 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the present investigation, new hydrazinecarbothioamides 46 were synthesized by reaction of 4-(4-X-phenylsulfonyl)benzoic acids hydrazides (X= H, Cl, Br) 13 with 2,4-difluorophenyl isothiocyanate and further these were treated with sodium hydroxide to obtain 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives 79. [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, new hydrazinecarbothioamides 46 were synthesized by reaction of 4-(4-X-phenylsulfonyl)benzoic acids hydrazides (X= H, Cl, Br) 13 with 2,4-difluorophenyl isothiocyanate and further these were treated with sodium hydroxide to obtain 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives 79. The reaction of 79 with α-halogenated ketones, in basic media, afforded new S-alkylated derivatives 1015. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. The antioxidant activity of all compounds has been screened. Hydrazinecarbothioamides 46 showed excellent antioxidant activity and 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones 79 showed good antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Activation of mGluR5 Attenuates NMDA-Induced Neurotoxicity through Disruption of the NMDAR-PSD-95 Complex and Preservation of Mitochondrial Function in Differentiated PC12 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10892-10907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610892
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2718 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glutamate-mediated toxicity is implicated in various neuropathologic conditions, and activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors is considered to be the most important mechanism. It has been reported that pharmacological saturation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can facilitate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) related [...] Read more.
Glutamate-mediated toxicity is implicated in various neuropathologic conditions, and activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors is considered to be the most important mechanism. It has been reported that pharmacological saturation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can facilitate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) related signaling cascades, but the mechanism leading to mGluR-NMDAR interactions in excitotoxic neuronal injury has remained unidentified. In the present study, we investigated the role of mGluR5 in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. We found that activation of mGluR5 with the specific agonist R,S-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) increased cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in a dose-dependent manner. CHPG also inhibited an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, attenuated cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and reduced apoptotic cell death after NMDA treatment. The NMDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cytochrome c release, was also partly prevented by CHPG treatment. Furthermore, CHPG blocked the NMDA-induced interaction of NMDAR with postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), but had no effects on intracellular calcium concentrations. All these results indicated that activation of mGluR5 protects differentiated PC12 cells from NMDA-induced neuronal excitotoxicity by disrupting NMDAR-PSD-95 interaction, which might be an ideal target for investigating therapeutic strategies in various neurological diseases where excitotoxicity may contribute to their pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling and Regulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Embryogenesis and the Acquisition of Seed Dormancy in Norway Maple (Acer platanoides L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10868-10891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610868
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 30 May 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2672 | PDF Full-text (1509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of [...] Read more.
The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Proteomic Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Used as Artificial Substitutes for Dural Defection in Rabbits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10855-10867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610855
Received: 3 April 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2743 | PDF Full-text (1942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve the efficacy and safety of dural repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from bacterial cellulose (BC) was evaluated in a rabbit model with dural defects. We prepared artificial dura mater using bacterial cellulose which was incubated and fermented [...] Read more.
To improve the efficacy and safety of dural repair in neurosurgical procedures, a new dural material derived from bacterial cellulose (BC) was evaluated in a rabbit model with dural defects. We prepared artificial dura mater using bacterial cellulose which was incubated and fermented from Acetobacter xylinum. The dural defects of the rabbit model were repaired with BC membranes. All surgeries were performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. All animals were humanely euthanized by intravenous injection of phenobarbitone, at each time point, after the operation. Then, the histocompatibility and inflammatory effects of BC were examined by histological examination, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western Blot. BC membranes evenly covered the surface of brain without adhesion. There were seldom inflammatory cells surrounding the membrane during the early postoperative period. The expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as iNOS and COX-2 were lower in the BC group compared to the control group at 7, 14 and 21 days after implantation. BC can repair dural defects in rabbit and has a decreased inflammatory response compared to traditional materials. However, the long-term effects need to be validated in larger animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparisons of Non-Gaussian Statistical Models in DNA Methylation Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10835-10854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610835
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 12 May 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2487 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a key regulatory mechanism of gene expression, DNA methylation patterns are widely altered in many complex genetic diseases, including cancer. DNA methylation is naturally quantified by bounded support data; therefore, it is non-Gaussian distributed. In order to capture such properties, we introduce [...] Read more.
As a key regulatory mechanism of gene expression, DNA methylation patterns are widely altered in many complex genetic diseases, including cancer. DNA methylation is naturally quantified by bounded support data; therefore, it is non-Gaussian distributed. In order to capture such properties, we introduce some non-Gaussian statistical models to perform dimension reduction on DNA methylation data. Afterwards, non-Gaussian statistical model-based unsupervised clustering strategies are applied to cluster the data. Comparisons and analysis of different dimension reduction strategies and unsupervised clustering methods are presented. Experimental results show that the non-Gaussian statistical model-based methods are superior to the conventional Gaussian distribution-based method. They are meaningful tools for DNA methylation analysis. Moreover, among several non-Gaussian methods, the one that captures the bounded nature of DNA methylation data reveals the best clustering performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Roles of the Structure of DNA)
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous Flow Atmospheric Pressure Laser Desorption/Ionization Using a 6–7-µm-Band Mid-Infrared Tunable Laser for Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10821-10834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610821
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2505 | PDF Full-text (1605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A continuous flow atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization technique using a porous stainless steel probe and a 6–7-µm-band mid-infrared tunable laser was developed. This ion source is capable of direct ionization from a continuous flow with a high temporal stability. The 6–7-µm wavelength region [...] Read more.
A continuous flow atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization technique using a porous stainless steel probe and a 6–7-µm-band mid-infrared tunable laser was developed. This ion source is capable of direct ionization from a continuous flow with a high temporal stability. The 6–7-µm wavelength region corresponds to the characteristic absorption bands of various molecular vibration modes, including O–H, C=O, CH3 and C–N bonds. Consequently, many organic compounds and solvents, including water, have characteristic absorption peaks in this region. This ion source requires no additional matrix, and utilizes water or acetonitrile as the solvent matrix at several absorption peak wavelengths (6.05 and 7.27 µm, respectively). The distribution of multiply-charged peptide ions is extremely sensitive to the temperature of the heated capillary, which is the inlet of the mass spectrometer. This ionization technique has potential for the interface of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry Application in Biology) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Profiling of Somatic Tissues from Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reveals Effects of Irradiation on Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10806-10820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610806
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1953 | PDF Full-text (4656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A high-level of sexual sterility is of importance for the sterile insect technique (SIT). However, the use of high-dose-intensity gamma radiation to induce sterility has negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the [...] Read more.
A high-level of sexual sterility is of importance for the sterile insect technique (SIT). However, the use of high-dose-intensity gamma radiation to induce sterility has negative impacts not only on reproductive cells but also on somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the metabolite differences in somatic tissues between non-irradiated, 20-Gy-irradiated, and 40-Gy-irradiated male Monochamus alternatus, an important vector of the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which kills Asian pines. The results showed that metabolite levels changed moderately in the 20-Gy samples but were markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples compared with the non-irradiated samples. Twenty-six and 53 metabolites were disturbed by 20-Gy and 40-Gy radiation, respectively. Thirty-six metabolites were found to be markedly altered in the 40-Gy samples but were not changed significantly in the 20-Gy samples. The comprehensive metabolomic disorders induced by 40-Gy radiation dysregulated six metabolic pathways involved in the life process. The findings presented in this manuscript will contribute to our knowledge of the characteristic metabolic changes associated with gamma-radiation-induced damage to somatic cells and will allow for better exploration of the SIT for the control of this target pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10794-10805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610794
Received: 3 May 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2141 | PDF Full-text (1953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley [...] Read more.
Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System for Poplar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10780-10793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610780
Received: 1 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3354 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective [...] Read more.
Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. To shorten the time required for studies of transgenic poplar, efforts have been made to optimize transformation methods that use Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In this study, an Agrobacterium infective suspension was treated at 4 °C for at least 10 h before infecting explants. By transforming the Populus hybrid clone “Nanlin895” (Populus deltoides × P. euramericana) with Agrobacterium harboring the PBI121:CarNAC6 binary vector, we showed that the transformation efficiency was improved significantly by multiple independent factors, including an Agrobacterium infective suspension with an OD600 of 0.7, an Agrobacterium infection for 120 min, an Agrobacterium infective suspension at a pH of 5.0, an acetosyringone concentration of 200 µM, a cocultivation at 28 °C, a cocultivation for 72 h and a sucrose concentration of 30 g/L in the cocultivation medium. We also showed that preculture of wounded leaf explants for two days increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases (Saps) in Severe Early Childhood Caries
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10766-10779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610766
Received: 12 April 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 16 May 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2387 | PDF Full-text (1001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is strongly associated with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). However, the roles of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), an important virulence factor of C. albicans, in the progress of S-ECC are not clear. In our study, the Saps activities were evaluated by the yeast nitrogen base–bovine serum albumi (YNB–BSA) agar plate method and by the MTT method with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the substrate. Genotypes of C. albicans and gene expression of Sap1–5 were evaluated. The relationships of Saps activities and genotypes with S-ECC were analyzed. The results showed that enzyme activities of Saps in the S-ECC group were significantly higher than those in the caries free (CF) group (p < 0.05). Genotypes A, B and C were detected in the S-ECC group, and genotypes A and C were detected in the CF group. In the genotype A group, Saps activity in the S-ECC group was significantly different from that in the CF group (p < 0.05). The gene expression level of Sap1 in the S-ECC group was significantly higher than that in the CF group (p = 0.001), while Sap4 expression was significantly lower than that in the CF group (p = 0.029). It can be concluded that Sap1–5 are the predominant proteinase genes expressed in C. albicans from dental biofilm and Sap1 may play an important role in the development of S-ECC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 10751-10765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150610751
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 25 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2097 | PDF Full-text (1100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM [...] Read more.
We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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