Next Article in Journal
N-Pyrazinoyl Substituted Amino Acids as Potential Antimycobacterial Agents—The Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Enantiomers
Next Article in Special Issue
Combined Pre- and Posttreatment of Paraoxon Exposure
Previous Article in Journal
Use of Thermal Black as Eco-Filler in Thermoplastic Composites and Hybrids for Injection Molding and 3D Printing Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pharmacokinetics of Two Chlorine-Substituted Bis-Pyridinium Mono-Aldoximes with Regenerating Effect on Butyrylcholinesterase
Open AccessReview

An Appraisal of Antidotes’ Effectiveness: Evidence of the Use of Phyto-Antidotes and Biotechnological Advancements

1
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000, South Africa
2
Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005, Nigeria
3
Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park APK 2006, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(7), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071516 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 12 February 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry of Antidotes)
Poisoning is the greatest source of avoidable death in the world and can result from industrial exhausts, incessant bush burning, drug overdose, accidental toxication or snake envenomation. Since the advent of Albert Calmette’s cobra venom antidote, efforts have been geared towards antidotes development for various poisons to date. While there are resources and facilities to tackle poisoning in urban areas, rural areas and developing countries are challenged with poisoning management due to either the absence of or inadequate facilities and this has paved the way for phyto-antidotes, some of which have been scientifically validated. This review presents the scope of antidotes’ effectiveness in different experimental models and biotechnological advancements in antidote research for future applications. While pockets of evidence of the effectiveness of antidotes exist in vitro and in vivo with ample biotechnological developments, the utilization of analytic assays on existing and newly developed antidotes that have surpassed the proof of concept stage, as well as the inclusion of antidote’s short and long-term risk assessment report, will help in providing the required scientific evidence(s) prior to regulatory authorities’ approval. View Full-Text
Keywords: antidotes; phyto-antidotes; poisons; secondary metabolites; snakebites; snake envenomation antidotes; phyto-antidotes; poisons; secondary metabolites; snakebites; snake envenomation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Aruwa, C.E.; Mukaila, Y.O.; Ajao, A. .-N.; Sabiu, S. An Appraisal of Antidotes’ Effectiveness: Evidence of the Use of Phyto-Antidotes and Biotechnological Advancements. Molecules 2020, 25, 1516.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop