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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 15361-17065

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Open AccessArticle Ion Acceleration and D-D Nuclear Fusion in Laser-Generated Plasma from Advanced Deuterated Polyethylene
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 17052-17065; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191017052
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2296 | PDF Full-text (1914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion
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Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deuterated Molecules and Polymers for Neutron Studies)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Diversity of Copper(II) Complexes with N-(2-Pyridyl)Imidazolidin-2-Ones(Thiones) and Their in Vitro Antitumor Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 17026-17051; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191017026
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2759 | PDF Full-text (2038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Six series of structurally different mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes 510 were obtained by reacting N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (1al), N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (2a,b), N-acyl-N'(2-pyridyl)imidazolodin-2-ones (3aj) and
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Six series of structurally different mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes 510 were obtained by reacting N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (1al), N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-ones (2a,b), N-acyl-N'(2-pyridyl)imidazolodin-2-ones (3aj) and N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thiones (4ag) with copper(II) chloride at an ambient temperature. The coordination modes of the complexes obtained were established by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopic data and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of both the free ligands and copper(II) complexes were evaluated using a crystal violet microtiter plate assay on five human tumor cell lines: LCLC-103H, A-427, SISO, RT-4 and DAN-G. The free ligands 14 at concentration attainable in cancer cells of 20 μM showed no meaningful cytotoxic effect with cell viability in the range of 88%–100%. The most potent copper(II) complex of 1-(6-ethoxy-2-pyridyl)imidazolidin-2-one (6b) exhibited selective cytotoxicity against A-427 lung cancer cell line, while the complexes of 1-(5-methyl-2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thione (5h) and 1-(4-tert-butyl-2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thione (5j) showed cytostatic effect against a whole panel of five human tumor cell lines. In conclusion, the only complexes that showed remarkably increased activity in comparison to the free ligands were those obtained from N-(2-pyridyl)imidazolidine-2-thiones 4c and 4e substituted with alkyl group at position 4 or 5 of pyridine ring. Full article
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Open AccessReview New Developments in Spin Labels for Pulsed Dipolar EPR
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16998-17025; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016998
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3130 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spin labelling is a chemical technique that enables the integration of a molecule containing an unpaired electron into another framework for study. Given the need to understand the structure, dynamics, and conformational changes of biomacromolecules, spin labelling provides a relatively non-intrusive technique and
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Spin labelling is a chemical technique that enables the integration of a molecule containing an unpaired electron into another framework for study. Given the need to understand the structure, dynamics, and conformational changes of biomacromolecules, spin labelling provides a relatively non-intrusive technique and has certain advantages over X-ray crystallography; which requires high quality crystals. The technique relies on the design of binding probes that target a functional group, for example, the thiol group of a cysteine residue within a protein. The unpaired electron is typically supplied through a nitroxide radical and sterically shielded to preserve stability. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques allow small magnetic couplings to be measured (e.g., <50 MHz) providing information on single label probes or the dipolar coupling between multiple labels. In particular, distances between spin labels pairs can be derived which has led to many protein/enzymes and nucleotides being studied. Here, we summarise recent examples of spin labels used for pulse EPR that serve to illustrate the contribution of chemistry to advancing discoveries in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessArticle Accumulation of Kaempferitrin and Expression of Phenyl-Propanoid Biosynthetic Genes in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16987-16997; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016987
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2335 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with
[...] Read more.
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Pd2+ with Nucleoside 5'-Monophosphates and Some Metal-Ion-Binding Nucleoside Surrogates
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16976-16986; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016976
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1984 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Formation of mixed-ligand Pd2+ complexes between canonical nucleoside 5'-monophosphates and five metal-ion-binding nucleoside analogs has been studied by 1H-NMR spectroscopy to test the ability of these nucleoside surrogates to discriminate between unmodified nucleobases by Pd2+-mediated base pairing. The nucleoside
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Formation of mixed-ligand Pd2+ complexes between canonical nucleoside 5'-monophosphates and five metal-ion-binding nucleoside analogs has been studied by 1H-NMR spectroscopy to test the ability of these nucleoside surrogates to discriminate between unmodified nucleobases by Pd2+-mediated base pairing. The nucleoside analogs studied included 2,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-, 2,6-bis(1-methylhydrazinyl)- and 6-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-substituted 9-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)purines 13, and 2,4-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)- and 2,4-bis(1-methylhydrazinyl)-substituted 5-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)-pyrimidines 45. Among these, the purine derivatives 1-3 bound Pd2+ much more tightly than the pyrimidine derivatives 4, 5 despite apparently similar structures of the potential coordination sites. Compounds 1 and 2 formed markedly stable mixed-ligand Pd2+ complexes with UMP and GMP, UMP binding favored by 1 and GMP by 2. With 3, formation of mixed-ligand complexes was retarded by binding of two molecules of 3 to Pd2+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleoside Modifications) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Compounds Isolated from the Ferula lutea Flowers
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16959-16975; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016959
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2972 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E)-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H)-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2), reported for the first time as a natural product,
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A phytochemical investigation of the Ferula lutea (Poir.) Maire flowers has led to the isolation of a new compound, (E)-5-ethylidenefuran-2(5H)-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), designated ferunide, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enoic acid (2), reported for the first time as a natural product, together with nine known compounds, verbenone-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), methyl caffeate (5), methyl 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinate (6), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, narcissin (8), (−)-marmesin (9), isoimperatorin (10) and 2,3,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (11). Compounds 310 were identified for the first time in Ferula genus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 2), as well as by comparison with literature data. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated. Results showed that compound 7 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18 ± 0.5 µmol/L and 19.7 ± 0.7 µmol/L by DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, respectively. The compound 6 exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L against 5-lipoxygenase. In addition, compound 5 was found to be the most cytotoxic, with IC50 values of 22.5 ± 2.4 µmol/L, 17.8 ± 1.1 µmol/L and 25 ± 1.1 µmol/L against the HCT-116, IGROV-1 and OVCAR-3 cell lines, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessLetter Efficient Synthesis of Kinsenoside and Goodyeroside A by a Chemo-Enzymatic Approach
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16950-16958; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016950
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 12 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2250 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Kinsenoside (1) and goodyeroside A (2), two naturally occurring stereoisomers with diverse biological activities, have been synthesized efficiently by a chemo-enzymatic approach with a total yield of 12.7%. The aglycones, (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, were prepared
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Kinsenoside (1) and goodyeroside A (2), two naturally occurring stereoisomers with diverse biological activities, have been synthesized efficiently by a chemo-enzymatic approach with a total yield of 12.7%. The aglycones, (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, were prepared from D- and L-malic acid by a four-step chemical approach with a yield of 75%, respectively. These butyrolactones were then successfully glycosidated using β-D-glucosidase as a catalyst in a homogeneous organic-water system. Under the optimized enzymatic conditions, the yields of kinsenoside and goodyeroside A in the enzymatic steps both reached 16.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of Amlexanox as a G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Inhibitor
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16937-16949; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016937
Received: 8 September 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3658 | PDF Full-text (1098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been implicated in human diseases ranging from heart failure to diabetes. Previous studies have identified several compounds that selectively inhibit GRK2, such as paroxetine and balanol. Far fewer selective inhibitors have been reported for GRK5, a target
[...] Read more.
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) have been implicated in human diseases ranging from heart failure to diabetes. Previous studies have identified several compounds that selectively inhibit GRK2, such as paroxetine and balanol. Far fewer selective inhibitors have been reported for GRK5, a target for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, and the mechanism of action of reported compounds is unknown. To identify novel scaffolds that selectively inhibit GRK5, a differential scanning fluorometry screen was used to probe a library of 4480 compounds. The best hit was amlexanox, an FDA-approved anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic immunomodulator. The crystal structure of amlexanox in complex with GRK1 demonstrates that its tricyclic aromatic ring system forms ATP-like interactions with the hinge of the kinase domain, which is likely similar to how this drug binds to IκB kinase ε (IKKε), another kinase known to be inhibited by this compound. Amlexanox was also able to inhibit myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcriptional activity in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes in a manner consistent with GRK5 inhibition. The GRK1 amlexanox structure thus serves as a springboard for the rational design of inhibitors with improved potency and selectivity for GRK5 and IKKε. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Study of Kinase Inhibitors)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on the Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 3, 4 and Their Signalling Transduction Factors in the NG108-15 Murine Neuroglial Cell Line
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16925-16936; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016925
Received: 10 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2624 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As one of the most important components of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside Rg1 has certain anti-aging effects, improving the activity of learning and memory. Studies have showed that ginsenoside Rg1 improves the memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, the
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As one of the most important components of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside Rg1 has certain anti-aging effects, improving the activity of learning and memory. Studies have showed that ginsenoside Rg1 improves the memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 were investigated through the activity of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR4 and their signaling transduction pathways in amyloid β peptide 25–35 (Aβ25–35) induced AD cell model. Thus we investigated several critical components of the TLR pathway. The neuroglial cell line NG108-15 was stimulated with or without Aβ25–35, while different concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 were administered. After 24 h, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-β (IFN-β) in cell supernatant and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cell lysate supernatant were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The mRNA and protein expression of TLR3, TLR4, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6) were detected by real-time PCR and western blot methods, respectively. The experimental results showed that Aβ25–35 could markedly raise the level of TNF-α, IFN-β and iNOS, and increase the expressions of mRNA and TLR3, TLR4, NF-κB and TRAF-6 protein in the NG108-15 cells. At the same time, the ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced the expressions of proteins and mRNA of TLR3, TLR4, NF-κB and TRAF-6, and down-regulated the levels of TNF-α, IFN-β of cell supernatant and iNOS of cell lysate supernatant in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rg1 has good activity for suppressing the signaling transduction pathway of TLR3 and TLR4, and decreasing the inflammation factors induced by Aβ25–35 in NG108-15 cells, and this may be the mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 action in AD treatment, but more studies are needed to identify its specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Yerba maté, a Plant Extract Formulation (“YGD”) and Resveratrol in 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16909-16924; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016909
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2865 | PDF Full-text (846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of yerba maté, YGD (a herbal preparation containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana), and resveratrol on adipogenesis. The anti-adipogenic effects of yerba mate, YGD, resveratrol and YGD + resveratrol and yerba mate
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We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of yerba maté, YGD (a herbal preparation containing yerba maté, guarana and damiana), and resveratrol on adipogenesis. The anti-adipogenic effects of yerba mate, YGD, resveratrol and YGD + resveratrol and yerba mate + resveratrol combinations were evaluated in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil Red staining, cellular triglyceride content, and PCR quantitative array. The results demonstrated that all of the tested compounds inhibited adipogenesis. Yerba maté extract significantly down-regulated the expression of genes that play an important role in regulating adipogenesis, such as Adig, Axin, Cebpa, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Pparγ2. In addition, these genes, YGD also repressed Bmp2, Ccnd1, Fasn, and Srebf1. Resveratrol also modulated the expression of Adig, Bmp2, Ccnd1, C/EBPα, Fasn, Fgf10, Lep, Lpl, and Pparγ2. Moreover, resveratrol repressed Cebpb, Cdk4, Fgf2, and Klf15. The yerba maté extract and YGD up-regulated the expression of genes involved in inhibiting adipogenesis, such as Dlk-1, Klf2, and Ucp1. Resveratrol also induced the expression of Klf2 and Ucp1. In addition resveratrol modulated the Ddit3, Foxo1, Sirt1, and Sirt2. The combined effects of these compounds on gene expression showed similar results observed from individual treatments. Our data indicates that the synergy between the compounds favors the inhibition of adipogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Radiation-Induced High-Temperature Conversion of Cellulose
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16877-16908; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016877
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2077 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal decomposition of cellulose can be upgraded by means of an electron-beam irradiation to produce valuable organic products via chain mechanisms. The samples being irradiated decompose effectively at temperatures below the threshold of pyrolysis inception. Cellulose decomposition resembles local “explosion” of the glucopyranose
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Thermal decomposition of cellulose can be upgraded by means of an electron-beam irradiation to produce valuable organic products via chain mechanisms. The samples being irradiated decompose effectively at temperatures below the threshold of pyrolysis inception. Cellulose decomposition resembles local “explosion” of the glucopyranose unit when fast elimination of carbon dioxide and water precede formation of residual carbonyl or carboxyl compounds. The dry distillation being performed during an irradiation gives a liquid condensate where furfural and its derivatives are dominant components. Excessively fast heating is adverse, as it results in a decrease of the yield of key organic products because pyrolysis predominates over the radiolytic-controlled decomposition of feedstock. Most likely, conversion of cellulose starts via radiolytic formation of macroradicals do not conform with each other, resulting in instability of the macroradical. As a consequence, glucosidic bond cleavage, elimination of light fragments (water, carbon oxides, formaldehyde, etc.) and formation of furfural take place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Cellulose and Chitin Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Ionization States, Cellular Toxicity and Molecular Modeling Studies of Midazolam Complexed with Trimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16861-16876; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016861
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 6 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3675 | PDF Full-text (783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We investigated the ionization profiles for open-ring (OR) and closed-ring (CR) forms of midazolam and drug-binding modes with heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin; TRIMEB) using molecular modeling techniques and quantum mechanics methods. The results indicated that the total net charges for different molecular forms of midazolam
[...] Read more.
We investigated the ionization profiles for open-ring (OR) and closed-ring (CR) forms of midazolam and drug-binding modes with heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin; TRIMEB) using molecular modeling techniques and quantum mechanics methods. The results indicated that the total net charges for different molecular forms of midazolam tend to be cationic for OR and neutral for CR at physiological pH levels. The thermodynamic calculations demonstrated that CR is less water-soluble than OR, mainly due to the maximal solvation energy (\(\Delta G_{solv}^{CR}\) = −9.98 kcal·mol\(^{−1}\)), which has a minimal \(\Delta G_{solv}^{OR}\) of −67.01 kcal·mol\(^{−1}\). A cell viability assay did not detect any signs of TRIMEB and OR/CR-TRIMEB complex toxicity on the cEND cells after 24 h of incubation in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium or in heat-inactivated human serum. The molecular docking studies identified the more flexible OR form of midazolam as being a better binder to TRIMEB with the fluorophenyl ring introduced inside the amphiphilic cavity of the host molecule. The OR binding affinity was confirmed by a minimal Gibbs free energy of binding (\(\Delta G_{bind}\)) value of −5.57 ± 0.02 kcal·mol\(^{−1}\), an equilibrium binding constant (\(K_{b}\)) of 79.89 ± 2.706 μM, and a ligand efficiency index (\(LE_{lig}\)) of −0.21 ± 0.001. Our current data suggest that in order to improve the clinical applications of midazolam via its complexation with trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin to increase drug's overall aqueous solubility, it is important to concern the different forms and ionization states of this anesthetic. All mean values are indicated with their standard deviations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) to Assess the Quality and Stability of Fruit Products: An Example Using Red Mombin Pulp (Spondias purpurea L.)
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16851-16860; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016851
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2771 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea) pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD) as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in the analysis of parameters such as the
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The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea) pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD) as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP) or laminated packages (LP). The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99), at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microextraction)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Fruit during Cold Storage
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16837-16850; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016837
Received: 23 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2480 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To understand the potential of application of tea polyphenols to the shelf life extension and quality maintenance of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, the fruits were dipped into a solution of 1% tea phenols for 5 min before cold storage at 4
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To understand the potential of application of tea polyphenols to the shelf life extension and quality maintenance of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, the fruits were dipped into a solution of 1% tea phenols for 5 min before cold storage at 4 °C. Changes in browning index, contents of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, O2.− production rate and H2O2 content, levels of relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were measured after 0, 10, 20 and 30 days of cold storage. The results showed that application of tea polyphenols markedly delayed pericarp browning, alleviated the decreases in contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid, and maintained relatively high levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins of litchi fruit after 30 days of cold storage. Meanwhile, the treatment reduced the increases in relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation content, delayed the increases in both O2.− production rate and H2O2 contents, and increased SOD activity but reduced POD activity throughout this storage period. These data indicated that the delayed pericarp browning of litchi fruit by the treatment with tea polyphenols could be due to enhanced antioxidant capability, reduced accumulations of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and improved membrane integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Quality Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Formulations Containing Hydrochlorothiazide
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16824-16836; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016824
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2068 | PDF Full-text (338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic used to treat hypertension that belongs to class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The drug was evaluated by quality control, thermal characterization tests, and pharmaceutical formulation compatibility studies. It was concluded that the generic drug, Lab 2, was
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Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic used to treat hypertension that belongs to class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. The drug was evaluated by quality control, thermal characterization tests, and pharmaceutical formulation compatibility studies. It was concluded that the generic drug, Lab 2, was not a pharmaceutical equivalent. The compounded drugs, Lab 5 and Lab 6, produced unsatisfactory but expected results, since there is no requirement for dissolution and dissolution profile testing for the commercialization of these products. In a compatibility study, lactose and mannitol were shown to be incompatible with HCTZ, which may explain the lack of equivalence of the generic pharmaceutical product, associated with other situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16811-16823; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016811
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4619 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to
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Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05) and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessRetraction Retraction: Beltaïef et al. An Expeditious Synthesis of [1,2]Isoxazolidin-5-ones and [1,2]Oxazin-6-ones from Functional Allyl Bromide Derivatives. Molecules 2010, 15, 4094-4101
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16810; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016810
Received: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
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Abstract
We have been made aware that the figures, tables, compounds and experimental data reported in the title paper [1] are duplicated in another publication by the same authors [2]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Substrate Specificity and Enzyme Recycling Using Chitosan Immobilized Laccase
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16794-16809; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016794
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3207 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The immobilization of laccase (Aspergillus sp.) on chitosan by cross-linking and its application in bioconversion of phenolic compounds in batch reactors were studied. Investigation was performed using laccase immobilized via chemical cross-linking due to the higher enzymatic operational stability of this method
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The immobilization of laccase (Aspergillus sp.) on chitosan by cross-linking and its application in bioconversion of phenolic compounds in batch reactors were studied. Investigation was performed using laccase immobilized via chemical cross-linking due to the higher enzymatic operational stability of this method as compared to immobilization via physical adsorption. To assess the influence of different substrate functional groups on the enzyme’s catalytic efficiency, substrate specificity was investigated using chitosan-immobilized laccase and eighteen different phenol derivatives. It was observed that 4-nitrophenol was not oxidized, while 2,5-xylenol, 2,6-xylenol, 2,3,5-trimethylphenol, syringaldazine, 2,6-dimetoxyphenol and ethylphenol showed reaction yields up 90% at 40 °C. The kinetic of process, enzyme recyclability and operational stability were studied. In batch reactors, it was not possible to reuse the enzyme when it was applied to syringaldazne bioconversion. However, when the enzyme was applied to bioconversion of 2,6-DMP, the activity was stable for eight reaction batches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Open AccessArticle Biomimetic Adhesive Materials Containing Cyanoacryl Group for Medical Application
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16779-16793; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016779
Received: 17 August 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2441 | PDF Full-text (1642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to
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For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A New Urease Inhibitor from Viola betonicifolia
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16770-16778; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016770
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2505 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urease has attracted much attention, as it is directly involved in the formation of infection stones and contributes to the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic coma and urinary catheter encrustation. Moreover, urease is the major cause of pathologies induced
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Urease has attracted much attention, as it is directly involved in the formation of infection stones and contributes to the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic coma and urinary catheter encrustation. Moreover, urease is the major cause of pathologies induced by H. pylori, such as gastritis and peptic ulcer. In the present work, the new natural compound, 3-methoxydalbergione, was isolated from Viola betonicifolia. A mechanistic study of this compound as a natural urease inhibitor was performed by using enzyme kinetics and docking studies. 3-Methoxydalbergione could be considered as a lead molecule for drugs useful in the urease associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetic Comparisons of Benzoylmesaconine in Rats Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry after Administration of Pure Benzoylmesaconine and Wutou Decoction
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16757-16769; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016757
Received: 11 September 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2329 | PDF Full-text (662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wutou decoction is widely used in China because of its therapeutic effect on rheumatoid arthritis. Benzoylmesaconine (BMA), the most abundant component of Wutou decoction, was used as the marker compound for the pharmacokinetic study of Wutou decoction. The aim of the present study
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Wutou decoction is widely used in China because of its therapeutic effect on rheumatoid arthritis. Benzoylmesaconine (BMA), the most abundant component of Wutou decoction, was used as the marker compound for the pharmacokinetic study of Wutou decoction. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of BMA in rats after oral administration of pure BMA and Wutou decoction. Pure BMA (5 mg/kg) and Wutou decoction (0.54 g/kg, equivalent to 5 mg/kg BMA) were orally administered to rats with blood samples collected over 10 h. Quantification of BMA in rat plasma was achieved using sensitive and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Specifically, the half-life (T1/2) and mean residence time values of pure BMA were 228.3 ± 117.0 min and 155.0 ± 33.2 min, respectively, whereas those of BMA in Wutou decoction were decreased to 61.8 ± 35.1 min and 55.8 ± 16.4 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of BMA after administration of Wutou decoction was significantly decreased (five-fold) compared with that of pure BMA. The results indicate that the elimination of BMA in rats after the administration of Wutou decoction was significantly faster compared with that of pure BMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Intramolecular Azide to Alkene Cycloadditions for the Construction of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines and Azetidino-Benzodiazepines
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16737-16756; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016737
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 26 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2932 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The coupling of proline- and azetidinone-substituted alkenes to 2-azidobenzoic and 2-azidobenzenesulfonic acid gives precursors that undergo intramolecular azide to alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to give imine-, triazoline- or aziridine-containing pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs), pyrrolo[1,2,5]benzothiadiazepines (PBTDs), and azetidino[1,4]benzodiazepines. The imines and aziridines are formed after loss of
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The coupling of proline- and azetidinone-substituted alkenes to 2-azidobenzoic and 2-azidobenzenesulfonic acid gives precursors that undergo intramolecular azide to alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to give imine-, triazoline- or aziridine-containing pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs), pyrrolo[1,2,5]benzothiadiazepines (PBTDs), and azetidino[1,4]benzodiazepines. The imines and aziridines are formed after loss of nitrogen from a triazoline cycloadduct. The PBDs are a potent class of antitumour antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cycloaddition Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Trans-Resveratrol-Sulfates and -Glucuronides on Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity, Nitric Oxide Release and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16724-16736; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016724
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2898 | PDF Full-text (920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen
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Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides) and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resveratrol)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Toxicity of 5-Aryl-2-Aminoimidazole-Based Biofilm Inhibitors against Eukaryotic Cell Lines, Bone Cells and the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16707-16723; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016707
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2851 | PDF Full-text (1012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Previously, we have synthesized several series of compounds based on the 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole scaffold, which showed a preventive activity against microbial biofilms. We here studied the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds of each series. First, the cytostatic activity was investigated against a number
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Previously, we have synthesized several series of compounds based on the 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazole scaffold, which showed a preventive activity against microbial biofilms. We here studied the cytotoxicity of the most active compounds of each series. First, the cytostatic activity was investigated against a number of tumor cell lines (L1210, CEM and HeLa). A subset of monosubstituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles showed a moderate safety window, with therapeutic indices (TIs) ranging between 3 and 20. Whereas introduction of a (cyclo-)alkyl chain at the N1-position strongly reduced the TI, introduction of a (cyclo-)alkyl chain or a triazole moiety at the 2N-position increased the TI up to 370. Since a promising application of preventive anti-biofilm agents is their use in anti-biofilm coatings for orthopedic implants, their effects on cell viability and functional behavior of human osteoblasts and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were tested. The 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles consistently showed the lowest toxicity and allowed survival of the bone cells for up to 4 weeks. Moreover they did not negatively affect the osteogenic differentiation potential of the bone cells. Finally, we examined the effect of the compounds on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans, which confirmed the higher safety window of 2N-substituted 5-aryl-2-aminoimidazoles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Nutritional Metabolites of Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16693-16706; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016693
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
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Abstract
The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger
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The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol) and elevated (800 μmol/mol) CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4%) and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%). In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin) except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW), while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW) and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW) were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Production of Anti-Cancer Agent Using Microbial Biotransformation
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16684-16692; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016684
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2773 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial biotransformation is a great model system to produce drugs and biologically active compounds. In this study, we elucidated the fermentation and production of an anti-cancer agent from a microbial process for regiospecific hydroxylation of resveratrol. Among the strains examined, a potent strain
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Microbial biotransformation is a great model system to produce drugs and biologically active compounds. In this study, we elucidated the fermentation and production of an anti-cancer agent from a microbial process for regiospecific hydroxylation of resveratrol. Among the strains examined, a potent strain showed high regiospecific hydroxylation activity to produce piceatannol. In a 5 L (w/v 3 L) jar fermentation, this wild type Streptomyces sp. in the batch system produced 205 mg of piceatannol (i.e., 60% yields) from 342 mg of resveratrol in 20 h. Using the product, an in vitro anti-cancer study was performed against a human cancer cell line (HeLa). It showed that the biotransformed piceatannol possessed a significant anticancer activity. This result demonstrates that a biotransformation screening method might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the identification of anti-cancer drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16672-16683; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016672
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2980 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w),
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The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Obesity Effects of Hispidin and Alpinia zerumbet Bioactives in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16656-16671; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016656
Received: 31 August 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3059 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and its related disorders have become leading metabolic diseases. In the present study, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to investigate the anti-obesity activity of hispidin and two related compounds that were isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) rhizomes. The results showed that hispidin, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain
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Obesity and its related disorders have become leading metabolic diseases. In the present study, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to investigate the anti-obesity activity of hispidin and two related compounds that were isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) rhizomes. The results showed that hispidin, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK), and 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) have promising anti-obesity properties. In particular, all three compounds significantly increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations by 81.2% ± 0.06%, 67.0% ± 1.62%, and 56.9% ± 0.19%, respectively. Hispidin also stimulated glycerol release by 276.4% ± 0.8% and inhibited lipid accumulation by 47.8% ± 0.16%. Hispidin and DDK decreased intracellular triglyceride content by 79.5% ± 1.37% and 70.2% ± 1.4%, respectively, and all three compounds inhibited glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and pancreatic lipase, with hispidin and DDK being the most potent inhibitors. Finally, none of the three compounds reduced 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability. These results highlight the potential for developing hispidin and its derivatives as anti-obesity compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prodrugs)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16640-16655; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016640
Received: 6 September 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2440 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried
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Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic Solar Tower Reactor for the Elimination of a Low Concentration of VOCs
Molecules 2014, 19(10), 16624-16639; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191016624
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 29 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2282 | PDF Full-text (3030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We developed a photocatalytic solar tower reactor for the elimination of low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) typically emitted from small industrial establishments. The photocatalytic system can be installed in a narrow space, as the reactor is cylindrical-shaped. The photocatalytic reactor was
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We developed a photocatalytic solar tower reactor for the elimination of low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) typically emitted from small industrial establishments. The photocatalytic system can be installed in a narrow space, as the reactor is cylindrical-shaped. The photocatalytic reactor was placed vertically in the center of a cylindrical scattering mirror, and this vertical reactor was irradiated with scattered sunlight generated by the scattering mirror. About 5 ppm toluene vapor, used as representative VOC, was continuously photodegraded and converted to CO2 almost stoichiometrically under sunny conditions. Toluene removal depended only on the intensity of sunlight. The performance of the solar tower reactor did not decrease with half a year of operation, and the average toluene removal was 36% within this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalysis) Printed Edition available
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