Topic Editors

Department of Industrial Engineering, Univeristy of Naples “Federico II”, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli, Italy
Department of Architecture and Design, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Flaminia 359, 00196 Rome, Italy
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

Sustainable Real Estate and Resilient Cities: Management, Assessment and Innovations

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closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
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Topic Information

Production and consumption activities have determined a weakness of the sustainable real estate economy. The main problems are the subordination of public decision-making, which is subjected to pressure from big companies, inefficient appraisal procedures, excessive use of financial leverage in investment projects, the atypical nature of markets, income positions in urban transformations, and the financialization of real estate markets with widespread negative effects.

A delicate role in these complex problems is assigned to real estate appraisal activities, called to make value judgments on real estate goods and investment projects, the prices of which are often formed in atypical real estate markets, giving ever greater importance to sustainable development and transformation issues.

Furthermore, during recent decades, the overestimation of demographic growth has highlighted the need for urban planning processes restructuring by limiting the area’s building potential, mitigating the loss of place identity with high environmental and cultural value, and preventing uncontrolled land use, also through the valorisation and recovery of the existing heritage. In this context, economic, social and environmental demands are combined with uncertainties about the near future, related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

In the outlined framework, the focus on sustainability issues also has significant relevance in the financial sector: EU Regulation 2019/2088 requires an effort to evaluate the investments risks in relation to their ability to promote environmental and social sustainability. In this sense, the European Commission highlights the stress between a short-term approach based on the exclusive profit pursuit, and the need for long-term investment that is aimed at sustainability objectives. This is referred to as an ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) investment rating, oriented to assess the contribution of a financial product and/or a real estate project for improving environmental, social and governance quality.

The Special Issue is dedicated, but not only limited, to developing and disseminating knowledge and innovations related to the most recent real estate evaluation methodologies applied in the fields of architecture and civil, building, and environmental and territorial engineering.

Suitable works include studies on econometric models, sustainable building management, building costs, risk management and real estate appraisal, mass appraisal methods applied to real estate properties, urban and land economics, transport economics, the application of economics and financial techniques to real estate markets, the economic valuation of real estate investment projects, the economic effects of building transformations or projects on the environment, and sustainable real estate, the analysis of the effects of COVID-19 on real estate markets dynamics and the hit on the resilient cities development processes.

Keywords

  • Building management
  • Building costs
  • Mass appraisal methods
  • Econometric models
  • Real estate risk management
  • Economic valuation of real estate investment projects
  • Real estate market
  • Social housing
  • Urban economics
  • Land
  • Transport economics
  • Real estate economics and finance
  • Sustainable building transformations and economic effects on environment
  • Green buildings
  • Resilient cities
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG)

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600
Urban Science
urbansci
2.0 4.5 2017 23.7 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (27 papers)

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9 pages, 977 KiB  
Editorial
Sustainable Real Estate and Resilient Cities: Management, Assessment and Innovations
by Pierfrancesco De Paola, Francesco Tajani, Marco Locurcio and Felicia Di Liddo
Sustainability 2022, 14(15), 8984; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14158984 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Production and consumption activities have determined a weakness of the sustainable real estate economy [...] Full article
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21 pages, 1866 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of the Competitiveness of Central American Countries Based on the Global Competitiveness Index before the COVID-19 Pandemic
by César Melara-Gálvez and Emilio J. Morales-Fernández
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8854; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148854 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
A country’s global competitiveness is a fundamental element that facilitates the understanding of why some countries generate more wealth than others, as well as better sources of income in a sustainable manner. With globalization and market integration, governments are reviewing the current values [...] Read more.
A country’s global competitiveness is a fundamental element that facilitates the understanding of why some countries generate more wealth than others, as well as better sources of income in a sustainable manner. With globalization and market integration, governments are reviewing the current values of economic, business, social, and environmental variables that define multidimensional competitiveness indices. Central American countries face difficult economic situations with challenging political and social ramifications. This study presents a comparative analysis of the competitiveness of Central American countries in a globalized environment before the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, multivariate statistical analysis and Cluster analysis have been applied to data from the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index 2018, contrasting it with the publication of the same index for 2019. This methodology allows to rank countries with similar levels of competitiveness and shows the relative position of each country about countries belonging to the same group and countries belonging to other groups with different levels of competitiveness. The results show differences in competitiveness at the country level in 12 variables or composite indicators of the Global Competitiveness Index, the most important being Macroeconomic Stability, IT Adoption, and Infrastructure, with the most significant differences between countries. This result contributes to the current policy discussion on measures to achieve sustainable competitiveness of Central American economies. Full article
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20 pages, 3911 KiB  
Article
Research on the Evaluation of Resilience and Influencing Factors of the Urban Network Structure in the Three Provinces of Northeast China Based on Multiple Flows
by He Liu, Xueming Li, Shenzhen Tian and Yingying Guan
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070945 - 2 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
An important indicator for measuring the resilience and ability of urban networks to recover under external environmental shock, which is essential for the healthy development of the region, is urban network structure resilience. Herein we analyzed the resilience of the urban network structure [...] Read more.
An important indicator for measuring the resilience and ability of urban networks to recover under external environmental shock, which is essential for the healthy development of the region, is urban network structure resilience. Herein we analyzed the resilience of the urban network structure and explored the influencing factors of resilience in the three provinces of Northeast China. We accomplished this by utilizing the Gephi profiling social network analysis tools based on the Baidu Index, road mileage, statistical data, other multi-source data, construction information, and the transportation, innovation, and economic multiple linkage network. This analysis enabled us to propose relevant suggestions and strategies to optimize urban network structure resilience. Our results indicate that (1) in 2019, the multi-city network structure in the three provinces of Northeast China contains both commonalities and characteristics. Overall, each network demonstrates a spatial distribution pattern of “dense in the north and sparse in the south.” (2) There exist evident hierarchical differences in the resilience characteristics of the multi-city network structure in the three provinces; each provincial capital city and sub-provincial city possesses greater advantages, the innovation network exhibits the most evident hierarchy, the mismatch of the information network is the highest, and the transmission and agglomeration of the economic network are the most prominent. (3) The resilience of the urban network structure of the three provinces is the result of the interaction of several factors. Political and economic factors such as government capacity, economic status, and urban vitality are the main factors affecting the resilience of the network structure. Full article
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13 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Does Access to Regulative Exemption Reduce Barriers for Energy Communities? A Dutch Case Study
by Maarja Meitern
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5608; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095608 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
European policymakers are encouraging national lawmakers to grant citizens a larger role in the process of energy transition. One way to achieve this is to promote the set-up of local energy communities. This article describes the impact of a particular policy approach, the [...] Read more.
European policymakers are encouraging national lawmakers to grant citizens a larger role in the process of energy transition. One way to achieve this is to promote the set-up of local energy communities. This article describes the impact of a particular policy approach, the Dutch regulative exemption, on an energy community. A comparison is made with the traditional barriers that energy communities encounter. The results indicate that, overall, the Dutch regulative exemption is a beneficial policy tool that can support the creation of local energy communities. The exemption enables the community to explore governance and finance models that will allow it to stack revenue streams, while keeping the initial investment costs to a minimum. However, the improved conditions do not allow for a significant improvement in the financial business case. In particular, costs of organising an energy community and the uncertainty of long-term organisational stability remain prohibitive barriers to the roll-out of scaled communities. The study provides a starting point for policymakers investigating how regulative freedom could be of help for local energy communities. The lessons learnt can be applied by policymakers across Europe to support citizen-led energy initiatives. Full article
22 pages, 3853 KiB  
Article
Risk Cost Measurement of Value for Money Evaluation Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Ontology: A Case Study of the Urban Rail Transit Public-Private Partnership Projects in China
by Hongqiang Wang, Qiaoyan Lin and Yingjie Zhang
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5547; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095547 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Risk is demonstrated as one of the most crucial drivers of value for money (VFM) in public–private partnerships (PPP), but in previous studies, the risk cost estimation of the quantitative evaluation of VFM was still a dilemma that strongly depended on specialist discretion [...] Read more.
Risk is demonstrated as one of the most crucial drivers of value for money (VFM) in public–private partnerships (PPP), but in previous studies, the risk cost estimation of the quantitative evaluation of VFM was still a dilemma that strongly depended on specialist discretion or had low methodological operability. This paper establishes a prediction model for estimating the risk cost in the phase of VFM evaluation through a combination of case-based reasoning (CBR) and ontology technology. PPP information ontology was established to provide the technical basis of knowledge representation for the CBR cycle. Then, according to whether the information data were quantitative or qualitative, similarity calculation methods were used for the retrieval of similar cases. The conceptual semantic similarity algorithm based on the ontology tree structure was well implemented to compare abstract information. After the most similar cases were extracted, a revision mechanism was followed when there were deviations in the similar cases. Finally, the risk costs of the target case were obtained by weighting the extracted similar cases based on the similarity. An empirical analysis was performed with 18 historical projects from the China Public–Private Partnerships Center. The results showed that the relative errors between the estimated and actual costs of total risk and retained risk were 11.05% and 2.41%, respectively. This indicates that the estimation model could achieve a better risk cost prediction with small errors, which validates the availability of the model. Based on the proposed model, this research establishes an extensible PPP information ontology model. It promotes the integration and interoperability of information knowledge in the PPP domain, which can be further expanded according to the requirements. Coherent accuracy is provided by the whole CBR-based measurement process, which has offered a systematic and objective method for the risk costs measurement of PPP projects. Full article
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18 pages, 783 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Standardization of Service Platforms for High-Involvement PropTech Services
by Jinmin Kim, AhRam Cho and Jaeyoung Kim
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5036; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095036 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
In this study, we focus on the innovation resistance that has appeared in the process of accepting changed information technology services after the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on a survey of property technology (PropTech) service users in Korea, this study proposes an extended technology [...] Read more.
In this study, we focus on the innovation resistance that has appeared in the process of accepting changed information technology services after the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on a survey of property technology (PropTech) service users in Korea, this study proposes an extended technology acceptance model that considers the antecedent variables of the information systems success model to implement a standard PropTech service platform, and analyzes the influence of the selected parameters. Service quality was applied as the antecedent variable to define system quality and service standards, considering the establishment of the service standards process suggested by the company. The selected parameters were the demand for the personalization of the service and the resistance to innovation, which implies the degree to which consumers refuse to accept new technologies. To this end, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 524 PropTech users from 11 October 2021 to 15 November 2021. This study analyzes the factors affecting consumers’ continued use intention in order to derive the service standardization of PropTech operations, and presents the mediating effects of innovation resistance and personalization to derive the implications for service standardization. The implications of this study are as follows: first, the possibility of innovation resistance in the PropTech service sector and its mechanisms are presented. Second, the necessity of redefining the quality dimension is proposed. Finally, we identify that additional research on innovation resistance to PropTech services is needed. Full article
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21 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
Key Elements of Attentions for Enhancing Urban Resilience: A Comparison of Singapore, Hong Kong and Hangzhou
by Min Chen, Yujie Lu, Yi Peng, Tingting Chen and Yiye Zhang
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030340 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3594
Abstract
Urban resilience is an attractive concept among academies and governments with the increasing severity of climate change and relevant disasters in cities. Few studies have been conducted to compare the key elements of attentions for enhancing urban resilience among Asian cities, although resilience [...] Read more.
Urban resilience is an attractive concept among academies and governments with the increasing severity of climate change and relevant disasters in cities. Few studies have been conducted to compare the key elements of attentions for enhancing urban resilience among Asian cities, although resilience is context-dependent. This study aims to compare the key elements of attentions for enhancing urban resilience among Singapore, Hong Kong and Hangzhou. A comprehensive literature review and expert interview validation were used to solicit the preliminary elements of attentions for enhancing urban resilience. Planners and researchers in the field of urban planning were surveyed to assess the significance level of the preliminary elements in the three case cities, as professional knowledge is required in the survey. Statistics were used to identify the key elements of attentions in the three case cities. Results demonstrate that the three cities have various elements of attentions for enhancing urban resilience despite sharing many similarities, which also demonstrate the guidance limitation of the general urban resilience framework. It also provides a reference for other international comparisons. Full article
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14 pages, 1243 KiB  
Commentary
Thinking Critically through Key Issues in Improving the Effectiveness of Waterlogging Prevention and Control System in China’s Historic Districts
by Shuai Si, Junqi Li, Yuzhen Wang and Lian Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2913; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052913 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
Solving the problem of waterlogging is of great significance to the protection of historic districts and urban renewal. To solve the problem of waterlogging, it is necessary to comprehensively consider technical aspects such as the “Major-Minor-Micro” drainage system and the connection of urban/watershed [...] Read more.
Solving the problem of waterlogging is of great significance to the protection of historic districts and urban renewal. To solve the problem of waterlogging, it is necessary to comprehensively consider technical aspects such as the “Major-Minor-Micro” drainage system and the connection of urban/watershed flood control systems. At the same time, attention should be paid to the role of management in the entire system. However, there are a series of problems in the current waterlogging prevention and control system in China’s historic districts. The effectiveness improvement plan of the waterlogging prevention and control system is not sufficiently targeted. The various subsystems in the waterlogging prevention and control system play a role in poor coordination. The waterlogging prevention and control system does not work closely with the flood control system. Different management departments have weak coordination in the prevention and control of waterlogging. Aiming at the problems in the waterlogging prevention and control system in historic districts, this paper proposed a series of countermeasures. The waterlogging prevention and control system in historic districts should make full use of the current advanced concepts and practical experience of stormwater management. In order to enhance the role of the waterlogging prevention and control system in historic districts, specific issues should be analyzed in detail. The waterlogging prevention and control system in historic districts needs to be divided into different levels. The waterlogging prevention and control system should be aligned with historic attributes and be highly pertinent. The waterlogging prevention and control system should be closely coordinated with the larger-scale flood control system. At the same time, the intelligent management platform should be used to increase the supervision of the whole process of waterlogging in historic districts. Full article
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18 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
Barriers to Offsite Construction Adoption: A Quantitative Study among Housing Associations in England
by Andrew Agapiou
Buildings 2022, 12(3), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12030283 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4299
Abstract
Housing associations (HAs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and, therefore, offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. Existing literature has focused on the perceptions of the housing sector at large towards offsite construction (OSC), particularly private [...] Read more.
Housing associations (HAs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and, therefore, offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. Existing literature has focused on the perceptions of the housing sector at large towards offsite construction (OSC), particularly private housebuilders. This research addresses this gap in the literature. This paper explores the perceived barriers of using OSC through a survey of the largest HAs in England [n = 69], and how these compare with the perceptions within the wider housing sector. The evidence from this research indicates cost-related barriers are perceived to be the most significant barriers to OSC use for HAs, followed by the capacity of suppliers and end-user preferences for traditional construction. The perceived barriers of those with experience are aligned with the OSC literature, whilst the responses of those without direct experience suggested heightened concerns towards the key barriers. A conceptualised feedback model is proposed to monitor, capture knowledge and share best practice as HAs commit to accelerating project delivery through strategic partnerships with offsite manufacturing firms, local authorities at a local/regional level, that leverage the high-value, high-impact transformation of the housebuilding sector in tangible terms of efficiency, cost, and material savings. Full article
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18 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Site Selection of Co-Working Spaces under the Influence of Multiple Factors: A Case Study in Hangzhou, China
by Weiwu Wang, Jingyi Liang and Jie Niu
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052676 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2659
Abstract
Co-working spaces (CWSs) have gradually become a new form of spatial economic activity in large cities in China. This not only innovates the traditional office model, but also helps to realize the efficient utilization of office buildings and the sustainable development of office [...] Read more.
Co-working spaces (CWSs) have gradually become a new form of spatial economic activity in large cities in China. This not only innovates the traditional office model, but also helps to realize the efficient utilization of office buildings and the sustainable development of office spaces. Taking Hangzhou as a case study, this paper uses big data analysis technologies including Python and ArcGIS to reveal the distribution characteristics of CWSs. From the perspectives of traffic accessibility, business atmosphere, innovation environment, living convenience, and rental cost, we innovatively constructed an indicator system of factors affecting site selection of CWSs. We then conducted an empirical study to reveal the influence mechanism behind different factors. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) CWSs in Hangzhou generally present a multi-center distribution pattern; (2) based on the different degrees of dependence of the target customer groups on resources such as commerce, capital, and information, the factor that has the most significant impact on the site of CWSs is the regional innovation environment, and its weight is 0.3941. The order of importance of other influencing factors is the convenience of life (0.3147), business atmosphere (0.1352), and traffic conditions (0.1171). The cost of rent has the most negligible impact on site selection, and its weight is only 0.0195. We hope that the research can be used to provide a scientific basis for the rational planning and development guidance of CWSs. Full article
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15 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Determinants of the Economic and Financial Feasibility of Real Estate Development Projects: A Comparative Analysis between Public and Private Development Projects in South Korea
by Heecheoul Shim and Jaehwan Kim
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042135 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
We analyse the factors involved in the selection of a development site to secure the economic feasibility and profitability of a public development real estate project through a comparative analysis with private development projects. Logistic regression was used as the analysis method. In [...] Read more.
We analyse the factors involved in the selection of a development site to secure the economic feasibility and profitability of a public development real estate project through a comparative analysis with private development projects. Logistic regression was used as the analysis method. In the case of public development projects, whether or not the investment screening passed was used as a dependent variable, and in the case of private development projects, the successful bid rate was used as a dependent variable. Independent variables were selected based on prior research on variables suitable for the purpose and situation of the project. The results show that the greater the total development costs of a public development project and the greater the size of a private development project, the greater the rate of approval and bidding success. For public projects, the rate of approval decreases when there are several subways, train stations, and supermarkets; however, this is not the case for private projects, owing to differences in development methods and project purposes. From a public standpoint, the balanced regional development, revitalisation of old city centres, and implementation of social overhead capital projects in neighbourhoods lacking infrastructure have a strong influence. From a private sector perspective, the mobile/resident population, modification in extra demand, and feasibility analysis have a strong influence. In sum, if the private sector avoids large-scale supermarket projects, they can be conducted as public development projects to enhance residents’ quality of life and revitalise the regional economy. Researchers should examine what could be benchmarked in the private sector in the operational stage and explore ways to maximise profitability and reduce financial burden. Full article
36 pages, 24262 KiB  
Article
Nationwide Evaluation of Urban Energy System Resilience in China Using a Comprehensive Index Method
by Ziyi Wang, Zengqiao Chen, Cuiping Ma, Ronald Wennersten and Qie Sun
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042077 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4649
Abstract
The carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals for China signify a critical time of energy transition in which energy resilience is a vital issue. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of urban energy system resilience (UESR) is important for establishing a theoretical foundation. To this [...] Read more.
The carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals for China signify a critical time of energy transition in which energy resilience is a vital issue. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of urban energy system resilience (UESR) is important for establishing a theoretical foundation. To this end, in this paper, 309 Chinese cities were evaluated using a comprehensive UESR assessment framework composed of 113 indices that measured vulnerability and capabilities of resistance and restoration. The results showed that China’s UESR is distributed unevenly and that cities in the eastern region generally have higher resilience than those in other regions. The minimum and maximum UESR results corresponded to Tibet and Shandong, respectively, at the provincial level and Rikaze and Weifang, respectively, at the city level. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation among UESR, carbon dioxide emissions, and GDP. Full article
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26 pages, 32984 KiB  
Article
Multitemporal Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli Analysis in the Middle Bogotá River Basin, 2007–2019
by Mario Fernando Castro Fernández, Ileana Romea Cárdenas Manosalva, Ramón Fernando Colmenares Quintero, Carlos Enrique Montenegro Marín, Yeffer Edilberto Diaz Cuesta, Daniela Escobar Mahecha and Paula Andrea Pérez Vásquez
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031769 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3458
Abstract
Currently, one of the main environmental problems that need to be addressed is the pollution inflicted upon different ecosystems by anthropic activities. One example of this problem can be seen in the Bogotá River, a major river in the Cundinamarca department of Columbia [...] Read more.
Currently, one of the main environmental problems that need to be addressed is the pollution inflicted upon different ecosystems by anthropic activities. One example of this problem can be seen in the Bogotá River, a major river in the Cundinamarca department of Columbia and the main water source supplying the Bogotá savannah, which reaches the Colombian capital city. The Bogotá River is highly affected by effluents and wastewater of domestic and industrial origin, among others. These pollutants are generated and accumulated throughout the entire basin, without ever receiving any type of treatment. The pollution levels to which the Bogotá River is subjected can be determined with the calculation of environmental indices, including microbiological contamination indicators such as total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms, which include Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, Edwardsiella, and Citrobacter bacteria, living as independent saprophytes. This paper assesses the quality of the water in the Bogotá River, using microbiological indicators and data provided by the Regional Autonomous Corporation (CAR) of Cundinamarca to assess water samples, extracted based on the climatic bimodality exhibited in the basin in dry and wet seasons. The scope of this study was limited to the 35 monitoring Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca (CAR) stations located throughout the middle basin. For these purposes, a multitemporal analysis of the TC and Escherichia coli variables was conducted for the 2007–2019 period, which evidenced the contamination levels in this section of the water body. In broad terms, the current state of the middle section of the Bogotá River basin is unacceptable, due to the different activities occurring within its riparian buffer zone, such as uncontrolled domestic, industrial, and/or commercial wastewater discharges. To optimize water treatability, the continuous improvement of existing treatment plants is expected, as well as the implementation of new sustainable treatment alternatives aimed at improving water quality. Full article
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17 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Stakeholder Analysis and Their Attitude towards PPP Success
by Joanna Węgrzyn and Anna Wojewnik-Filipkowska
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031570 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4762
Abstract
The development of a wide range of infrastructure projects based on the idea of cooperation between the public and private sector, known as PPPs, contributes to fulfilling social and economic needs, rises the quality of life, and supports sustainable development. The expected results [...] Read more.
The development of a wide range of infrastructure projects based on the idea of cooperation between the public and private sector, known as PPPs, contributes to fulfilling social and economic needs, rises the quality of life, and supports sustainable development. The expected results of these undertakings cannot be comparable; however, some PPPs are perceived as a success and some are not. The research is based on the stakeholder concept and the idea that different stakeholder groups present different attitudes to the success of PPPs and are motivated by different issues including economic, social, and environmental factors. Based on this assumption, a conceptual model of PPP stakeholders’ identification and classification according to the attributes of preferred benefits, related to dimensions of sustainable development and engagement, including time and scope perspective, has been derived and tested. This exploratory analysis improves and tests the benefit–engagement conceptual model of PPP stakeholders’ identification. This contributes to the theory and concepts of sustainable infrastructure investment and public–private partnership practice. Full article
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20 pages, 2038 KiB  
Article
Design of Social Responsibility Incentive Contracts for Stakeholders of Megaprojects under Information Asymmetry
by Feng Xue, Guangyu Chen, Shanming Huang and Huan Xie
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031465 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Social responsibility is essential to the sustainable development of megaprojects. A transparent and symmetrical information-sharing mechanism is an important guarantee for promoting megaproject stakeholders to fulfill their social responsibilities and improve project efficiency. Aiming at the problems of megaproject subcontractors concealing social responsibility [...] Read more.
Social responsibility is essential to the sustainable development of megaprojects. A transparent and symmetrical information-sharing mechanism is an important guarantee for promoting megaproject stakeholders to fulfill their social responsibilities and improve project efficiency. Aiming at the problems of megaproject subcontractors concealing social responsibility information, which leads to unsmooth information channels and low project efficiency, this paper compares and analyzes the single-stage revenue-sharing model under symmetric and asymmetric information from the perspective of incentive contract design. Then, a two-stage incentive contract with multiple indicators under asymmetric information is designed using principal-agent theory. The research results show that the social responsibility effort level of the general contractor and the total project revenue is positively correlated with the input–output ratio, and is negatively correlated with the degree of information opacity of the subcontractor’s social responsibility. Incentive contracts with multiple indicators in stages can effectively encourage subcontractors to disclose social responsibility information, and reduce information asymmetry, therefore enhancing social responsibility and improving overall project efficiency. This research transforms the research on the social responsibility of megaprojects from qualitative to quantitative. The research results provide theoretical methods and decision-making basis for megaproject general contractors to encourage subcontractors to improve social responsibility. Full article
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26 pages, 28414 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Urban Development Strategic Initiatives
by Margarita Panteleeva and Svetlana Borozdina
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010037 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
In order to ensure the implementation of the “Strategy for the Development of the Construction Industry of the Russian Federation until 2030” and the implementation of the UN resolution on sustainable development, there is a need to develop new strategic management initiatives. They [...] Read more.
In order to ensure the implementation of the “Strategy for the Development of the Construction Industry of the Russian Federation until 2030” and the implementation of the UN resolution on sustainable development, there is a need to develop new strategic management initiatives. They should allow authorities to make inter-city comparisons, considering specific cities and their objects against the background of others undergoing similar development processes. In this article, the authors propose strategic initiatives for the management of urban facilities. In particular, the authors’ approach to the assessment of the sustainable development of housing and communal service facilities in the city is proposed. According to the authors, the housing and communal city service objects mean capital construction objects in different forms of reproduction. Moreover, the article examines both residential buildings and structures, and utility networks. The authors’ approach consists in the constant assessment of the city’s housing and communal service facilities at different stages of their operation. For this, the authors use several types of analysis: ex post analysis, ex ante analysis, and foresight analysis. For each type of analysis, the authors form a set of assessment indicators and indicate the period of the analysis. The result of the study is the development of an indicator for the assessment of the level of sustainable development of housing and communal service facilities in the city, and a roadmap for their development strategy. The roadmap is formed considering the introduction of modern end-to-end technologies and digital tools into the work of state bodies. The proposed approach, on the one hand, considers the internal complexity and heterogeneity of the city’s housing and communal service facilities. On the other hand, it is a simple tool for the making of effective management decisions by power structures, as it uses data which are available on a regular basis. Full article
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24 pages, 5044 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Methodology for Coliving Spaces and Space Profiling Based on Post-Occupancy Evaluation through Digital Trail of Users
by Alicia Regodon, Maxime Armand, Carmen Lastres, Jose De Pedro and Alfonso García-Santos
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12607; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212607 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3583
Abstract
Sustainable spaces are those that are optimized, accessible, promote user experience and aim to reduce CO2 emissions while enhancing users’ well-being and comfort. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that was developed during the COVID-19 pandemic to understand [...] Read more.
Sustainable spaces are those that are optimized, accessible, promote user experience and aim to reduce CO2 emissions while enhancing users’ well-being and comfort. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that was developed during the COVID-19 pandemic to understand and improve the use of coliving spaces based on remote Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) analysis of the digital trail generated by the users. Applying the POE methodology based on data collection from IT infrastructure enabled to identify opportunities to improve the future design of human-centered spaces. The residential market, design-wise traditional for centuries, is now facing a high-speed adaptation to the changing needs, accelerated by the COVID-19 crisis. New ways of living and shared spaces like Coliving are escalating. Technology is both an enabler of this shift in housing and the solution to operating and managing these new buildings. This paper demonstrates, through the case study of a Coliving space located in Madrid, Spain, the benefits of implementing data analysis of the digital trail collected from in-built IT systems such as smart locks, Wi-Fi networks and electric consumption devices. The conclusion is that analysing the available data from the digital infrastructure of coliving buildings can enable practitioners to improve the future design of residential spaces. Full article
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14 pages, 2064 KiB  
Review
Indicators of the Public Participation Exercise for Designing Public Parks in Malaysia: A Systematic Review
by Ungku Norani Sonet, Mustafa Klufallah, Michael D. Peters and Timothy J. Dixon
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12119; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112119 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3267
Abstract
In an attempt to enhance democratic governance, sustainable development goals (SDG), and Local Agenda 21 (LA21), the notion of public participation exercise (PPE) presents a range of possibilities. The PPE is observed as a method of solving the constraints faced by public parks [...] Read more.
In an attempt to enhance democratic governance, sustainable development goals (SDG), and Local Agenda 21 (LA21), the notion of public participation exercise (PPE) presents a range of possibilities. The PPE is observed as a method of solving the constraints faced by public parks in Malaysia, which in general suffer from two main challenges, namely (i) the underutilisation issue of public parks and (ii) the weakness of the present top-down development policy. Consequently, the objective of this study is to develop indicators for PPE in designing public parks in Malaysia. The method implemented in this study is an assessment of the construct, variable, and indicator adapted from Lazarsfeld’s scheme by conducting a document review of the Public Consultation Index (PCI), six sustainability assessment tools, namely LEED-ND, BREEAM, IDP, SITES V2, Green Mark-NRB, and GTI, and literature references. The variables and indicators were tabulated into the respective operational definition of the construct table and variables and measurement table. The findings include the identification of two main constructs, including public participation and public parks. Multiple variables were derived from each construct, including attributes of PPE in designing public parks in Malaysia, development stage, method of approach, type of public, and public parks design criteria. Subsequently, this study developed the fundamental basis for the PPE framework in designing public parks in Malaysia, which benefits the local development approach for public parks towards an integrated design framework. Full article
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19 pages, 8368 KiB  
Article
Environmental Footprint and Economics of a Full-Scale 3D-Printed House
by Hadeer Abdalla, Kazi Parvez Fattah, Mohamed Abdallah and Adil K. Tamimi
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11978; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111978 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 8536
Abstract
3D printing, is a newly adopted technique in the construction sector with the aim to improve the economics and alleviate environmental impacts. This study assesses the eco-efficiency of 3D printing compared to conventional construction methods in large-scale structural fabrication. A single-storey 3D-printed house [...] Read more.
3D printing, is a newly adopted technique in the construction sector with the aim to improve the economics and alleviate environmental impacts. This study assesses the eco-efficiency of 3D printing compared to conventional construction methods in large-scale structural fabrication. A single-storey 3D-printed house was selected in the United Arab Emirates to conduct the comparative assessment against traditional concrete construction. The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework is utilized to quantify the environmental loads of raw materials extraction and manufacturing, as well as energy consumption during construction and operation phases. The economics of the selected structural systems were investigated through life cycle costing analysis (LCCA), that included mainly the construction costs and energy savings. An eco-efficiency analysis was employed to aggregate the results of the LCA and LCCA into a single framework to aid in decision making by selecting the optimum and most eco-efficient alternative. The findings revealed that houses built using additive manufacturing and 3D printed materials were more environmentally favourable. The conventional construction method had higher impacts when compared to the 3D printing method with global warming potential of 1154.20 and 608.55 kg CO2 eq, non-carcinogenic toxicity 675.10 and 11.9 kg 1,4-DCB, and water consumption 233.35 and 183.95 m3, respectively. The 3D printed house was also found to be an economically viable option, with 78% reduction in the overall capital costs when compared to conventional construction methods. The combined environmental and economic results revealed that the overall process of the 3D-printed house had higher eco efficiency compared to concrete-based construction. The main results of the sensitivity analysis revealed that up to 90% of the environmental impacts in 3D printing mortars can be mitigated with decreasing cement ratios. Full article
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19 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Fading Attraction of the Shrinking City: An Empirical Study from an Urban Resource Perspective
by Yuanping Wang, Mu Lin, Jingxin Gao and Zhaoyin Zhou
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11550; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011550 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1984
Abstract
The accelerated flow of resources and the population has resulted in the coexistence of the expansion and shrinkage of cities. The shrinking city is not a new thing, but it is a new problem that needs to be solved urgently in China. Urban [...] Read more.
The accelerated flow of resources and the population has resulted in the coexistence of the expansion and shrinkage of cities. The shrinking city is not a new thing, but it is a new problem that needs to be solved urgently in China. Urban resources reveal the direct cause of the shrinking city: attraction, which reflects the competition for external resources and the endowment of the intrinsic resources of cities. Therefore, this paper established the Urban Resource Degree (URD) model to measure the urban resource degree of the shrinking city. Factors were then selected to analyze the ways in which they influence the shrinking cities. Given the spillover effect and heterogeneity of the influencing factors, a Spatial Durbin Model (SDM) and a Spatiotemporal Geographically Weighted Regression Model (GTWR) were used to conduct a spatial spillover (SSA) and spatial heterogeneity (SHA) analysis of the URD of the shrinking cities in Northeast China. The results show that the ability gap to compete for and control resources between prefecture-level shrinking cities and county-level shrinking cities is narrowed. From the SSA and SHA perspectives, the influence factors can be categorized into three types: “High West–Low East and Negative–Positive Spillover”, “Low West and High East Positive–Negative Spillover”, “Low Northwest and High Southeast Negative Spillover”. Finally, policy implications are proposed to provide support for policy-making. Full article
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16 pages, 570 KiB  
Review
Machine Learning Algorithms for Urban Land Use Planning: A Review
by Vineet Chaturvedi and Walter T. de Vries
Urban Sci. 2021, 5(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5030068 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 9480
Abstract
Urbanization is persistent globally and has increasingly significant spatial and environmental consequences. It is especially challenging in developing countries due to the increasing pressure on the limited resources, and damage to the bio-physical environment. Traditional analytical methods of studying the urban land use [...] Read more.
Urbanization is persistent globally and has increasingly significant spatial and environmental consequences. It is especially challenging in developing countries due to the increasing pressure on the limited resources, and damage to the bio-physical environment. Traditional analytical methods of studying the urban land use dynamics associated with urbanization are static and tend to rely on top-down approaches, such as linear and mathematical modeling. These traditional approaches do not capture the nonlinear properties of land use change. New technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have made it possible to model and predict the nonlinear aspects of urban land dynamics. AI and ML are programmed to recognize patterns and carry out predictions, decision making and perform operations with speed and accuracy. Classification, analysis and modeling using earth observation-based data forms the basis for the geospatial support for land use planning. In the process of achieving higher accuracies in the classification of spatial data, ML algorithms are being developed and being improved to enhance the decision-making process. The purpose of the research is to bring out the various ML algorithms and statistical models that have been applied to study aspects of land use planning using earth observation-based data (EO). It intends to review their performance, functional requirements, interoperability requirements and for which research problems can they be applied best. The literature review revealed that random forest (RF), deep learning like convolutional neural network (CNN) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms are best suited for classification and pattern analysis of earth observation-based data. GANs (generative adversarial networks) have been used to simulate urban patterns. Algorithms like cellular automata, spatial logistic regression and agent-based modeling have been used for studying urban growth, land use change and settlement pattern analysis. Most of the papers reviewed applied ML algorithms for classification of EO data and to study urban growth and land use change. It is observed that hybrid approaches have better performance in terms of accuracies, efficiency and computational cost. Full article
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19 pages, 378 KiB  
Review
Mining the Built Environment: Telling the Story of Urban Mining
by Faisal Aldebei and Mihály Dombi
Buildings 2021, 11(9), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11090388 - 1 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5555
Abstract
Materials are continuously accumulating in the human-built environment since massive amounts of materials are required for building, developing, and maintaining cities. At the end of their life cycles, these materials are considered valuable sources of secondary materials. The increasing construction and demolition waste [...] Read more.
Materials are continuously accumulating in the human-built environment since massive amounts of materials are required for building, developing, and maintaining cities. At the end of their life cycles, these materials are considered valuable sources of secondary materials. The increasing construction and demolition waste released from aging stock each year make up the heaviest, most voluminous waste outflow, presenting challenges and opportunities. These material stocks should be utilized and exploited since the reuse and recycling of construction materials would positively impact the natural environment and resource efficiency, leading to sustainable cities within a grander scheme of a circular economy. The exploitation of material stock is known as urban mining. In order to make these materials accessible for future mining, material quantities need to be estimated and extrapolated to regional levels. This demanding task requires a vast knowledge of the existing building stock, which can only be obtained through labor-intensive, time-consuming methodologies or new technologies, such as building information modeling (BIM), geographic information systems (GISs), artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning. This review paper gives a general overview of the literature body and tracks the evolution of this research field. Full article
25 pages, 7614 KiB  
Article
Statistical Modelling of the Market Value of Dwellings, on the Example of the City of Kraków
by Elżbieta Jasińska and Edward Preweda
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9339; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169339 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
The analysis of a city’s spatial development, in terms of a location that meets the needs of its inhabitants, requires many approaches. The preliminary assessment of the collected material showed that there was real estate in the database whose price did not have [...] Read more.
The analysis of a city’s spatial development, in terms of a location that meets the needs of its inhabitants, requires many approaches. The preliminary assessment of the collected material showed that there was real estate in the database whose price did not have market characteristics. For the correct formulation of the valuation model, it is necessary to detect and eliminate or reduce the impact of these properties on the valuation results. In this study, multivariate analysis was used and three methods of detecting outliers were verified. The database of 8812 residential premises traded on the primary market in Kraków was analyzed. In order to detect outliers, the following indices were determined: projection matrix, Mahalanobis distances, standardized chi test and Cook distances. Critical values were calculated based on the formulas proposed in the publication. The probability level was P = 0.95. The article shows that the selected methods of eliminating outliers—the methods of standardized residuals and the Cook’s distance method give similar regression models. Further analysis (with the use of classification tree methods) made it possible to distinguish zones that are homogeneous in terms of price dispersion. In these zones, a set of features influencing real estate prices were determined. Full article
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24 pages, 3510 KiB  
Article
Dimensions of Urban Blight in Emerging Southern Cities: A Case Study of Accra-Ghana
by Sally Adofowaa Mireku, Zaid Abubakari and Javier Martinez
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158399 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3473
Abstract
Urban blight functions inversely to city development and often leads to cities’ deterioration in terms of physical beauty and functionality. While the underlying causes of urban blight in the context of the global north are mainly known in the literature to be population [...] Read more.
Urban blight functions inversely to city development and often leads to cities’ deterioration in terms of physical beauty and functionality. While the underlying causes of urban blight in the context of the global north are mainly known in the literature to be population loss, economic decline, deindustrialisation and suburbanisation, there is a research gap regarding the root causes of urban blight in the global south, specifically in prime areas. Given the differences in the property rights regimes and economic growth trajectories between the global north and south, the underlying reasons for urban blight cannot be assumed to be the same. This study, thus, employed a qualitative method and case study approach to ascertain in-depth contextual reasons and effects for urban blight in a prime area, East Legon, Accra-Ghana. Beyond economic reasons, the study found that socio-cultural practices of landholding and land transfer in Ghana play an essential role in how blighted properties emerge. In the quest to preserve cultural heritage/identity, successors of old family houses (the ancestral roots) do their best to stay in them without selling or redeveloping them. The findings highlight the less obvious but relevant functions that blighted properties play in the city core at the micro level of individual families in fostering social cohesion and alleviating the need to pay higher rents. Thus, in the global south, we conclude that there is a need to pay attention to the less obvious roles that so-called blighted properties perform and to move beyond the default negative perception that blighted properties are entirely problematic. Full article
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14 pages, 1856 KiB  
Article
Perceptions about Tourism and Tourists in Historic Neighborhoods: The Case of Alfama
by Arlindo Madeira, Teresa Palrão, Alexandra Sofia Mendes and Ernesto López-Morales
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8357; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158357 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
Tourism makes destinations adapt to receive those who visit them, with a great impact among traditional residents. Overtourism affects picturesque places, and these areas end up losing their authenticity, submitting themselves to the consumption needs of tourists. Neighborhoods’ traditional residents also see their [...] Read more.
Tourism makes destinations adapt to receive those who visit them, with a great impact among traditional residents. Overtourism affects picturesque places, and these areas end up losing their authenticity, submitting themselves to the consumption needs of tourists. Neighborhoods’ traditional residents also see their routine completely changed due to the different habits of tourists, and displacement rates rise. This study aims to understand how local people perceive tourism in Alfama, one of the most unique and tourist-oriented neighborhoods of Lisbon. Our study involves a questionnaire to old long-term residents and content analysis of their responses. We used Leximancer software to create categories of analysis depending on frequency of mentions and the way themes are related. Our interviewees testified that overtourism in Alfama generates perceptions that range from a generalized acceptance for the benefits that an improved safety associated to an increased street-life and a cleaner neighborhood generate, and on the other hand the grievance for the loss of a pre-existing community. We also conclude that the benefits of tourist-led gentrification are relevant for the gentrification analysis because they show the contradictions that the remaining residential community experience as tourist-led gentrification unfolds. Full article
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14 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
Theft Prediction Model Based on Spatial Clustering to Reflect Spatial Characteristics of Adjacent Lands
by Dongyoung Kim, Sungwon Jung and Yongwook Jeong
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7715; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147715 - 10 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that when a crime occurs, the risk of crime in adjacent areas increases. To reflect this, previous grid-based crime prediction studies combined all the cells surrounding the event location to be predicted for use in model training. However, the [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that when a crime occurs, the risk of crime in adjacent areas increases. To reflect this, previous grid-based crime prediction studies combined all the cells surrounding the event location to be predicted for use in model training. However, the actual land is continuous rather than a set of independent cells as in a geographic information system. Because the patterns that occur according to the detailed method of crime vary, it is necessary to reflect the spatial characteristics of the adjacent land in crime prediction. In this study, cells with similar spatial characteristics were classified using the Max-p region model (a spatial clustering technique), and the performance was compared to the existing method using random forest (a tree-based machine learning model). According to the results, the F1 score of the model using spatial clustering increased by approximately 2%. Accordingly, there are differences in the physical environmental factors influenced by the detailed method of crime. The findings reveal that crime involving the same offender is likely to occur around the area of the original crime, indicating that a repeated crime is likely in areas with similar spatial features to the area where the crime occurred. Full article
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18 pages, 1129 KiB  
Article
From TOD to TAC: Why and How Transport and Urban Policy Needs to Shift to Regenerating Main Road Corridors with New Transit Systems
by Peter Newman, Sebastian Davies-Slate, Daniel Conley, Karlson Hargroves and Mike Mouritz
Urban Sci. 2021, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci5030052 - 7 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3985
Abstract
The need for transit oriented development (TOD) around railway stations has been well accepted and continues to be needed in cities looking to regenerate both transit and urban development. Large parts of suburban areas remain without quality transit down main roads that are [...] Read more.
The need for transit oriented development (TOD) around railway stations has been well accepted and continues to be needed in cities looking to regenerate both transit and urban development. Large parts of suburban areas remain without quality transit down main roads that are usually filled with traffic resulting in reduced urban value. The need to regenerate both the mobility and land development along such roads will likely be the next big agenda in transport and urban policy. This paper learns from century-old experiences in public–private approaches to railway-based urban development from around the world, along with innovative insights from the novel integration of historical perspectives, entrepreneurship theory and urban planning to create the notion of a “Transit Activated Corridor” (TAC). TACs prioritize fast transit and a string of station precincts along urban main roads. The core policy processes for a TAC are outlined with some early case studies. Five design principles for delivering a TAC are presented in this paper, three principles from entrepreneurship theory and two from urban planning. The potential for new mid-tier transit like trackless trams to enable TACs is used to illustrate how these design processes can be an effective approach for designing, financing and delivering a “Transit Activated Corridor”. Full article
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