Topic Editors

School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315211, China
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315000, China
Dr. Fengjiang Qin
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315211, China

Applications of Non-destructive Testing Technologies in Materials or Engineering

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 May 2024
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11615

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for materials has become a research hotspot in many fields, such as civil engineering, machinery engineering, aviation engineering, and marine engineering. NDT refers to the technique of testing materials through non-destructive means to diagnose whether there are defects or cracks in the material. NDT is significant for ensuring the safe operation of structures and includes various methods, such as machine vision, penetration, magnetic powder, eddy current, ultrasonic, X-ray, acoustic emission, infrared thermal imaging, static and dynamic testing, etc. NDT techniques have great potential for development in terms of detection accuracy and detection range, but NDT for large and complex structures is still immature and requires further in-depth research.

The purpose of this Topic is to introduce the theoretical and experimental research progress of various NDT technologies, as well as the application examples of NDT in fields such as civil engineering, mechanical engineering, aviation engineering, and marine engineering. We sincerely invite all colleagues to contribute to this topic.

Prof. Dr. Qiuwei Yang
Dr. Zhigang Zhang
Dr. Hui Wang
Dr. Fengjiang Qin
Dr. Xi Peng
Topic Editors

 

Keywords

  • non-destructive testing
  • damage identification and diagnosis
  • structural health monitoring
  • smart materials and structures
  • machine vision
  • artificial intelligence diagnosis
  • mode updating
  • acoustic emission
  • magnetic particle inspection
  • infrared thermography

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400 Submit
CivilEng
civileng
- 2.0 2020 37.7 Days CHF 1200 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Eng
eng
- - 2020 18.7 Days CHF 1200 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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19 pages, 4922 KiB  
Article
A Novel Nonlinear Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Model for Magnetic Flux Leakage System
by Okan Kara and Hasan Hüseyin Çelik
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(10), 4071; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104071 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 378
Abstract
To ensure efficient inspection using the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method, generating a flux density near the saturation level within the tested material is essential. This requirement brings high flux density conditions in the system’s pole regions. Hence, leakage flux within the slot [...] Read more.
To ensure efficient inspection using the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method, generating a flux density near the saturation level within the tested material is essential. This requirement brings high flux density conditions in the system’s pole regions. Hence, leakage flux within the slot is excessively triggered, leading to distortion of the defect signal. In this context, the system dimensions stand out as one of the most significant factors affecting the mentioned flux distributions. Therefore, various alternative solutions with different system dimensions arise in the design process of the MFL system. This study proposes a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) model to achieve optimal system design. The proposed MEC model is designed considering the nonlinear behavior of the material, leakage flux, and fringing effects. Verification results demonstrate that the MEC model consistently tracks the finite element analysis (FEA) results in calculating the flux densities. Furthermore, the relative errors in the flux density calculations of the tested material are at a maximum level of 10.2% and an average of 5.2% compared to the FEA. These findings indicate that the proposed MEC model can be effectively utilized in rapid prototyping and optimization procedures of MFL system design by providing fast solutions with reasonable accuracy. Full article
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19 pages, 18734 KiB  
Article
An Improved Synchrosqueezing S-Transform and Its Application in a GPR Detection Task
by Hongqiang Xiong, Baizhou An, Boyang Sun and Jiayu Lu
Sensors 2024, 24(10), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24102981 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The S-transform is a fundamental time–frequency (T-F) domain analysis method in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data processing and can be used for identifying targets, denoising, extracting thin layers, and high-resolution imaging. However, the S-transform spectrum experiences energy leakage near the instantaneous frequency. This [...] Read more.
The S-transform is a fundamental time–frequency (T-F) domain analysis method in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data processing and can be used for identifying targets, denoising, extracting thin layers, and high-resolution imaging. However, the S-transform spectrum experiences energy leakage near the instantaneous frequency. This phenomenon causes frequency components to erroneously spread over a wider range, impacting the accuracy and precision of GPR data processing. Synchrosqueezing is an effective method to prevent spectrum leakage. In this work, we introduce the synchrosqueezing generalized phase-shifting S-transform (SS-GPST). Initially, it resolves the compatibility issue between the S-transform and the synchrosqueezing strategy through phase-shifting. Subsequently, the SS-GPST accomplishes spectral energy focusing and resolution enhancement via a generalized parameter and synchrosqueezing. A synthetic signal test shows that the SS-GPST excels over other methods at focusing degree, spectral resolution, and signal reconstruction accuracy and speed. In actual GPR tunnel detection data processing, we assess the adaptability of the SS-GPST from three aspects: spectral energy distribution, thin layer identification, and data denoising. The results indicate: (1) compared to other methods, the SS-GPST accurately expresses spectral components with a strong focusing degree and fewer interference components; (2) high-frequency slices of the SS-GPST accurately detect the top and bottom interfaces of a 3.0–3.5 cm reinforcement protection layer; and (3) due to fewer interference components in the SS-GPST spectrum, reconstructing GPR profiles through the SS-GPST inverse transform is an efficient denoising technique. The SS-GPST demonstrates adaptability to different data processing purposes, offers high-resolution T-F spectra, and shows potential to supersede the S-transform. Full article
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29 pages, 13635 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Deflection Measurement on Stiff Bridges with High Piers by Preloaded Spring Method
by Yelu Wang, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Jiang, Yu Zhao and Huantao Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2526; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062526 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The deflection dynamic load allowance (DLA) of stiff bridges with high piers requires sub-millimeter accuracy. New technologies such as the vision-based optical method and GNSS are not yet recognized for use in DLA measurements due to their smaller SNR. Presently, the scaffolding method [...] Read more.
The deflection dynamic load allowance (DLA) of stiff bridges with high piers requires sub-millimeter accuracy. New technologies such as the vision-based optical method and GNSS are not yet recognized for use in DLA measurements due to their smaller SNR. Presently, the scaffolding method is widely utilized for dynamic deflection measurements in dynamic load tests owing to the reliability of employing rigid contact. When scaffolding is not available, engineers have to resort to a suspension hammer system. However, the mass eccentricity of the hammer, stretched-wire length, and wind will decrease the measurement accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks of the suspension hammer method (SHM), a preloaded spring method (PSM) and the related stretched-wire-spring system (SWSS) are proposed in this paper. The dynamic deflection of the coupled vehicle-bridge-SWSS was obtained by vehicle-bridge interaction (VBI) analysis. The sensitivity parameters of the PSM were analyzed and optimized to minimize the measurement error. Indoor experiments and field dynamic load tests were conducted to validate the feasibility and accuracy of the PSM. Additionally, the differences in dynamic deflection measurements between the PSM and SHM in windy environments were compared. The results show that, in a windless environment, the DLAs of the PSM are affected by the spring stiffness, stretched-wire length, and stretched-wire section stiffness, independently of the preload force. When the wind speed is less than or equal to 8 m/s and the pier height is less than 30 m, the maximum deflection measurement error of the PSM is −2.53%, while that of the SHM is −15.87%. Due to its low cost and high accuracy, the proposed method has broad application prospects in the dynamic deflection measurement of stiff bridges with high piers. Full article
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15 pages, 4813 KiB  
Review
Poisson’s Ratio of Glasses, Ceramics, and Crystals
by Seiji Kojima
Materials 2024, 17(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020300 - 7 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1363
Abstract
Poisson’s ratio is the fundamental metric used to discuss the performance of any material when strained elastically. However, the methods of the determination of Poisson’s ratio are not yet discussed well. The first purpose of this paper is to introduce the five kinds [...] Read more.
Poisson’s ratio is the fundamental metric used to discuss the performance of any material when strained elastically. However, the methods of the determination of Poisson’s ratio are not yet discussed well. The first purpose of this paper is to introduce the five kinds of typical experimental methods to measure Poisson’s ratio of glasses, ceramics, and crystals. The second purpose is to discuss the experimental results on the variation of Poisson’s ratio by composition, temperature, and pressure reviewed for various glasses, ceramics, and crystals, which are not yet reviewed. For example, in oxide glasses, the number of bridging oxygen atoms per glass-forming cation provides a straightforward estimation of network crosslinking using Poisson’s ratio. In the structural-phase transition of crystals, Poisson’s ratio shows remarkable temperature-dependence in the vicinity of a phase-transition temperature. The mechanism of these variations is discussed from physical and chemical points of view. The first-principles calculation of Poisson’s ratio in the newly hypothesized compounds is also described, and its pressure-induced ductile–brittle transition is discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 5738 KiB  
Article
A Non-Destructive Methodology for the Viscoelastic Characterization of Polymers: Toward the Identification of the Time–Temperature Superposition Shift Law
by Aleksandr Sakhnevych, Raffaele Maglione and Francesco Timpone
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9213; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229213 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Polymers find widespread applications in various industries, such as civil engineering, aerospace, and industrial machinery, contributing to vibration control, dampening, and insulation. To accurately design products that are able to predict their dynamic behavior in the virtual environment, it is essential to understand [...] Read more.
Polymers find widespread applications in various industries, such as civil engineering, aerospace, and industrial machinery, contributing to vibration control, dampening, and insulation. To accurately design products that are able to predict their dynamic behavior in the virtual environment, it is essential to understand and reproduce their viscoelastic properties via material physical modeling. While Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) has traditionally been used, innovative non-destructive techniques are emerging for characterizing components and monitoring their performance without deconstructing them. In this context, the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP) represents a powerful empirical procedure to extend a polymer’s viscoelastic behavior across a wider frequency range. This study focuses on replicating an indentation test on viscoelastic materials using the non-destructive Viscoelasticity Evaluation System evolved (VESevo) tool. The primary objective is to derive a unique temperature–frequency relationship, referred to as a “shift law”, using characteristic curves from this non-invasive approach. Encouragingly, modifying the device setup enabled us to replicate, virtually, three tests under identical initial conditions but with varying indentation frequencies. This highlights the tool’s ability to conduct material testing across a range of frequencies. These findings set the stage for our upcoming experiment campaign, aiming to create an innovative shift algorithm from at least three distinct master curves at specific frequencies, offering a significant breakthrough in non-destructive polymer characterization with broad industrial potential. Full article
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15 pages, 7694 KiB  
Article
Detection, Verification and Analysis of Micro Surface Defects in Steel Filament Using Eddy Current Principles, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy
by Kim Sang Tran, Bijan Shirinzadeh, Armin Ehrampoosh, Pan Zhao and Yaoyao Shi
Sensors 2023, 23(21), 8873; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23218873 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
In the current industrial revolution, advanced technologies and methods can be effectively utilized for the detection and verification of defects in high-speed steel filament production. This paper introduces an innovative methodology for the precise detection and verification of micro surface defects found in [...] Read more.
In the current industrial revolution, advanced technologies and methods can be effectively utilized for the detection and verification of defects in high-speed steel filament production. This paper introduces an innovative methodology for the precise detection and verification of micro surface defects found in steel filaments through the application of the Eddy current principle. Permanent magnets are employed to generate a magnetic field with a high frequency surrounding a coil of sensors positioned at the filament’s output end. The sensor’s capacity to detect defects is validated through a meticulous rewinding process, followed by a thorough analysis involving scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Artificial defects were intentionally introduced into a sample, and their amplitudes were monitored to establish a threshold value. The amplitude signal of these created defect was identified at approximately 10% FSH, which corresponds to a crack depth of about 20 µm. In the experimental production of 182 samples covering 38 km, the defect ratio was notably high, standing at 26.37%. These defects appeared randomly along the length of the samples. The verification results underscore the exceptional precision achieved in the detection of micro surface defects within steel filaments. These defects were primarily characterized by longitudinal scratches and inclusions containing physical tungsten carbide. Full article
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15 pages, 9847 KiB  
Article
A Micro-Topography Measurement and Compensation Method for the Key Component Surface Based on White-Light Interferometry
by Junying Chen, Boxuan Wang, Xiuyu Chen, Qingshan Jiang, Wei Feng, Zhilong Xu and Zhenye Zhao
Sensors 2023, 23(19), 8307; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23198307 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The grinding grooves of material removal machining and the residues of a machining tool on the key component surface cause surface stress concentration. Thus, it is critical to carry out precise measurements on the key component surface to evaluate the stress concentration. Based [...] Read more.
The grinding grooves of material removal machining and the residues of a machining tool on the key component surface cause surface stress concentration. Thus, it is critical to carry out precise measurements on the key component surface to evaluate the stress concentration. Based on white-light interferometry (WLI), we studied the measurement distortion caused by the reflected light from the steep side of the grinding groove being unable to return to the optical system for imaging. A threshold value was set to eliminate the distorted measurement points, and the cubic spline algorithm was used to interpolate the eliminated points for compensation. The compensation result agrees well with the atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement result. However, for residues on the surface, a practical method was established to obtain a microscopic 3D micro-topography point cloud and a super-depth-of-field fusion image simultaneously. Afterward, the semantic segmentation network U-net was adopted to identify the residues in the super-depth-of-field fusion image and achieved a recognition accuracy of 91.06% for residual identification. Residual feature information, including height, position, and size, was obtained by integrating the information from point clouds and super-depth-of-field fusion images. This work can provide foundational data to study surface stress concentration. Full article
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15 pages, 3137 KiB  
Article
Verification of the Mode Decomposition Technique for Closely Distributed Modal Systems in the State Space Domain
by Jungtae Noh and Jae-Seung Hwang
Sensors 2023, 23(16), 7123; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23167123 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 662
Abstract
This study aims to propose and validate the state space mode decomposition technique for precise mode separation of non-classical damping systems and closely distributed modal systems. To assess the reliability and applicability of this technique, a 40-story building with a tuned mass damper [...] Read more.
This study aims to propose and validate the state space mode decomposition technique for precise mode separation of non-classical damping systems and closely distributed modal systems. To assess the reliability and applicability of this technique, a 40-story building with a tuned mass damper is investigated, and acceleration responses measured by the building’s health monitoring system are used for the verification of the technique. The mode separation results reveal that the separated modal power spectrum becomes distorted at neighboring natural frequency ranges when the performance index only considers the concentration of power spectral energy at the target natural frequency. However, by introducing an augmented performance index that includes a constraint condition to account for distortion, more accurate mode decomposition can be achieved. Full article
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26 pages, 6683 KiB  
Article
Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coatings’ Porosity Based on Terahertz Multi-Feature Fusion and a Machine Learning Approach
by Rui Li, Dongdong Ye, Qiukun Zhang, Jianfei Xu and Jiabao Pan
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158988 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) play a crucial role in safeguarding aero-engine blades from high-temperature environments and enhancing their performance and durability. Accurate evaluation of TBCs’ porosity is of paramount importance for aerospace material research. However, existing evaluation methods often involve destructive testing or [...] Read more.
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) play a crucial role in safeguarding aero-engine blades from high-temperature environments and enhancing their performance and durability. Accurate evaluation of TBCs’ porosity is of paramount importance for aerospace material research. However, existing evaluation methods often involve destructive testing or lack precision. In this study, we proposed a novel nondestructive evaluation method for TBCs’ porosity, utilizing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and a machine learning approach. The primary objective was to achieve reliable and precise porosity evaluation without causing damage to the coatings. Multiple feature parameters were extracted from THz-TDS data to characterize porosity variations. Additionally, correlation analysis and p-value testing were employed to assess the significance and correlations among the feature parameters. Subsequently, the dung-beetle-optimizer-algorithm-optimized random forest (DBO-RF) regression model was applied to accurately predict the porosity. Model performance was evaluated using K-fold cross-validation. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method, with the DBO-RF model achieving high precision and robustness in porosity prediction. The model evaluation revealed a root-mean-square error of 1.802, mean absolute error of 1.549, mean absolute percentage error of 8.362, and average regression coefficient of 0.912. This study introduces a novel technique that presents a dependable nondestructive testing solution for the evaluation and prediction of TBCs’ porosity, effectively monitoring the service life of TBCs and determining their effectiveness. With its practical applicability in the aerospace industry, this method plays a vital role in the assessment and analysis of TBCs’ performance, driving progress in aerospace material research. Full article
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13 pages, 7347 KiB  
Article
The Wrinkles Characterization in GFRP Composites by Infrared Active Thermography
by Adam Stawiarski, Małgorzata Chwał, Marek Barski and Marcin Augustyn
Materials 2023, 16(12), 4236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16124236 - 7 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
An experimental study has been carried out to assess the effectiveness of infrared thermography in wrinkle detection in composite GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) structures by infrared active thermography. Wrinkles in composite GFRP plates with different weave patterns (twill and satin) have been [...] Read more.
An experimental study has been carried out to assess the effectiveness of infrared thermography in wrinkle detection in composite GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) structures by infrared active thermography. Wrinkles in composite GFRP plates with different weave patterns (twill and satin) have been manufactured with the use of the vacuum bagging method. The different localization of defects in laminates has been taken into account. Transmission and reflection measurement techniques of active thermography have been verified and compared. The section of a turbine blade with a vertical axis of rotation containing post-manufacturing wrinkles has been prepared to verify active thermography measurement techniques in the real structure. In the turbine blade section, the influence of a gelcoat surface on the effectiveness of thermography damage detection has also been taken into account. Straightforward thermal parameters applied in structural health monitoring systems allow an effective damage detection method to be built. The transmission IRT setup allows not only for damage detection and localization in composite structures but also for accurate damage identification. The reflection IRT setup is convenient for damage detection systems coupled with nondestructive testing software. In considered cases, the type of fabric weave has negligible influence on the quality of damage detection results. Full article
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13 pages, 9387 KiB  
Technical Note
Feasibility of Using a 300 GHz Radar to Detect Fractures and Lithological Changes in Rocks
by Federico Sanjuan, Frédéric Fauquet, Bertrand Fasentieux, Patrick Mounaix and Jean-Paul Guillet
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(10), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15102605 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
The detection and quantification of fractures in rocks, as well as the detection of lithological changes, are of particular interest in scientific fields, such as construction materials, geotechnics, reservoirs and the diagnostics of dielectric composite materials and cultural heritage objects. Therefore, different methods [...] Read more.
The detection and quantification of fractures in rocks, as well as the detection of lithological changes, are of particular interest in scientific fields, such as construction materials, geotechnics, reservoirs and the diagnostics of dielectric composite materials and cultural heritage objects. Therefore, different methods and techniques have been developed and improved over the years to provide solutions, e.g., seismic, ground-penetrating radar and X-ray microtomography. However, there are always trade-offs, such as spatial resolution, investigated volume and rock penetration depth. At present, high-frequency radars (>60 GHz) are available on the market, which are compact in size and capable of imaging large areas in short periods of time. However, the few rock applications that have been carried out have not provided any information on whether these radars would be useful for detecting fractures and lithological changes in rocks. Therefore, in this work, we performed different experiments on construction and reservoir rocks using a frequency-modulated continuous wave radar working at 300 GHz to evaluate its viability in this type of application. The results showed that the radar quantified millimeter fractures at a 1 cm rock penetration depth with a sensitivity of 500 μm. Furthermore, lithological changes were identified, even when detecting interfaces generated by the artificial union of two samples from the same rock. Full article
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