Topic Editors

Animal Biotechnology Department, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Havana, Cuba
UMR BIPAR, INRAE, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France

Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens

Abstract submission deadline
31 October 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
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11746

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The TTP conferences have historically convened leading experts and researchers worldwide, focusing on ticks and tick-borne pathogens. This eleventh edition promises to be no different, offering a platform to showcase groundbreaking research, innovative methodologies, and promising discoveries in various facets of tick biology. These encompass tick physiology, microbiome and genomics, taxonomy and the evolution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, their ecological and epidemiological aspects, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and strategies for control, including immunity and vaccines.

For more information regarding the TTP11 Conference and opportunities to present your research, please visit https://agropecuaria.cigb.edu.cu/ttp11/ or https://zooparaz.net/ttp11/. Furthermore, we invite you to contribute to a Topic in renowned MDPI journals such as Pathogens, Animals, Vaccines, Veterinary Sciences, Arthropoda and Insects.

This Topic offers researchers the chance to publish enhanced and refined versions of their conference contributions, thus extending the impact of their work far beyond the event itself. This proposal represents a valuable opportunity to advance the dissemination of cutting-edge research and foster collaboration within the tick research community—an essential step towards advancing the field. Moreover, this Topic will be a lasting repository of the collective knowledge and insights shared during TTP11. We eagerly anticipate receiving your contributions.

Dr. Alina Rodriguez-Mallon
Dr. Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • parasites
  • ticks
  • tick-borne pathogens
  • tick physiology
  • tick taxonomy
  • vector capacity
  • immunity
  • tick resistant
  • acaricides
  • tick control

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Animals
animals
2.7 4.9 2011 16.1 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Arthropoda
arthropoda
- - 2023 15.0 days * CHF 1000 Submit
Insects
insects
2.7 5.1 2010 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Pathogens
pathogens
3.3 6.4 2012 16.3 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Vaccines
vaccines
5.2 8.9 2013 17.6 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Veterinary Sciences
vetsci
2.0 2.9 2014 20.9 Days CHF 2100 Submit

* Median value for all MDPI journals in the first half of 2024.


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Published Papers (12 papers)

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11 pages, 1379 KiB  
Communication
Acarological Risk of Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Agent, in Staten Island, New York City
by Liyang Zhou, Leonid Tsynman, Kamesan Kanapathipillai, Zahir Shah and Waheed Bajwa
Arthropoda 2024, 2(3), 181-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/arthropoda2030014 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Lyme disease, the leading vector-borne ailment in the U.S., annually affects an estimated 476,000 individuals, predominantly in the Northeast and Upper Midwest. Despite its increasing incidence, the evaluation of risk within U.S. cities, including natural public lands, remains inadequate. This study focuses on [...] Read more.
Lyme disease, the leading vector-borne ailment in the U.S., annually affects an estimated 476,000 individuals, predominantly in the Northeast and Upper Midwest. Despite its increasing incidence, the evaluation of risk within U.S. cities, including natural public lands, remains inadequate. This study focuses on blacklegged tick occurrences and Borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence in 24 Staten Island parks, aiming to assess Lyme disease exposure risk. Monthly acarological risk index (ARI) calculations from 2019 to 2022 revealed elevated values (0.16–0.53) in specific parks, notably Wolfe’s Pond Park, High Rock Park, Clay Pit Pond Park, Clove Lake Park, and Fair View Park. June (0.36) and November (0.21) consistently exhibited heightened ARIs, aligning with peak tick collection months. Despite stable yearly infection rates at 28.97%, tick densities varied significantly between parks and years. Identifying a high transmission risk in specific parks in Staten Island, a highly urbanized part of New York City, emphasizes the continuous necessity for Lyme disease risk management, even within the greenspaces of large cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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13 pages, 1657 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks in the Republic of Korea
by Ji-Ye Seo, Jin-Seo Park, Hee-Il Lee and Jung-Won Ju
Pathogens 2024, 13(7), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13070575 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The Rickettsia species transmitted by ticks are mostly classified within the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), which causes tick-borne rickettsiosis. Although efforts have been made to investigate their prevalence in the Republic of Korea (ROK), research has been limited to certain areas. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
The Rickettsia species transmitted by ticks are mostly classified within the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), which causes tick-borne rickettsiosis. Although efforts have been made to investigate their prevalence in the Republic of Korea (ROK), research has been limited to certain areas. Furthermore, the pooling method for ticks does not fully reflect the exact infection rate. Therefore, we aimed to perform molecular identification of SFGR in ticks to elucidate the current prevalence of tick-borne rickettsiosis in the ROK. The SFGR of ticks was identified using polymerase chain reaction targeting the 17 kDa antigen, ompA, and gltA, followed by sequencing for species identification and phylogenetic analysis. In total, 302 ticks belonging to four species (Haemaphysalis flava, H. longicornis, Ixodes nipponensis, and Amblyomma testudinarium) were collected between April and November 2022. The overall SFGR infection rate was 26.8% (81/302 patients). Both adult and nymphal ticks and the SFGR infection rate increased during April–May, reaching their peaks in June, followed by a marked decline in August and July, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three species (R. monacensis, R. heilongjiangensis, and Candidatus R. jingxinensis) of SFGR. Thus, our results emphasize the importance of tick surveys for the prevention and management of tick-borne rickettsiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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12 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Incompetence of Vector Capacity of Rhipicephalus bursa to Transmit Babesia aktasi following Feeding on Clinically Infected Goat with High Level of Parasitemia
by Mehmet Can Ulucesme, Sezayi Ozubek and Munir Aktas
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(7), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11070309 - 10 Jul 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
A recent molecular survey revealed a high prevalence of Babesia aktasi in indigenous goats from the Mediterranean region of Türkiye, coinciding with heavy Rhipicephalus bursa infestations. This geographical overlap has raised the possibility that R. bursa may serve as a vector for the parasite. To [...] Read more.
A recent molecular survey revealed a high prevalence of Babesia aktasi in indigenous goats from the Mediterranean region of Türkiye, coinciding with heavy Rhipicephalus bursa infestations. This geographical overlap has raised the possibility that R. bursa may serve as a vector for the parasite. To evaluate the potential of R. bursa to serve as a vector for the parasite, an experimental study was conducted in indigenous goats. An immune-suppressed donor goat was intravenously injected with 15 mL of the cryopreserved B. aktasi stabilate, resulting in severe clinical babesiosis and parasitemia. Subsequently, R. bursa larvae and adults derived from Babesia-free laboratory colonies were allowed to feed on the infected donor goat. After oviposition, engorged female carcasses, representative engorged nymphs, unfed larvae, and adult pools were used for DNA extraction and PCR analysis. No PCR positivity was detected in any of the DNA samples, except for those with engorged female carcasses and nymphs. Three immune-suppressed recipient goats were infested with the unfed immature and mature ticks consuming the blood of a donor infected with B. aktasi. No clinical or parasitological findings were encountered in the recipient for 40 days post-infestation. These findings indicated that R. bursa was not a competent vector for B. aktasi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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16 pages, 4050 KiB  
Article
The Establishment of a Novel In Vitro System for Culturing Cytauxzoon felis
by Pabasara Weerarathne, Mason Reichard, Craig Miller and Ruth C. Scimeca
Pathogens 2024, 13(7), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13070565 - 4 Jul 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Cytauxzoonosis, a highly fatal tick-borne disease in domestic cats caused by Cytauxzoon felis, poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to the inability to culture the parasite in vitro. This study aimed to artificially replicate C. felis infection and characterize in vitro replication [...] Read more.
Cytauxzoonosis, a highly fatal tick-borne disease in domestic cats caused by Cytauxzoon felis, poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to the inability to culture the parasite in vitro. This study aimed to artificially replicate C. felis infection and characterize in vitro replication kinetics. Concanavalin A-activated feline embryonal macrophages (Fcwf-4) were plated at 3–5 × 105 cells/mL and incubated with C. felis-positive blood samples from either a (1) chronically infected bobcat (Lynx rufus), (2) chronically infected domestic cat, or (3) acutely infected domestic cat with clinical signs of cytauxzoonosis. Temporal changes in parasite load were quantified by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and the inhibition of infection/replication was assessed using atovaquone, imidocarb dipropionate (ID), artemisinin, ponazuril, and neutralizing antibodies. Tick cell lines AAE2 and ISE6 were also tested for infection. In vitro inoculation with chronic infection led to transient replication, while acute infection resulted in sustained replication beyond 10 days post-inoculation. Atovaquone, ID, and artemisinin inhibited replication, and neutralizing antibodies prevented infection. The inoculation of tick cells in vitro indicated infection; however, parasite replication was not observed. The results of this study established an in vitro model for studying infection dynamics, assessing therapy efficacy, and testing vaccination strategies in cytauxzoonosis-infected cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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14 pages, 1812 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of an In Vitro Tick Feeding System to Identify Ixodes Tick Environment-Induced Genes of the Lyme Disease Agent, Borrelia burgdorferi
by Youki Yamasaki, Preeti Singh, Rubikah Vimonish, Massaro Ueti and Troy Bankhead
Pathogens 2024, 13(6), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13060487 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The bacterial agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, exists in an enzootic cycle by adapting to dissimilar mammalian and tick environments. The genetic elements necessary for host and vector adaptation are spread across a bacterial genome comprised of a linear chromosome and [...] Read more.
The bacterial agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, exists in an enzootic cycle by adapting to dissimilar mammalian and tick environments. The genetic elements necessary for host and vector adaptation are spread across a bacterial genome comprised of a linear chromosome and essential linear and circular plasmids. The promoter trap system, In Vivo Expression Technology (IVET), has been used to identify promoters of B. burgdorferi that are transcriptionally active specifically during infection of a murine host. However, an observed infection bottleneck effect in mice prevented the application of this system to study promoters induced in a tick environment. In this study, we adapted a membrane-based in vitro feeding system as a novel method to infect the Ixodes spp. vector with B. burgdorferi. Once adapted, we performed IVET screens as a proof of principle via an infected bloodmeal on the system. The screen yielded B. burgdorferi promoters that are induced during tick infection and verified relative expression levels using qRT-PCR. The results of our study demonstrate the potential of our developed in vitro tick feeding system and IVET systems to gain insight into the adaptive gene expression of the Lyme disease bacteria to the tick vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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7 pages, 1658 KiB  
Communication
Novel Theileria sp. as an Etiology of Cutaneous Theileriosis among the Vulnerable Arabian Oryx
by Sonia Boughattas, Mutassim A. Salih, Andrea Dogliero and Nahla O. Eltai
Pathogens 2024, 13(6), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13060485 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
The Arabian Peninsula’s endemic ungulate, Oryx leucoryx, was on the verge of extinction at the end of the 1970s. Despite the different reintroduction programs, the International Union for Conservation of Nature is still classifying it as Vulnerable. Among other factors, their vulnerability [...] Read more.
The Arabian Peninsula’s endemic ungulate, Oryx leucoryx, was on the verge of extinction at the end of the 1970s. Despite the different reintroduction programs, the International Union for Conservation of Nature is still classifying it as Vulnerable. Among other factors, their vulnerability lies in their susceptibility to specific etiological agents that affect livestock, necessitating health monitoring and strict preventive/biosecurity measures. Within this frame, the current work investigated the determination of the etiological agent potentially involved with cutaneous lesions observed in eight males of Arabian oryx within one of the several national governance conservation programs. Microscopic examination from one animal specimen suggested theileriosis association, which was confirmed by molecular tools using 18S gene sequencing and the report of a novel Theileria sp. not clustering with previously reported antelope sequences. This finding prompts further explorations into the disease dynamics within the Arabian oryx population, especially with the scarcity of data in Qatar about tick-borne pathogens and their transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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13 pages, 666 KiB  
Article
Evidence of Incomplete Feeding Behaviors among South Carolina Tick Populations
by Kayla E. Bramlett, Laura E. Witt, Madeleine M. Meyer, Kia Zellars, Kyndall C. Dye-Braumuller and Melissa S. Nolan
Insects 2024, 15(6), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15060385 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Dynamic environmental conditions, such as climate change and host availability, have greatly influenced the expansion of medically relevant tick vectors into new regions throughout the southeastern United States of America. As tick populations migrate into new areas, it has been suggested they can [...] Read more.
Dynamic environmental conditions, such as climate change and host availability, have greatly influenced the expansion of medically relevant tick vectors into new regions throughout the southeastern United States of America. As tick populations migrate into new areas, it has been suggested they can exhibit a phenomenon known as incomplete feeding. With this phenomenon, tick vectors feed on more than one host at each life stage, thus increasing the likelihood of pathogen transmission. Although this behavior is not well understood, it presents an important threat to human health. Here we present evidence of incomplete feeding behaviors in multiple tick species in South Carolina. Engorged, blood-fed female ticks were collected from feral dogs at animal shelters across South Carolina in 2022. All ticks were tested for human blood meals using rapid stain identification blood tests. Approximately one third (33.78%) of all ticks tested positive for a human blood meal, with various patterns seen across species, geographic location, and collection month. The results of this pilot study follow the current national trend of increasing rates of tick-borne disease incidence in the southeastern United States of America and warrant further investigation into the relationship between seasonality, geographic distribution, species, and incomplete feeding among tick populations in South Carolina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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20 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks with Sympatric Occurrence (and Different Activities) in the Slovak Karst National Park (Slovakia), Central Europe
by Veronika Blažeková, Michal Stanko, Hein Sprong, Robert Kohl, Dana Zubriková, Lucia Vargová, Martin Bona, Dana Miklisová and Bronislava Víchová
Pathogens 2024, 13(5), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13050385 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Ticks are involved in the transmission a plethora of pathogens. To effectively control ticks and mitigate the risks associated with tick-borne diseases, it is important to implement tick control measures. These may include the use of acaricides as well as the development and [...] Read more.
Ticks are involved in the transmission a plethora of pathogens. To effectively control ticks and mitigate the risks associated with tick-borne diseases, it is important to implement tick control measures. These may include the use of acaricides as well as the development and implementation of an alternative, environmentally friendly tick management program that include practices such as habitat modification or establishing biological control. Ixodiphagus hookeri Howard is a tick-specific parasitoid wasp that predates on several species of ixodid ticks and could contribute to the control of the tick population. This work aimed to detect the presence of parasitoid wasps in ticks (Ixodidae) using genetic approaches. Several tick species of the genera Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, and Dermacentor, with a sympatric occurrence in the Slovak Karst National Park in southeastern Slovakia, were screened for the presence of wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus. The DNA of the parasitoids was detected in four tick species from three genera. This work presents the first molecular detection of parasitoids in two Dermacentor tick species, as well as the first molecular identification of Ixodiphagus wasps in Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks from the Karst area. In the given area, it was observed that I. ricinus and H. concinna ticks are hyper-parasitized by wasps. Moreover, it was observed that wasps here can parasitize several tick species, some of which are of less significance for human and animal health (as they transmit fewer pathogens). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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15 pages, 664 KiB  
Article
Co-Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato and Babesia spp. DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Collected from Vegetation and Pets in the City of Poznań, Poland
by Justyna Liberska, Jerzy Franciszek Michalik, Julia Olechnowicz and Miroslawa Dabert
Pathogens 2024, 13(4), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13040307 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Here, we described the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Babesia species found in mono- and double infections among Ixodes ricinus ticks occurring in urban areas of the city of Poznań, Poland. We tested 1029 host-seeking ticks and 1268 engorged ticks removed from [...] Read more.
Here, we described the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Babesia species found in mono- and double infections among Ixodes ricinus ticks occurring in urban areas of the city of Poznań, Poland. We tested 1029 host-seeking ticks and 1268 engorged ticks removed from pet animals. Borrelia afzelii and B. garinii prevailed both in ticks from vegetation (3.7% and 3.7%, respectively) and from pets (3.7% and 0.6%, respectively). Babesia canis and Ba. microti were the most prevalent in host-seeking (2.6% and 1.4%, respectively) and feeding ticks (2.8% and 2.2%, respectively). Babesia microti sequences proved to be identical to the human pathogenic Ba. microti genotype “Jena/Germany”. Sequences of the rarest piroplasm Ba. venatorum (0.7%) were identical with those isolated from European patients. About 1.0% of tested ticks yielded dual infections; in host-seeking ticks, Ba. canis prevailed in co-infections with B. afzelii and B. garinii, whereas Ba. microti and B. afzelii dominated in double-infected feeding ticks. Dual infections, even with a low prevalence, pose a challenge for differential diagnosis in patients with acute febrile disease after a tick bite. The finding of Ba. canis in both tick groups suggests that I. ricinus could be involved in the circulation of this piroplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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20 pages, 2166 KiB  
Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Babesia bigemina Attenuated Vaccine and Virulent Strains of Mexican Origin
by Rebeca M. Santamaria, Karel Estrada, María E. López, Edith Rojas, Grecia Martínez, Yazmín Alcalá, Carmen Rojas, Jesús Antonio Álvarez, José J. Lira, Tomás V. Santamaria, Alejandro Sánchez-Flores and Julio V. Figueroa
Vaccines 2024, 12(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines12030309 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Bovine babesiosis, caused by the protozoan Babesia bigemina, is one of the most important hemoparasite diseases of cattle in Mexico and the world. An attenuated B. bigemina strain maintained under in vitro culture conditions has been used as a live attenuated vaccine; [...] Read more.
Bovine babesiosis, caused by the protozoan Babesia bigemina, is one of the most important hemoparasite diseases of cattle in Mexico and the world. An attenuated B. bigemina strain maintained under in vitro culture conditions has been used as a live attenuated vaccine; however, the biological mechanisms involved in attenuation are unknown. The objective of this study was to identify, through a comparative transcriptomics approach, the components of the B. bigemina virulent parasites that are differentially expressed in vivo, as opposed to those expressed by B. bigemina attenuated vaccine parasites when inoculated into naïve cattle. The biological material under study was obtained by inoculating spleen-intact cattle with infected erythrocytes containing either the attenuated strain or a virulent field strain. After RNA extraction, transcriptomic analysis (RNA-seq) was performed, followed by bioinformatic Differential Expression (DE) analysis and Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment. The high-throughput sequencing results obtained by analyzing three biological replicates for each parasite strain ranged from 9,504,000 to 9,656,000, and 13,400,000 to 15,750,000 reads for the B. bigemina attenuated and virulent strains, respectively. At least 519 differentially expressed genes were identified in the analyzed strains. In addition, GO analysis revealed both similarities and differences across the three categories: cellular components, biological processes, and molecular functions. The attenuated strain of B. bigemina derived from in vitro culture presents global transcriptomic changes when compared to the virulent strain. Moreover, the obtained data provide insights into the potential molecular mechanisms associated with the attenuation or pathogenicity of each analyzed strain, offering molecular markers that might be associated with virulence or potential vaccine candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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9 pages, 506 KiB  
Article
Serosurvey of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Romania
by Andreea Mădălina Panciu, Cristina Alexandra Cheran, Eliza Daniela Militaru, Claudia Doina Rîciu and Adriana Hristea
Pathogens 2024, 13(3), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens13030231 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a disease with mandatory declaration in the EU since 2012. Information regarding the seroprevalence of the disease across Romania is limited, and only sporadic cases are rarely reported. We aimed to identify new areas of TBEV infection in [...] Read more.
Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a disease with mandatory declaration in the EU since 2012. Information regarding the seroprevalence of the disease across Romania is limited, and only sporadic cases are rarely reported. We aimed to identify new areas of TBEV infection in different counties of Romania. Methods: We conducted a serosurvey assessing the immune response to TBEV infection in adult populations from rural areas in different counties of the country. Seropositivity was defined by a positive TBEV IgM/IgG ELISA test and confirmed by serum neutralization. Results: We collected 1116 samples from 15 different localities in 10 counties (divided into endemic/border/non-endemic counties) across Romania. Overall, 26 (2.3%) of the samples were tested positive using the TBEV ELISA assay in six counties. In those counties, 3.7% of sera were positive, varying from 1.4% to 6.9% per county. After performing the neutralization assay, seven (0.6%) samples were confirmed positive, interestingly all from one site in Sibiu County, where the seroprevalence was 9.7%. Conclusions: The identification of positive serum samples in serosurveys appears to rely on the discovery of TBEV microfoci. Further serological surveys should be conducted in Romania, especially after the identification of positive TBEV patients presenting for medical care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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13 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia spp. Molecular and Serological Evidence among Colombian Vectors and Animal Hosts: A Historical Review
by Lídia Gual-Gonzalez, Myriam E. Torres, Stella C. W. Self, Omar Cantillo-Barraza and Melissa S. Nolan
Insects 2024, 15(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15030170 - 2 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. (SFGR) are a large group of tick-borne bacteria causing important emerging and re-emerging diseases that affect animals and humans. While SFGR are found worldwide, a lack of surveillance and misdiagnosis particularly affect South American countries. Colombia is a [...] Read more.
Spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. (SFGR) are a large group of tick-borne bacteria causing important emerging and re-emerging diseases that affect animals and humans. While SFGR are found worldwide, a lack of surveillance and misdiagnosis particularly affect South American countries. Colombia is a high burdened country in South America, yet rickettsioses are not deemed a nationally reportable condition limiting disease-specific public health resources. As mortality rates are high for one Rickettsia pathogen species, there is a great need to better understand the epidemiological and ecological factors that increase SFGR transmission risk regionally. This literature review provides an overview of Colombia-based SFGR studies connecting knowledge about both vectors and hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens)
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