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Special Issue "Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Guangxin Zhang

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4888 Shengbei Street, Changchun 130102, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86-431-85542210 | +86-13944813495
Fax: +86-431-85542298
Interests: wetland ecohydrology and water environment; integrated management of water resources; impact of climate changes on hydrology and water resources and groundwater-surface water interactions
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ligang Xu

Lake-catchments interaction and modelling group, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 73, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: process of ecohydrology of wetlands; modeling of surface water-groundwater interaction; contaminant hydrology; integrated water resources and regimes management
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Y. Jun Xu

School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-225-578-4168
Fax: +1-225-578-4227
Interests: surface hydrology; water quality; hydrologic and biogeochemical processes and modeling; sediment and nutrient transport; land use and climate change effects on water resources and biogeochemical cycles; isotopic tracer techniques; and GIS/Remote Sensing applications in surface hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The wetland hydrologic cycle plays a crucial role in local and regional flow systems, including attenuation, storage, re-distribution, surface-groundwater interaction, and river/lake riparian connectivity. The biogeochemical processes associated with the hydrologic cycle affect water quality and ecosystem functioning across land and waterscapes. These processes in many parts of the world have been changed significantly due to a combined effect of climate change and human activities, leading to severe environmental issues such as wetland loss, water regime shifts, water resource shortages, water quality deterioration, and declining ecosystem health. The shrinking weland acreage and functional degradation is a threat to regional and global water security and ecological integrity. This Special Issue aims to assemble contributions on understandings of wetland ecohydrological processes and solutions to the problems. We welcome original contributions that use field observations, experimental data, and numerical modeling to analyze ecohydrological processes in wetlands and to improve integrated water resources and ecosystem management at the wetland, watershed and river basin scales.

Prof. Dr. Guangxin Zhang
Prof. Dr. Ligang Xu
Prof. Dr. Y. Jun Xu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wetlands
  • Lakes, riparian areas, floodplains
  • Ecohydrological processes and modeling
  • Surface water-groundwater interactions
  • River, lake, riparian connectivity
  • Wetland biogeochemical processes
  • Wetland hydrological function
  • Wetland water quality
  • Role of wetlands in floods and droughts
  • Water management in wetlands
  • Integrated management of water resources

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Impacts of Bathymetric Changes on Water Level in China’s Largest Freshwater Lake
Water 2019, 11(7), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071469
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
A recent dramatic decline in water level during the dry season in China’s largest freshwater lake (Lake Poyang) significantly influenced water availability and biogeochemical processes. To learn the potential causes of water level decline, this study investigated the hydrodynamic response to bathymetric changes [...] Read more.
A recent dramatic decline in water level during the dry season in China’s largest freshwater lake (Lake Poyang) significantly influenced water availability and biogeochemical processes. To learn the potential causes of water level decline, this study investigated the hydrodynamic response to bathymetric changes during three typical hydrological years by scenario simulation using Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The simulation results indicated that bathymetric changes resulted in a water level decrease during a low water level period. Inter-annual variation in the decrease rate implied that water level in typical dry and wet years were influenced more significantly than that in moderate hydrological years. A spatial gradient in the distribution of water level changes was also observed, which was mainly concentrated in the main channel. Water velocities also slowed down, weakly corresponding to the decrease in water level during the low water level period. Overall, bathymetric changes caused by sand mining contributed to water level and velocity variations, influencing the stability and sustainability of the lake ecosystem. This study can potentially enhance our understanding of the hydrodynamic processes in Lake Poyang and support water resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Dissolved Carbon Transport and Processing in North America’s Largest Swamp River Entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico
Water 2019, 11(7), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071395
Received: 21 April 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
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Abstract
Transport and transformation of riverine dissolved carbon is an important component of global carbon cycling. The Atchafalaya River (AR) flows 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America and discharges ~25% of the flow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf [...] Read more.
Transport and transformation of riverine dissolved carbon is an important component of global carbon cycling. The Atchafalaya River (AR) flows 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America and discharges ~25% of the flow of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico annually, providing a unique opportunity to study the floodplain/wetland impacts on dissolved carbon. The aim of this study is to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control the carbon cycling in this intricate swamp-river system. From May 2015 to May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river’s inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for concentrations and δ13C stable isotope composition of DOC and DIC. We found that DIC concentrations in the AR were three times higher than the DOC concentrations on average, and showed more pronounced downstream changes than the DOC. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow–outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg (~10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain/wetland system, while 0.24 Tg (~10%) of the DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR’s water was consistently oversaturated with CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) above the atmospheric pCO2 (with pCO2 varying from 551 µatm to 6922 µatm), indicating a large source of DIC from river waters to the atmosphere as well as to the coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the swamp-river basin and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition. This effect was particularly pronounced during the initial flood stages, supporting the hypothesis that subtropical floodplains can act as effective enhancers of the biogeochemical cycling of dissolved carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Field Investigation on River Hydrochemical Characteristics and Larval and Juvenile Fish in the Source Region of the Yangtze River
Water 2019, 11(7), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071342
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
The source region of the Yangtze River (SRYR) is located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the climatic conditions and alpine-cold natural conditions are harsh. Field investigations of the hydrochemical characteristics and larva and juvenile fish in rivers of the SRYR were carried out [...] Read more.
The source region of the Yangtze River (SRYR) is located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the climatic conditions and alpine-cold natural conditions are harsh. Field investigations of the hydrochemical characteristics and larva and juvenile fish in rivers of the SRYR were carried out in July 2018 with the aim of obtaining further information on the unique ecological environment status of this plateau area. The results of the present research indicated that majority of the river water quality parameters in the SRYR were in the range of class I to class II, according to the classification of the environmental quality standard for surface water (GB3838-2002) in China. Among 12 kinds of metal ions, the concentrations of four major ions occurred in the following order: Ca > Na > Mg > K. The concentrations of eight heavy metal ions (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and As) were all within the class I water range based on GB3838-2002. A total of three species of larval and juvenile fish, i.e., Triplophysa stenura (T. stenura), Schizopygopsis microcephalus Herzenstein (S. microcephalus) and Triplophysa bleekeri (T. bleekeri), were collected from 11 sampling sites. It was found that T. stenura covered the widest distribution range and was the most abundant. The results of principal component analysis and canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated that the distribution of S. microcephalus exhibited a positive response to water temperature, a positive response to K and a negative correlation with water temperature were demonstrated in the distribution of T. stenura. T. bleekeri distribution had a positive response to Cu, but negative responses to total phosphorus and total dissolved solid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Response of Wetland Evapotranspiration to Land Use/Cover Change and Climate Change in Liaohe River Delta, China
Water 2019, 11(5), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050955
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effects of land use/cover change (LUCC) and climate change on wetland evapotranspiration (ET), and to identify the importance of the main effect factors in the spatiotemporal dynamics of ET. In the wetland of Liaohe River Delta, China, [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the effects of land use/cover change (LUCC) and climate change on wetland evapotranspiration (ET), and to identify the importance of the main effect factors in the spatiotemporal dynamics of ET. In the wetland of Liaohe River Delta, China, the ET of eight growing seasons during 1985–2017 was estimated using the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) model with Landsat and meteorological data. Results show that the average relative error of regional ET estimated by the SEBAL model is 9.01%, and the correlation coefficient between measured and estimated values is 0.61, which indicates that the estimated values are reliable. This study observed significant spatial and temporal variations in ET across the region of interest. The distribution of the average and relative change rate of daily ET in the study area showed bimodal characteristics, that is, the lowest trough occurred in 2005, whereas crests occurred in 1989 and 2014. Simultaneously, the daily ET varied with the land use/cover area. Regional daily ET displays highly heterogeneous spatial distribution, that is, the ET of different land uses/cover types in descending order is as follows: water body, wetland vegetation, non-wetland vegetation, and non-vegetation (except water area). Therefore, the spatial pattern of ET is relevant to the land use/cover types to some extent. In addition, the temporal variation of wetland ET is closely related to landscape transformation and meteorological factor change. A strong correlation was found between ET and the weighted values of meteorological factors, with a correlation coefficient of 0.69. Meanwhile, the annual fluctuations of daily ET and the weighted values were relatively similar. Therefore, the findings highlight the importance of using cheap and readily available remote sensing data for estimating and mapping the variations in ET in coastal wetland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Water Level Regimes in China’s Two Largest Freshwater Lakes: Characterization and Implication
Water 2019, 11(5), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050917
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
The complex water regimes and fragile ecological systems in Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, have been significantly affected by regional climate change and anthropogenic activities. The hydrological data from the outlets of Dongting Lake [...] Read more.
The complex water regimes and fragile ecological systems in Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, have been significantly affected by regional climate change and anthropogenic activities. The hydrological data from the outlets of Dongting Lake (Chenglingji station) during 1955–2016 and Poyang Lake (Hukou station) during 1953–2014 were divided into two periods: the pre-impact period and the post-impact period. Four statistical tests were used to identify the change years: 1979 at Chenglingji and 2003 at Hukou. The indicators of hydrologic alteration and range of variability approach were used to assess alterations in water level regimes. Results show that the severely altered indicators were January water level at both lake outlets, and 1-, 3-, 7- and 30-day minimum water level at Chenglingji, with the degree of hydrological alteration being larger than 85%. The overall degrees of hydrological alteration at Chenglingji and Hukou were 52.6% and 38.2%, respectively, indicating that water level regimes experienced moderate alteration and low alteration or that ecosystems were at moderate risk and low risk, respectively. Changes in water level regimes were jointly affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Water level regimes at Dongting Lake outlet were mainly affected by increased rainfall and dam regulation. Decreased rainfall, dam regulation, and sediment erosion and deposition were the main impact factors of water level regimes at Poyang Lake outlet. These changes in water level regimes have greatly influenced both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, especially for fish and vegetation communities. This study is beneficial for water resource management and ecosystems protection under regional changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Poyang Lake Wetland Ecosystem Health Assessment of Using the Wetland Landscape Classification Characteristics
Water 2019, 11(4), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040825
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Currently, wetland stability is under threat due to the joint effects of global climate change and human activity, especially in lakes. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the health status of wetland ecosystems such as lakes, identify the variables causing the wetland degradation [...] Read more.
Currently, wetland stability is under threat due to the joint effects of global climate change and human activity, especially in lakes. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the health status of wetland ecosystems such as lakes, identify the variables causing the wetland degradation and work to protect the wetlands from the identified variables in the future. Based on fourteen high-resolution autumn remote sensing images from 1989–2013, the classification characteristics and spatial distribution patterns of wetland landscapes in Poyang Lake were studied through quantitative interpretation technology. An established health assessment index system named the EHCI (Ecological Health Comprehensive Index) was used to assess the health status of Poyang Lake. Additionally, the relationship between water regime and health status of wetland landscape distribution of Poyang Lake were investigated by multivariate statistical analysis. The results demonstrated: (1) The total area of three first level (or six second level) types of wetland landscapes showed a stable status, which was long-term maintaining at about 3026 km2 from 1989–2013. (2) The water area shows a downward trend, while the areas of vegetation and land-water transition zone show upward trends. (3) The proposed EHCI of the Poyang Lake wetland presented a downward trend. According to the EHCI results from 1989–2013, the health status of Poyang Lake wetland was healthy for two years, unhealthy for four years and sub-healthy for eight years. (4) The water level fluctuation greatly affected the EHCI, and the effect became greater as the water level increased. These results contribute to the understanding of specific effects of hydrological process on the health status of the Poyang Lake wetland. In addition they provide a scientific reference for the maintenance of stable ecosystem functions of the seasonal freshwater lake. These results contribute to the understanding of specific effects of hydrological process on the health status of the Poyang Lake. In addition they provide a scientific reference for the maintenance of stable ecosystem functions of the seasonal freshwater lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
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