Special Issue "Advanced Research on Sustainable Water Resources Management and Planning under Climate Change"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 23566

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Chunhui Li
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Guest Editor
Key Lab of Water and Sediment Science of Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Interests: water resources assessment; water resources management; environmental flow; hydrological modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Zoe Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
Interests: water security under climate change; uncertainty analysis; risk management; stochastic modelling; water resources management; climate change impacts; environmental systems analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Yurui Fan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brunel University, London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
Interests: flood prediction; hydrological data assimilation; flood risk analysis; water and environmental systems analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900, Brazil
Interests: droughts and water availability; hydrologic modeling; water resource management; trends; wavelet transform
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Junliang Jin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic research institute, Nanjing 210029, China
Interests: hydrologic modeling; water resource management; climate change impact on water resources

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water resources are one of most critical factors for the sustainable development of human society and are also important for maintaining natural ecosystems. With the influence of climate change and human activities, water resources in many watersheds have changed greatly with a decrease in water availability, deterioration in water quality, and degradation in aquatic ecological systems, especially in important rivers in the world, such as the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, the Amazon River, etc. Therefore, it is a daunting challenge to maintain sustainability at the watershed scale through scientific and effective water resource management and planning. In recent years, many scholars have put forward many new theories, technologies, and methods in the research of watershed hydrological processes, as well as water resource management and planning, to deal with climate change and human disturbance.

This Special Issue on “Advanced Research on Sustainable Water Resources Management and Planning under Climate Change” aims to explore new models, methods, and tools for water resource management and planning and their applications in various watersheds of the world. We hope this will facilitate the development of sustainable water resource management at the watershed level.

Topics of interest may include but are not limited to:

  • Water availability assessment;
  • Water security assessment;
  • Hydrologic modeling;
  • Water resource planning;
  • Climate changes on water resources;
  • Water resources management;
  • Surface water and groundwater;
  • Ecological water demanded or environmental flow.

Prof. Dr. Chunhui Li
Dr. Zoe Li
Dr. Yurui Fan
Prof. Dr. Celso Augusto Guimarães Santos
Prof. Dr. Junliang Jin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water resource assessment
  • water resource planning
  • climate change
  • integrated management
  • drought and flood
  • hydrologic modeling

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

Article
A Developed Method of Water Pollution Control Based on Environmental Capacity and Environmental Flow in Luanhe River Basin
Water 2022, 14(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050730 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
To solve increasingly serious water pollution problems, it is necessary to systematically manage water resources, water environment, and water ecology as elements of a watershed. Comprehensive watershed water pollution control should regard the basin as a whole, respect the natural laws of the [...] Read more.
To solve increasingly serious water pollution problems, it is necessary to systematically manage water resources, water environment, and water ecology as elements of a watershed. Comprehensive watershed water pollution control should regard the basin as a whole, respect the natural laws of the river and lake system, and focus on the protection and restoration of its natural ecological environment so that the comprehensive ecological service functions of rivers and lakes can be fully realized. Based on the concepts of environmental capacity (EC) and environmental flow (EF), this study established watershed water pollution control scheme prediction and evaluation methods to explore the changes in the water environment and water ecology in the basin under different water pollution control schemes. The MIKE11 model was used to construct a hydrologic and water quality model of the study area, the one-dimensional water quality model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity, and the Tennant method was used to evaluate the environmental flow. In this study, the method was applied to the Luanhe River Basin of Chengde, Hebei Province, China. It simulated the concentration changes of four pollutants—namely, NH3-N, COD, TN, and TP—under eight different water pollution control schemes, and the responses of EC and EF were compared and analyzed. Some conclusions are as follows: (1) Reducing point source pollution has the most obvious effect on water pollution prevention, especially on NH3-N and COD, while reducing nonpoint source pollution is weaker and the effect of increasing upstream water is the weakest. (2) The increase in up-stream water inflow and reducing point source pollution can greatly increase the EC of NH3-N and COD. The EC of TN can be greatly increased by reducing point source pollution, and the EC of TP can be greatly increased by reducing nonpoint source pollution. (3) The increase in upstream water inflow can improve the EF level to a certain extent. This method can also be applied to other similar river basins, providing valuable suggestions for rationally formulating water environmental management strategies and for promoting the sustainable development of the ecological environment and social economy in the river basin. Full article
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Article
Exploiting IoT and Its Enabled Technologies for Irrigation Needs in Agriculture
Water 2022, 14(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050719 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
The increase in population growth and demand is rapidly depleting natural resources. Irrigation plays a vital role in the productivity and growth of agriculture, consuming no less than 75% of fresh water utilization globally. Irrigation, being the largest consumer of water across the [...] Read more.
The increase in population growth and demand is rapidly depleting natural resources. Irrigation plays a vital role in the productivity and growth of agriculture, consuming no less than 75% of fresh water utilization globally. Irrigation, being the largest consumer of water across the globe, needs refinements in its process, and because it is implemented by individuals (farmers), the use of water for irrigation is not effective. To enhance irrigation management, farmers need to keep track of information such as soil type, climatic conditions, available water resources, soil pH, soil nutrients, and soil moisture to make decisions that resolve or prevent agricultural complexity. Irrigation, a data-driven technology, requires the integration of emerging technologies and modern methodologies to provide solutions to the complex problems faced by agriculture. The paper is an overview of IoT-enabled modern technologies through which irrigation management can be elevated. This paper presents the evolution of irrigation and IoT, factors to be considered for effective irrigation, the need for effective irrigation optimization, and how dynamic irrigation optimization would help reduce water use. The paper also discusses the different IoT architecture and deployment models, sensors, and controllers used in the agriculture field, available cloud platforms for IoT, prominent tools or software used for irrigation scheduling and water need prediction, and machine learning and neural network models for irrigation. Convergence of the tools, technologies and approaches helps in the development of better irrigation management applications. Access to real-time data, such as weather, plant and soil data, must be enhanced for the development of effective irrigation management applications. Full article
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Article
Using Time-Lapse Resistivity Imaging Methods to Quantitatively Evaluate the Potential of Groundwater Reservoirs
Water 2022, 14(3), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030420 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 704
Abstract
In this study, we attempt to establish an alternative method for estimating the groundwater levels and the specific yields of an unconfined aquifer for the evaluation of potential groundwater reservoirs. We first converted the inverted resistivity into the normalized water content. Then, we [...] Read more.
In this study, we attempt to establish an alternative method for estimating the groundwater levels and the specific yields of an unconfined aquifer for the evaluation of potential groundwater reservoirs. We first converted the inverted resistivity into the normalized water content. Then, we inverted the parameters of the Brooks-Corey model from the vertical profiles of the water content by assuming that the suction head was in proportion to the elevation regarding a predefined base level. Lastly, we estimated the groundwater level, the theoretical specific yield, and the specific yield capacity from the Brooks-Corey parameters at every survey site in the study area. The contour maps of the time-lapse groundwater levels show that the groundwater flows downstream, with a higher hydraulic gradient near the river channel than in the area away from the main channel. We conclude that the estimated maximum specific yield capacities are consistent with that derived from the pumping tests in the nearby observation well. Additionally, the specific yield capacities are only three quarters to two thirds of the theoretical specific yields derived from the difference between the residual and saturated water contents in the Brooks-Corey model. We conclude that the distribution pattern of the specific yields had been subjected to the distribution of natural river sediments in the Minzu Basin, since the modern channel was artificially modified. Although we had to make some simple assumptions for the estimations, the results show that the surface resistivity surveys provide reasonable estimations of the hydraulic parameters for a preliminary assessment in an area with few available wells. Full article
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Article
Simulation Accuracy of EROSION-3D Model for Estimation of Runoff and Sediment Yield from Micro-Watersheds
Water 2022, 14(3), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030280 - 18 Jan 2022
Viewed by 406
Abstract
The present study was conducted to test the efficiency and applicability of the EROSION-3D (Jürgen Schmidt, Berlin, Germany) model in the lower Shivaliks of Northwest India. Two similar micro-watersheds in terms of soil characteristics and land use were selected for calibration and validation [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to test the efficiency and applicability of the EROSION-3D (Jürgen Schmidt, Berlin, Germany) model in the lower Shivaliks of Northwest India. Two similar micro-watersheds in terms of soil characteristics and land use were selected for calibration and validation of the model. The model was calibrated using the data from seven rainstorms of micro-watershed A and validated using data from 11 rainstorms in micro-watershed B. After calibration, the overall statistical parameters, namely RMSE (0.44 mm), percent error (4.92), correlation coefficient (0.94) and model efficiency (88%), clearly indicate that the model simulated runoff quite well in conditions prevalent in Shivaliks. For sediment yield, the overall statistical parameters, namely RMSE (0.365 Mg ha−1), percent error (12.71), correlation coefficient (0.97) and model efficiency (88.32%), clearly indicate that the model simulated sediment yield also quite well. During the validation process, for runoff, RMSE (1.72 mm), percent error (19.19), correlation coefficient (0.94), and model efficiency (81.25%) and, for sediment yield, RMSE (0.19 Mg ha−1), percent error (17.16), correlation coefficient (0.97), and model efficiency (74.48%) clearly demonstrate the reasonable accuracy of the EROSION-3D model to predict runoff and soil loss from micro-watersheds located in Shivaliks of Northwest India. Therefore, the EROSION-3D may be used as decision support system for soil conservation management decisions in the lower Shivaliks of India. Full article
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Article
Heavy Metal Removal from the Water of the River Nile Using Riverbank Filtration
Water 2021, 13(24), 3642; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243642 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Riverbank filtration (RBF) is considered as a natural treatment process. During this process, a group of chemical, physical, and biological processes occur when water moves through the soil along the bank of the River Nile, which can act as a conventional treatment process. [...] Read more.
Riverbank filtration (RBF) is considered as a natural treatment process. During this process, a group of chemical, physical, and biological processes occur when water moves through the soil along the bank of the River Nile, which can act as a conventional treatment process. RBF is one of the most effective solutions that the Egyptian government and responsible parties should embrace. Egypt has started to use the RBF technique widely in many sites through the path of the River Nile. This study provides a detailed analysis of the RBF technique; it represents the outlet quality of the water in a study performed on the River Nile. The effect of RBF on water quality can be measured using the software designed for this study. The study’s main aim is to improve the water quality of the River Nile by removing heavy metals from the water by using an effective and fast method of treatment, which is riverbank filtration. The results of the research’s experimental study show the average percentage of metal removal for iron, cobalt, lead, zinc, and copper are 74.04%, 74.44%, 70.72%, 75.1%, and 70.8%, respectively. These results have proved that RBF acts as a substantial barrier versus heavy metals. Full article
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Article
Response Relationship between the Upward or Downward Moving Distance of Main Stream Zone and Water and Sediment Conditions in Wandering Channels
Water 2021, 13(24), 3610; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243610 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 614
Abstract
The change of water and sediment conditions in wandering channels has a great impact on the stability of river regime. The quantitative relationship between them is still unclear. The qualitative influence of water and sediment conditions on the river regime stability was analyzed [...] Read more.
The change of water and sediment conditions in wandering channels has a great impact on the stability of river regime. The quantitative relationship between them is still unclear. The qualitative influence of water and sediment conditions on the river regime stability was analyzed by a model test. The response relationship between the upward or downward moving distance of the main stream zone and water and sediment conditions was quantitatively studied by using the measured water and sediment data and large-section data over the years. The results showed that when the upstream water and sediment inflow conditions change, the stability of a wandering channel with relatively stable river regime under the control of finite boundary will still change. When the river channel is at 1000 m3/s under the action of long-term small water, or silting thickness is about 0.53 m, the main stream next to the project moves upwards about 1170 m along the way. In the case of a large flood, such as 8000 m3/s, or scouring depth is about 0.39 m, the main stream next to the project moves downwards about 870 m along the way. The study provides a certain scientific basis for river regime stability and river flood control early warning, and provides a certain method reference for quantitative study of river regime evolution of other rivers at home and abroad. Full article
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Article
Suspended Sediment Load Simulation during Flood Events Using Intelligent Systems: A Case Study on Semiarid Regions of Mediterranean Basin
Water 2021, 13(24), 3539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243539 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Sediment transport in rivers is a nonlinear natural phenomenon, which can harm the environment and hydraulic structures and is one of the main reasons for the dams’ siltation. In this paper, the following artificial intelligence approaches were used to simulate the suspended sediment [...] Read more.
Sediment transport in rivers is a nonlinear natural phenomenon, which can harm the environment and hydraulic structures and is one of the main reasons for the dams’ siltation. In this paper, the following artificial intelligence approaches were used to simulate the suspended sediment load (SSL) during periods of flood events in the northeastern Algerian river basins: artificial neural network combined with particle swarm optimization (ANN-PSO), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with particle swarm optimization (ANFIS-PSO), random forest (RF), and long short-term memory (LSTM). The comparison of the prediction accuracies of such different intelligent system approaches revealed that ANN-PSO, RF, and LSTM satisfactorily simulated the nonlinear process of SSL. Carefully comparing the results, the ANN-PSO model showed a slight superiority over the RF and LSTM models, with RMSE = 67.2990 kg/s in the Chemourah basin and RMSE = 55.8737 kg/s in the Gareat el tarf basin. Full article
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Article
Analysis and Prediction of Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Chengde City Based on System Dynamics Model
Water 2021, 13(24), 3534; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243534 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
In addition to the social economy and the rapid development of industry and agriculture, water demand is increasing and poses challenges in the over-exploitation of water resources. This research establishes a model to assess the sustainable exploitation of water resources based on system [...] Read more.
In addition to the social economy and the rapid development of industry and agriculture, water demand is increasing and poses challenges in the over-exploitation of water resources. This research establishes a model to assess the sustainable exploitation of water resources based on system dynamics theory and STELLA software, which solves the imbalanced allocation of industrial water, agricultural water and domestic water. The model is composed of two parts: the water quantity system (including economy, population, water availability and water demand) and the water quality system (composed of the aquatic environment), which is suitable for Chengde City with a water resource shortage. The proposed model is established by data of Chengde City from 2007 to 2016 and is verified by 2017 data. Furthermore, in order to compare the water quality and water utilization of Chengde City under different development scenarios up to 2025, the sensitivity analysis of each variable (e.g., population) is carried out in this model, and thereby the water resource utilization scenarios are acquired. Specifically, four scenarios are designed and denoted: Scenario 1: keeping the status quo unchanged, Scenario 2: slowing down economic development and devoting more energy to environmental protection, Scenario 3: only focusing more on economic development and Scenario 4: aiming at steady and rapid economic growth and an eco-friendly environment. The results shows that Scenarios 2 and 3 facilitate high-effective water resource utilization compared with the current development, Scenario 1. Scenario 4 fosters the balance of water resources supply–demand in the future and preserves the water quality. This study provides an inspiring method for realizing the sustainable utilization and optimizing allocation of water resources in Chengde City. Full article
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Article
Analyzing the Impact of Climate Change and Human Activities on Surface Runoff in the Changbai Mountain Area, Northeast China
Water 2021, 13(23), 3473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233473 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Climate change and human activities are two important factors affecting surface runoff. In water resource management and planning, it is generally important to separate the contribution of these factors when assessing runoff changes. The Changbai Mountain area is rich in water resources and [...] Read more.
Climate change and human activities are two important factors affecting surface runoff. In water resource management and planning, it is generally important to separate the contribution of these factors when assessing runoff changes. The Changbai Mountain area is rich in water resources and is an important hydropower energy base for Northeast China. This study used Sen’s slope estimator to explore trends in runoff precipitation and evapotranspiration from 1960 to 2016, and the results showed a downward trend in runoff and an upward trend in precipitation and evaporation in most areas. The mutation point of the annual time series for the observed runoff was estimated, and the time series was divided into the base period (1960–1975) and impact period (1976–2016). Based on the Budyko framework, we performed attribution analysis of the runoff changes, and analyzed the difference between the mountainous region and the whole basin. We determined that the impacts of climate change and human activities, on average, accounted for decreases in the runoff by 60.15% and 39.85%, respectively, for the Second Songhua River Basin; 73.74% and 26.26%, respectively, for the Tumen River Basin; 84.76% and 15.24%, respectively, for the Yalu River Basin; human activities were the main causes of runoff changes in the Changbai Mountain area; climate change was the main cause of runoff changes in mountainous regions. The results of this study show that the reasons for the change in runoff in mountainous regions and the whole basin in the same area are different, which has some illuminating significance for water resources management of different elevation areas. Full article
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Article
Responses of Macroinvertebrate Community Temporal Dissimilarity and Abundance to the Water Level Fluctuation Range in a Shallow Lake
Water 2021, 13(23), 3380; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233380 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Variations in the hydrological regime are among the anthropogenic pressures affecting biological assemblage structure in shallow freshwater lakes. We estimated the effects of the water level fluctuation range on the temporal dissimilarity of the macroinvertebrate community by sampling benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages monthly in [...] Read more.
Variations in the hydrological regime are among the anthropogenic pressures affecting biological assemblage structure in shallow freshwater lakes. We estimated the effects of the water level fluctuation range on the temporal dissimilarity of the macroinvertebrate community by sampling benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages monthly in 2017 and bimonthly in 2018. Then, we applied a boosted regression trees (BRT) model to quantitatively analyzing the relationship between macroinvertebrate abundance and microhabitat factors in different seasons. To distinguish differences in water level fluctuations at the sample site scale, we proposed a variable, namely, the percentage of water level fluctuation range (PWLFR). The results were as follows. (1) An increased water level fluctuation range would lead to more temporally heterogeneous macroinvertebrate communities. Temporal dissimilarity of macroinvertebrates increased linearly in response to increasing water level fluctuation range. (2) Species abundance presented seasonal characteristics, and the dominant factors affecting species abundance varied with the seasons. PWLFR was the dominant variable explaining macroinvertebrate abundance in summer. Macroinvertebrate abundance showed positive effects with increasing PWLFR. (3) The interaction between chlorophyll a and PWLFR in summer promoted an increase in macroinvertebrate abundance. These findings may provide a basis for the formulation of effective ecological water replenishment management decisions aimed at maintaining the stability of shallow lake ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions. Full article
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Article
Shallow Groundwater Quality Assessment and Its Suitability Analysis for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes
Water 2021, 13(23), 3361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233361 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
For shallow groundwater, hydrogeochemical processes and quality assessment must be addressed because shallow groundwater is freely available in many parts of the globe. Due to recent anthropogenic activities and environmental changes in Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan, the groundwater is extremely vulnerable. To provide safe [...] Read more.
For shallow groundwater, hydrogeochemical processes and quality assessment must be addressed because shallow groundwater is freely available in many parts of the globe. Due to recent anthropogenic activities and environmental changes in Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan, the groundwater is extremely vulnerable. To provide safe drinking and agricultural water, hydrogeochemical analysis is required. Ninety-five groundwater samples were analyzed using agricultural and drinking indices to determine the hydrogeochemical parameters using multivariate analysis such as Pearson correlations, principal component cluster analysis, as well as Piper diagrams and Gibbs plot for drinking and agricultural indices. An abundance of ions was observed through the statistical summary; however, cations and anions were recorded in the orders Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 > Cl > SO42− > NO3 > F. The hydrogeochemical process used to quantify the major reactions occurring in the groundwater system showed rock dominance; the Piper diagrams evaluated the water type. A mixed pattern of calcium, magnesium, and chloride ions (Ca2+−Mg2+−Cl type) was observed. Additionally, the ion exchange method showed an excess of bicarbonate ions due to carbonic acid weathering. The water quality index (WQI) resulted 32.6% of groundwater being unsuitable for human consumption; however, the United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) diagram showed 60% of samples were unsuitable for irrigation due to high salinity and the Wilcox diagram depicted 5% of samples lying in the unsuitable region. Most of the water samples were suitable for drinking; only a few samples were unsafe for drinking purposes for children due to the high hazard index. Full article
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Article
Analysis of the Economy-Wide Rebound Effect of Water Efficiency Improvement in China Based on a Multi-Sectoral Computable General Equilibrium Analysis
Water 2021, 13(21), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212963 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The effectiveness of water efficiency improvement is restricted by the water rebound effect by which anticipated water resource saving from improved water efficiency may be partly or wholly offset or even surpassed by an increase in water demand. The economy-wide rebound effect of [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of water efficiency improvement is restricted by the water rebound effect by which anticipated water resource saving from improved water efficiency may be partly or wholly offset or even surpassed by an increase in water demand. The economy-wide rebound effect of water efficiency improvement in China is poorly understood. This study explored the economy-wide rebound effect of water efficiency improvement in China based on a multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model. The results suggested that water efficiency improvement could effectively reduce water consumption in producing sectors and benefit economic growth and employment. However, the decrease in water consumption was much lower than the volume of water efficiency improvement, which indicated that the rebound effect partly offset water savings caused by water efficiency improvement. We observed a larger reduction in water consumption in the long run, which indicated a smaller rebound effect and a more significant effect in saving water resources in the long term. Notably, the total rebound effect in the short-run closure was much larger than that in the long-run closure, and the effect from the production side was much smaller. Hence, the economic-wide rebound effect is primarily derived from the incremental water consumption by households, investors, and governments. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Karst Spring Discharge Response Using Time-Scale-Based Methods for a Mediterranean Basin of Northern Algeria
Water 2021, 13(21), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13212946 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Understanding of behavior, variability, and links between hydrological series is a key element for successful long-term water resources planning and management. In this study, various time-scale-based methods such as correlation and spectral analysis (CSA), cross wavelet (XWT), and wavelet coherence transform (WCT) were [...] Read more.
Understanding of behavior, variability, and links between hydrological series is a key element for successful long-term water resources planning and management. In this study, various time-scale-based methods such as correlation and spectral analysis (CSA), cross wavelet (XWT), and wavelet coherence transform (WCT) were applied to assess the response of daily rainfall and karst spring discharge for the Sebaou River basin, which is located on Mediterranean basin in northern Algeria. The CSA revealed that the hydrogeological systems under study are characterized by various memory effect (small, poor, reduced, and extensive) with regularization times ranging from 5 to 50 day. XWT between rainfall and discharge time series indicates few marked disruptions in the spectra between the 1980s and 1990s corresponding to the dry period. The annual process is visible, dominant, and more amplified compared to the multi-annual fluctuations that characterize the 1-3- and 3–6-year modes, which explained the multi-annual regulation. The nonlinear relationship of the short-term components seems to be linked to the periods of storage (infiltration). Compared to the WCT components of 2–5, 26, and 52 weeks, there is a strong coherence for 102 weeks, which explains the long-term component, indicating a quasi-linearity of the rainfall-runoff relationship. According to the obtained results, the construction of more water resources structures is recommended to increase the water storage and improve the water supply due to the richness of the hydrographic network. On the other hand, the impacts of human activities on streamflow due to the looting of rocks and sands in the Sebaou River valleys have reached alarmingly high levels that require urgent intervention for the protection of water and ecological resources and their better rational use. Full article
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Article
A GIS-Based Groundwater Contamination Assessment Using Modified DRASTIC Geospatial Technique
Water 2021, 13(20), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202868 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Groundwater contamination along with anthropogenic actions and land use forms are increasing threats in urbanized zones around the world. Additionally, water quality and quantity are declining due to urbanization development. DRASTIC parameters (depth to the water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, [...] Read more.
Groundwater contamination along with anthropogenic actions and land use forms are increasing threats in urbanized zones around the world. Additionally, water quality and quantity are declining due to urbanization development. DRASTIC parameters (depth to the water table, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, hydraulic conductivity) were considered to investigate hydrological characteristics for assessment of contamination. Having a major effect of anthropogenic activities, various susceptibility zones were produced by modifying the DRASTIC model into DRASTICA, integrating anthropogenic effects as the “A” parameter in an alphabetic system. After the assessment, the research exposes that from the total area, 14% is under very high susceptibility, 44% is of high susceptibility, 39% is of moderate susceptibility, and 3% is of low susceptibility to groundwater pollution. The results in the built-up areas and based on the parameter of nitrate in quality of water show that the altered DRASTIC model or DRASTICA model proved to give better outcomes compared with the usual DRASTIC model. The policy advisers and management authorities must use the analysis data as precaution measures so that future calamities can be avoided. Full article
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Article
Regulation of Vegetation and Evapotranspiration by Water Level Fluctuation in Shallow Lakes
Water 2021, 13(19), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192651 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Water level fluctuations play a critical role in regulating vegetation distribution, composition, cover and richness, which ultimately affect evapotranspiration. In this study, we first explore water level fluctuations and associated impacts on vegetation, after which we assess evapotranspiration (ET) under different [...] Read more.
Water level fluctuations play a critical role in regulating vegetation distribution, composition, cover and richness, which ultimately affect evapotranspiration. In this study, we first explore water level fluctuations and associated impacts on vegetation, after which we assess evapotranspiration (ET) under different water levels. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the fractional vegetation cover (Fv), while topography- and vegetation-based surface-energy partitioning algorithms (TVET model) and potential evaporation (Ev) were used to calculate ET and water evaporation (Ep). Results show that: (1) water levels were dramatically affected by the combined effect of ecological water transfer and climate change and exhibited significant decreasing trends with a slope of −0.011 m a−2; and (2) as predicted, there was a correlation between water level fluctuation at an annual scale with Phragmites australis (P. australis) cover and open-water area. Water levels also had a controlling effect on Fv values, an increase in annual water levels first increasing and then decreasing Fv. However, a negative correlation was found between Fv values and water levels during initial plant growth stages. (iii) ET, which varied under different water levels at an annual scale, showed different partition into transpiration from P. australis and evaporation from open-water area and soil with alterations between vegetation and open water. All findings indicated that water level fluctuations controlled biological and ecological processes, and their structural and functional characteristics. This study consequently recommends that specifically-focused ecological water regulations (e.g., duration, timing, frequency) should be enacted to maintain the integrity of wetland ecosystems for wetland restoration. Full article
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Article
Machine Learning-Based Prediction of Chlorophyll-a Variations in Receiving Reservoir of World’s Largest Water Transfer Project—A Case Study in the Miyun Reservoir, North China
Water 2021, 13(17), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172406 - 01 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Although water transfer projects can alleviate the water crisis, they may cause potential risks to water quality safety in receiving areas. The Miyun Reservoir in northern China, one of the receiving reservoirs of the world’s largest water transfer project (South-to-North Water Transfer Project, [...] Read more.
Although water transfer projects can alleviate the water crisis, they may cause potential risks to water quality safety in receiving areas. The Miyun Reservoir in northern China, one of the receiving reservoirs of the world’s largest water transfer project (South-to-North Water Transfer Project, SNWTP), was selected as a case study. Considering its potential eutrophication trend, two machine learning models, i.e., the support vector machine (SVM) model and the random forest (RF) model, were built to investigate the trophic state by predicting the variations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations, the typical reflection of eutrophication, in the reservoir after the implementation of SNWTP. The results showed that compared with the SVM model, the RF model had higher prediction accuracy and more robust prediction ability with abnormal data, and was thus more suitable for predicting Chl-a concentration variations in the receiving reservoir. Additionally, short-term water transfer would not cause significant variations of Chl-a concentrations. After the project implementation, the impact of transferred water on the water quality of the receiving reservoir would have gradually increased. After a 10-year implementation, transferred water would cause a significant decline in the receiving reservoir’s water quality, and Chl-a concentrations would increase, especially from July to August. This led to a potential risk of trophic state change in the Miyun Reservoir and required further attention from managers. This study can provide prediction techniques and advice on water quality security management associated with eutrophication risks resulting from water transfer projects. Full article
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Article
Application of a Zoning Methodology for Groundwater Suitability on Islands, a Case Study of Pingtan Island, China
Water 2021, 13(15), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152000 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 724
Abstract
A groundwater function evaluation systems and associated model was applied to Pingtan Island in China, to support future development, use and protection of groundwater. Groundwater function was assigned to resource, ecology and geological environmental functions, and then further sub-divided, based on hydrogeological conditions, [...] Read more.
A groundwater function evaluation systems and associated model was applied to Pingtan Island in China, to support future development, use and protection of groundwater. Groundwater function was assigned to resource, ecology and geological environmental functions, and then further sub-divided, based on hydrogeological conditions, development status, planning and Chine policy requirements. At the same time, it is the first time to try to apply the technical requirements for the division of groundwater resources in island areas. According to the planning and utilization of groundwater resources in Pingtan Island, established a second-level system of shallow groundwater function zoning. Then, by comparing the strong and weak relationships among the groundwater resource function, ecology function, and geological environment function, developed a scoring system of the shallow groundwater function zoning. The division of shallow groundwater function zones in Pingtan Island was finally carried out. The zoning result will play an essential role in the future development, utilization, and protection of groundwater in Pingtan Island. At the same time, it provides the first example for the application of groundwater function zoning in island areas and improves the theoretical results of groundwater function zoning. Full article
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Article
Flood Risk Management with Transboundary Conflict and Cooperation Dynamics in the Kabul River Basin
Water 2021, 13(11), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111513 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
The Kabul River, while having its origin in Afghanistan, has a primary tributary, the Konar River, which originates in Pakistan and enters Afghanistan near Barikot-Arandu. The Kabul River then re-enters Pakistan near Laalpur, Afghanistan making it a true transboundary river. The catastrophic flood [...] Read more.
The Kabul River, while having its origin in Afghanistan, has a primary tributary, the Konar River, which originates in Pakistan and enters Afghanistan near Barikot-Arandu. The Kabul River then re-enters Pakistan near Laalpur, Afghanistan making it a true transboundary river. The catastrophic flood events due to major snowmelt events in the Hindu Kush mountains occur every other year, inundating many major urban centers. This study investigates the flood risk under 30 climate and dam management scenarios to assess opportunities for transboundary water management strategy in the Kabul River Basin (KRB). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a watershed-scale hydraulic modeling tool that was employed to forecast peak flows to characterize flood inundation areas using the river flood routing modelling tool Hydrologic Engineering Center—Analysis System -HEC-RAS for the Nowshera region. This study shows how integrated transboundary water management in the KRB can play a vital catalyst role with significant socio-economic benefits for both nations. The study proposes a KRB-specific agreement, where flood risk management is a significant driver that can bring both countries to work together under the Equitable Water Resource Utilization Doctrine to save lives in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. The findings show that flood mitigation relying on collaborative efforts for both upstream and downstream riparian states is highly desirable. Full article
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Article
Study on the Decontamination Effect of Biochar-Constructed Wetland under Different Hydraulic Conditions
Water 2021, 13(7), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070893 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
To explore the purification effect of biochar-constructed wetlands on rural domestic sewage, six types of biochar-constructed wetlands were constructed for experiments. Under different hydraulic conditions, the removal effects of each biochar-constructed wetland on chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus [...] Read more.
To explore the purification effect of biochar-constructed wetlands on rural domestic sewage, six types of biochar-constructed wetlands were constructed for experiments. Under different hydraulic conditions, the removal effects of each biochar-constructed wetland on chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in sewage were analyzed. The results showed that the removal rates of the four types of pollutants in each biochar-constructed wetland first increased and then decreased with the increase in hydraulic retention time, and the optimal hydraulic retention time range was 36–48 h. The highest removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in the wetland were 97.34 ± 0.84%, 95.44 ± 1.29%, 98.95 ± 0.52%, and 97.78 ± 0.91%, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of each biochar-constructed wetland increased first, then decreased with the increase in hydraulic load, and the optimal hydraulic load was 10 cm/d. The removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus of each biochar-constructed wetland gradually weakened with the increase in hydraulic load, and the optimal hydraulic load range was between 5 and 10 cm/d. Under these conditions, the highest removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in the wetland were 92.15 ± 2.39%, 98.32 ± 0.48%, 96.69 ± 1.26%, and 92.62 ± 2.92%, respectively. Coconut shell and shell-constructed wetlands with the highest proportion of biochar in the matrix have the best removal effect on pollutants under different hydraulic conditions, and the wastewater purification effect is stronger, indicating that the addition of biochar is helpful for the removal of pollutants in constructed wetlands. Full article
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Article
An Enhanced Innovative Triangular Trend Analysis of Rainfall Based on a Spectral Approach
Water 2021, 13(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050727 - 07 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
The world is currently witnessing high rainfall variability at the spatiotemporal level. In this paper, data from three representative rain gauges in northern Algeria, from 1920 to 2011, at an annual scale, were used to assess a relatively new hybrid method, which combines [...] Read more.
The world is currently witnessing high rainfall variability at the spatiotemporal level. In this paper, data from three representative rain gauges in northern Algeria, from 1920 to 2011, at an annual scale, were used to assess a relatively new hybrid method, which combines the innovative triangular trend analysis (ITTA) with the orthogonal discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for partial trend identification. The analysis revealed that the period from 1950 to 1975 transported the wettest periods, followed by a long-term dry period beginning in 1973. The analysis also revealed a rainfall increase during the latter decade. The combined method (ITTA–DWT) showed a good efficiency for extreme rainfall event detection. In addition, the analysis indicated the inter- to multiannual phenomena that explained the short to medium processes that dominated the high rainfall variability, masking the partial trend components existing in the rainfall time series and making the identification of such trends a challenging task. The results indicate that the approaches—combining ITTA and selected input combination models resulting from the DWT—are auspicious compared to those found using the original rainfall observations. This analysis revealed that the ITTA–DWT method outperformed the ITTA method for partial trend identification, which proved DWT’s efficiency as a coupling method. Full article
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