Special Issue "Stormwater Management and the Environmental Impact of Building Materials"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michael Burkhardt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), OST - Eastern Switzerland University of Applied Sciences, Oberseestrasse 10 8640 Rapperswil, Switzerland
Interests: source-control measures; leaching of construction materials; decentralized pollutants removal; stormwater management; wastewater treatment; membrane technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable environmentally sound construction and integrated stormwater management are the major trends of the future in urban areas. The aims are to make buildings more environmentally friendly and to close urban water cycles. Long-lasting buildings typically perform best in the sense of sustainability. Water-sensitive infrastructures reduce runoff, foster infiltration and separately discharge stormwater into waterbodies.

Up to now, the influence of buildings on the quantity and quality of runoff seems to be of minor importance compared to questions of energy efficiency, although data on water quality have demonstrated that numerous pollutants enter water bodies. Substances such as biocides, anti-rooting agents, plasticisers, curing agents or flame retardants, have been detected. For this reason, diffuse pollutant by heavy metals, organic pollutants and particulate matter are of increasing concern. Building activities are sustainable only if they do not cause adverse environmental impacts during their service life.

In order to better understand the build environment, it is necessary, for example, to understand the release mechanisms, emission patterns, and assess the environmental impact over time. Laboratory and field studies can contribute to a deeper understanding. Knowledge of rain-driven occurrence in aquatic systems allows the development of source-oriented or decentralised downstream measures. Effective solutions need the interdisciplinary collaboration with manufacturers, architects and engineers.

In the intended special issue, research are to be presented dealing with the release of substances from building materials, the interaction between buildings and the aquatic environment, stormwater management, and pathways of input. The topics range from building products, best practice, treatment concepts, monitoring, modelling, environmental risk assessments to concepts of labeling water-relevant emissions. All contributions are welcome to foster future cities more sustainable and reduce aquatic impact.

Prof. Dr. Michael Burkhardt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water wise city
  • Diffuse pollution
  • Substance release
  • Construction products
  • Stormwater treatment
  • Reduction measures
  • Source control
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Aquatic Risk
  • Modelling
  • Emission Scenarios

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
Leaching and Transformation of Film Preservatives in Paints Induced by Combined Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation and Water Contact under Controlled Laboratory Conditions
Water 2021, 13(17), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172390 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Stormwater from urban areas can transport biocidally active substances and related transformation products from buildings into the environment. The occurrence of these substances in urban runoff depends on the availability of water, and on ultraviolet radiation exposure that causes photolytic reactions. In a [...] Read more.
Stormwater from urban areas can transport biocidally active substances and related transformation products from buildings into the environment. The occurrence of these substances in urban runoff depends on the availability of water, and on ultraviolet radiation exposure that causes photolytic reactions. In a systematic laboratory study, painted test specimens were exposed to either ultraviolet radiation, water contact, or a combination of both. Leaching of the biocidally active substances carbendazim, diuron, octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn, and selected transformation products of terbutryn and diuron were observed under various exposure conditions. Remaining concentrations of these substances in the paint were quantified. It was demonstrated that the distribution of active substances and transformation products in eluates and in the coatings themselves differs with exposure conditions. Strategies for environmental monitoring of biocide emissions need to consider the most relevant transformation products. However, environmental concentrations of biocidally active substances and transformation products depend on earlier exposure conditions. As a consequence, monitoring data cannot describe emission processes and predict expected leaching of biocidally active substances from buildings if the data are collected only occasionally. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Emissions of building materials – a thread for the environment?

Daniel Wicke1, Pascale Rouault1, Uwe Dünnbier2, Mirko Rohr3, Michael Burkhardt3

1 Kompetenzzentrum Wasser Berlin, Cicerostraße 24, 10709 Berlin, Germany
2 Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Neue Jüdenstraße 1, 10179 Berlin, Germany
3 Institut für Umwelt- und Verfahrenstechnik (UMTEC), Ostschweizer Fachhochschule, Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil, Switzerland

Abstract: high variety of substances is used in building materials to improve its properties. Attention increased in recent years in regard to organic additives applied in renders, façade paints or roof sealing sheets, as these compounds were detected in urban stormwater runoff. In this paper, we show the extent of emissions induced by rain events in two study sites in Berlin, combined with leaching tests of the applied building materials and simulation of the emissions to surface water. Results show that emissions can be relevant for receiving surface waters or groundwater. Consequently, mitigation measures were derived for guidance documents for practice.

2. Dynamisation of urban runoff pollution and quantity

Authors: Zieseniß, Beier, Hornig, Bauerfeld

At present, the annual loads from long-term series simulations are mostly used for the evaluation of rainwater management and treatment measures although the relevance of the temporal distribution of both pollution and quantity has a recognisable influence on the performance of the treatment. With the idea of dynamising the simulation output values in relation to i) single rainfall events ii) specific catchment characteristics and iii) the duration of the dry period between two rainfall events measurement devices and scenario studies were established in a joint research project in Lower Saxony. First measurement results of surface runoff qualities of an urban sub-catchment in Braunschweig/Germany are presented in a high temporal definition for several pollution parameters. For the city of Hildesheim/Germany different pollution categories are defined according to surface utilisation and infiltration potentials based on evaluations on different catchment scale levels (city, urban district, individual plot). Scenario analysis supplements the statements on the influence of rain characteristics on the elution behaviour of different façade materials (focussing on Biocides) as well as on the pollutant load distribution in surface runoff. finally, the results are discussed against the background of optimal operational management and design
of decentralized stormwater treatment systems.

 

3. Environmental impact of construction products on aquatic systems – The main issues of an integrated concept

Nicole Borho1, Michael Burkhardt2, Mirko Rohr2, Ute Schoknecht3, Olaf Tietje2, Anya Vollpracht4, Lia Weiler4

Abstract: Undesirable substances in water can originate from constructions. Leaching of substances from constructions that are exposed to water contact and further transport into environmental compartments can cause unwanted effects. This needs to be investigated and included in risk assessments in order to ensure water quality as well as sustainability of constructions.

Applied materials, exposure conditions, distribution routes and susceptibility of receiving compartments vary considerably. This brings about the need for a consistent approach that integrates knowledge on sources of emissions, leaching processes, transport pathways, and evaluation of effects on possible targets. Standardized leaching experiments, the definition of exposure conditions in scenarios as well as reliable models that describe emission and transport processes are required to estimate expected concentrations in environmental compartments. The estimated concentrations serve as the basis for environmental risk assessments depending on regulatory requirements.      

The presented concept integrates experimental data from standardized leaching tests, models to describe leaching processes, the distribution of substances in the environment as well as the occurrence of substances at different points of compliance. Available components and their links within this concept are explained. Currently existing gaps and necessary actions are specified.

 

4. Leaching and transformation of film preservatives in paints induced by combined exposition to UV radiation and water contact under controlled laboratory conditions

Authors: Ute Schoknecht*, Helena Mathies

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin

Abstract: Stormwater from urban areas can transport biocidal active substances and related transformation products from buildings into the environment. The occurrence of these substances in urban runoff depends not only on the availability of water, but also on UV exposure that causes photolytic reactions. In a systematic laboratory study, painted test specimens were exposed to either UV radiation, water contact or a combination of both. Leaching of the biocidal active substances carbendazim, diuron, octylisothiazolinone and terbutryn, and selected transformation products of terbutryn and diuron as well as remaining concentrations of these substances in the paint were observed under these variations of exposure. It was demonstrated that the distribution of active substances and transformation products in eluates from leaching tests as well as in the coatings itself differs with exposure conditions. As a consequence, environmental monitoring of biocide emissions needs to consider the most relevant transformation products. However, environmental concentrations of single substances depend on the exposure conditions during the previous time period and cannot describe emission processes if the monitoring data are collected according to a larger-scale time pattern.

Keywords: Substance release, construction products, biocides, transformation, UV radiation, water contact

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