Special Issue "Hydrologic and Water Quality Performance of Stormwater Best Management Practices"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Peter Weiss
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, USA
Interests: fluid mechanics; surface hydrology; urban storm water management; water resources; water resources engineering; water quality; environment
Dr. Ryan Winston
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
Interests: Stormwater Management; Green Infrastructure; Low Impact Development; Water Quality; Hydrology; Ecosystem Services; Climate Change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to emphasis on non-point sources of pollution and their impact on surface and groundwater water quality, various urban stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have emerged as tools to improve the quality of receiving water bodies and to meet corresponding regulations. Through field experience, laboratory research, and modeling, much has been learned about the design, operation, maintenance, and longevitiy of BMPs. As more information is gained, however, additional questions arise and more knowledge gaps are identified. This special issue seeks to publish studies that seek to fill these knowledge gaps such as, but not limited to, the following:

  • Modeling stormwater BMP performance with respect to hydrology, hydraulics, and/or water quality at the site and watershed scales,
  • Stormwater capture/harvesting and reuse on a large scale,
  • Performance comparisons between traditional stormwater management techniques (pipes/ponds) and green infrastructure / low impact development / sustainable urban drainage systems.
  • Impacts of deicing salt on BMPs and/or vice-versa,
  • Impacts of climate change on BMP performance,
  • Nutrient control in stormwater BMPs as related to algal blooms,
  • Treatment of emerging contaminants,
  • Improving BMP performance through simple retrofits to engineering design
  • Improving infiltration and BMP performance in poorly infiltrating soils,

Dr. Peter Weiss
Dr. Ryan Winston
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Stormwater BMPs
  • Modeling
  • Surface Water Hydrology
  • Performance
  • Emerging Contaminants
  • Water Quality
  • Watershed
  • Climate Change

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Evaluation of Pollutant Removal Efficiency by Small-Scale Nature-Based Solutions Focusing on Bio-Retention Cells, Vegetative Swale and Porous Pavement
Water 2021, 13(17), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172361 - 28 Aug 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Rapid urbanization, aging infrastructure, and changes in rainfall patterns linked to climate change have brought considerable challenges to water managers around the world. Impacts from such drivers are likely to increase even further unless the appropriate actions are put in place. Floods, landslides, [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization, aging infrastructure, and changes in rainfall patterns linked to climate change have brought considerable challenges to water managers around the world. Impacts from such drivers are likely to increase even further unless the appropriate actions are put in place. Floods, landslides, droughts and water pollution are just a few examples of such impacts and their corresponding consequences are in many cases devastating. At the same time, it has become a well-accepted fact that traditional (i.e., grey infrastructure) measures are no longer effective in responding to such challenges. Nature-based solutions (NBS) have emerged as a new response towards hydro-meteorological risk reduction and the results obtained to date are encouraging. However, their application has been mainly in the area of water quantity management with few studies that report on their efficiency to deal with water quality aspects. These solutions are based on replicating natural phenomena and processes to solve such problems. The present paper addresses the question of three NBS systems, namely, bio-retention cells, vegetative swales and porous pavements, for the removal of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) when applied in different configurations (single or networked). The results presented in this paper aim to advance the understanding of their performances during varying rainfall patterns and configurations and their potential application conditions. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Costs and Efficiencies of Urban Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Stormwater Runoff and Soil Erosion in an Urban Watershed Using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model
Water 2021, 13(15), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152076 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Storm events and soil erosion can adversely impact flood control, soil conservation, water quality, the recreation economy, and ecosystem biodiversity in urban systems. Urban Low Impact Development practices (LIDs) can manage stormwater runoff, control soil losses, and improve water quality. The Water Erosion [...] Read more.
Storm events and soil erosion can adversely impact flood control, soil conservation, water quality, the recreation economy, and ecosystem biodiversity in urban systems. Urban Low Impact Development practices (LIDs) can manage stormwater runoff, control soil losses, and improve water quality. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model has been widely applied to assess the responses of hydrology and soil losses to conservation practices in agricultural and forested areas. This research study is the first to calibrate the WEPP model to simulate streamflow discharge in the Brentwood watershed in Austin, Texas and apply the calibrated WEPP model to assess the impacts of LIDs. The costs and impacts of various LID scenarios on annual water balance, and monthly average, and daily runoff volumes, and sediment losses at hillslopes and at the watershed outlet were quantified and compared. The LID scenarios identified that native planting in Critically Eroding Areas (CEAs), native planting in all suitable areas, native planting in CEAs with detention ponds, and native planting in all suitable areas with detention ponds could reduce the predicted average annual stormwater runoff by 20–24% and sediment losses by 86–94% at the watershed outlet, and reduce the average annual soil loss rates on hillslope profiles in sub-watersheds by 86–87% with the lowest costs (USD 2991/yr–USD 5257/yr). Watershed/field characteristics, locations, areas, costs, and the effectiveness of the LID practices were essential in choosing the LID scenarios. These research results can help guide decision-making on the selection and implementation of the most economical and suitable LID practices to strengthen the climate resilience and environmental sustainability of urban systems. Full article
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Article
Forensic Investigation of Four Monitored Green Infrastructure Inlets
Water 2021, 13(13), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131787 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Green infrastructure (GI) is viewed as a sustainable approach to stormwater management that is being rapidly implemented, outpacing the ability of researchers to compare the effectiveness of alternate design configurations. This paper investigated inflow data collected at four GI inlets. The performance of [...] Read more.
Green infrastructure (GI) is viewed as a sustainable approach to stormwater management that is being rapidly implemented, outpacing the ability of researchers to compare the effectiveness of alternate design configurations. This paper investigated inflow data collected at four GI inlets. The performance of these four GI inlets, all of which were engineered with the same inlet lengths and shapes, was evaluated through field monitoring. A forensic interpretation of the observed inlet performance was conducted using conclusions regarding the role of inlet clogging and inflow rate as described in the previously published work. The mean inlet efficiency (meanPE), which represents the percentage of tributary area runoff that enters the inlet was 65% for the Nashville inlet, while at Happyland the NW inlet averaged 30%, the SW inlet 25%, and the SE inlet 10%, considering all recorded events during the monitoring periods. The analysis suggests that inlet clogging was the main reason for lower inlet efficiency at the SW and NW inlets, while for the SE inlet, performance was compromised by a reverse cross slope of the street. Spatial variability of rainfall, measurement uncertainty, uncertain tributary catchment area, and inlet depression characteristics are also correlated with inlet PE. The research suggests that placement of monitoring sensors should consider low flow conditions and a strategy to measure them. Additional research on the role of various maintenance protocols in inlet hydraulics is recommended. Full article
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Article
Improving the Treatment Performance of Low Impact Development Practices—Comparison of Sand and Bioretention Soil Mixtures Using Column Experiments
Water 2021, 13(9), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091210 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Low impact development (LID) practices, such as bioretention and sand filter basins, are stormwater control measures designed to mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization on stormwater. LID treatment performance is highly dependent on the media characteristics. The literature suggests that bioretention media often [...] Read more.
Low impact development (LID) practices, such as bioretention and sand filter basins, are stormwater control measures designed to mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization on stormwater. LID treatment performance is highly dependent on the media characteristics. The literature suggests that bioretention media often leach nutrients in the stormwater effluent. The objective of this study was to analyze the treatment performance of different sand and bioretention soil mixtures. Specifically, this investigation aimed to answer whether the use of limestone and recycled glass could improve the treatment performance of bioretention systems. Column experiments were designed to assess (1) the removal efficiencies of different sand and bioretention soil mixtures and (2) the impact of plant uptake on removal rates. Enhanced pollutant removal was observed for the custom blends with addition of limestone sand, indicating mean dissolved and total phosphorus removal of 44.5% and 32.6% respectively, while the conventional bioretention soil mixtures leached phosphorus. Moreover, improved treatment of dissolved and total copper was achieved with mean removal rates of 70.7% and 93.4%, respectively. The results suggest that the nutrient effluent concentration decreased with the addition of plants, with mean phosphorus removal of 72.4%, and mean nitrogen removal of 22% for the limestone blend. Full article
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Article
Inorganic Nitrogen Production and Removal along the Sediment Gradient of a Stormwater Infiltration Basin
Water 2021, 13(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030320 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
Stormwater infiltration basins (SIBs) are vegetated depressions that collect stormwater and allow it to infiltrate to underlying groundwater. Their pollutant removal efficiency is affected by the properties of the soils in which they are constructed. We assessed the soil nitrogen (N) cycle processes [...] Read more.
Stormwater infiltration basins (SIBs) are vegetated depressions that collect stormwater and allow it to infiltrate to underlying groundwater. Their pollutant removal efficiency is affected by the properties of the soils in which they are constructed. We assessed the soil nitrogen (N) cycle processes that produce and remove inorganic N in two urban SIBs, with the goal of further understanding the mechanisms that control N removal efficiency. We measured net N mineralization, nitrification, and potential denitrification in wet and dry seasons along a sedimentation gradient in two SIBs in the subtropical Tampa, Florida urban area. Net N mineralization was higher in the wet season than in the dry season; however, nitrification was higher in the dry season, providing a pool of highly mobile nitrate that would be susceptible to leaching during periodic dry season storms or with the onset of the following wet season. Denitrification decreased along the sediment gradient from the runoff inlet zone (up to 5.2 μg N/g h) to the outermost zone (up to 3.5 μg N/g h), providing significant spatial variation in inorganic N removal for the SIBs. Sediment accumulating around the inflow areas likely provided a carbon source, as well as maintained stable anaerobic conditions, which would enhance N removal. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Lamella Settlers for Treating Suspended Sediment
Water 2020, 12(10), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102705 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
Stormwater quality management has become an increasingly important topic. Pollutants from construction, urban, and agricultural runoff sources create adverse water quality impacts to receiving water bodies. Among these sources, suspended sediment has a significant influence on water quality and further acts as a [...] Read more.
Stormwater quality management has become an increasingly important topic. Pollutants from construction, urban, and agricultural runoff sources create adverse water quality impacts to receiving water bodies. Among these sources, suspended sediment has a significant influence on water quality and further acts as a media for transporting pollutants. Current stormwater treatment practices remove large, rapidly settable, soil particles; however, fine soil particles tend to remain suspended and contribute to elevated turbidity conditions. A need exists for an economical and passive treatment mechanism for the removal of suspended solids. Lamella settlers have been shown to enhance soil particle capture by increasing surface area and reducing settling distance. The objective of this research was to identify and optimize design configurations for a lamella settler system in treating a variety of synthetic soils. Five types of synthetic soils suspended in simulated stormwater at 500, 1000, and 5000 mg/L concentration were treated using system configurations of three lamella settler reactors at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5-h residence times. Statistical analyses through a full factorial method followed with a regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test suggested that there was a significant difference exists between these experimental variables and turbidity levels. An optimized lamella settler reactor providing 1.8 cm (0.7 in.) settling space with 1.5-h residence time reduced turbidity by up to 90% when compared to a control reactor without lamella plates and a 0.5-h residence time. In addition, particle size distribution analysis indicated a decrease in the D90 by up to 84%, which showed that the optimized reactor was effective in capturing larger diameter soil particles. Full article
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