Special Issue "Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ilyas Masih
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft The Netherlands, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, the Netherlands
Tel. +31152152340
Interests: catchment hydrology; water resources assessment in well-gauged, poorly gauged and ungauged catchments; spatial and temporal variability of water resources; impact of global changes (e.g., climate and land use changes) on water resources; drought assessment and management; integrated water resources planning and management; sustainable development
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable water resources management occupies a prominent position in the global agenda. Improved knowledge on water resources availability, including their spatial and temporal variability, is pivotal to making progress towards sustainable development. Despite scientific progress in hydrology and water resources assessment, the current knowledge on water availability across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., global, regional, river basin, inter- and intra-annual variability) is still limited, especially in view of the rapidly changing world. Water availability is changing both spatially and temporally because of the natural hydro-climatic variability and of global changes triggered by anthropogenic factors. This Special Issue aims to contribute to advancing the scientific knowledge related to water resources variability and availability. Original and novel contributions are invited for this Special Issue, with specific focus on the following topics:

  • Global, regional, country- and river basin-level assessments of water resources variability and availably
  • Advances and application of modelling techniques to assess the spatio-temporal variability of water resources
  • Application of statistical techniques (e.g., flow duration and trend detection) to assess variability, assurance, and trends in water resources
  • Assessment of water resources in poorly gauged and ungauged basins
  • An integrated analysis of various data sources, i.e., field monitoring and remote sensing, to assess water resources
  • Spatial and temporal variability of hydrological extremes (flood and droughts)
  • Impact of global changes on water resources, including but not limited to, climate, land use, and socio-economic changes
  • Integrating spatial and temporal variability of water resources into sustainable water resources planning and management

The submissions may cover the above-mentioned or related issues in the form of a review, synthesis, or case study research. The accepted papers will be published in open access, ensuring widespread availability, according to the policy of MDPI, which is a well-recognized open access publisher with growing impact.

Dr. Ilyas Masih
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water resources
  • spatial and temporal variability
  • integrated use of ground and remotely sensed data
  • water resources assessment
  • hydrological modelling
  • trend analysis
  • water availability
  • global change impact
  • sustainable water resources development

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Streamflow Variability in Colombian Pacific Basins and Their Teleconnections with Climate Indices
Water 2020, 12(2), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020526 (registering DOI) - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Oceanic-atmospheric phenomena of different time scales concurrently might affect the streamflow in several basins around the world. The Atrato River Basin (ARB) and Patía River Basin (PRB) of the Colombian Pacific region are examples of such basins. Nevertheless, the relations between the streamflows [...] Read more.
Oceanic-atmospheric phenomena of different time scales concurrently might affect the streamflow in several basins around the world. The Atrato River Basin (ARB) and Patía River Basin (PRB) of the Colombian Pacific region are examples of such basins. Nevertheless, the relations between the streamflows in the ARB and PRB and the oceanic-atmospheric factors have not been examined considering different temporal scales. Hence, this article studies the relations of the climate indices and the variability of the streamflows in the ARB and PRB at interannual and decadal timescales. To this, the streamflow variability modes were obtained from the principal component analysis (PCA); furthermore, their linear dependence with indices of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), precipitation (PRP), the Choco low-level jet (CJ), and other indices were quantified through (a) Pearson and Kendall’s tau correlations, and (b) wavelet transform. The PCA presented a single significant mode for each basin, with an explained variance of around 80%. The correlation analyses between the PC1s of the ARB and PRB, and the climate indices showed significant positive (negative) high correlations with PRP, CJ, and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (ENSO indices). The wavelet coherence analysis showed significant coherencies between ENSO and ARB: at interannual (2–7 years) and decadal scale (8–14), preferably with the sea surface temperature (SST) in the east and west Tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO). For PRB with the SST in the central and western regions of the TPO in the interannual (4–8 years) and decadal (8–14 years) scales, the decreases (increases) in streamflow precede the El Niño (La Niña) events. These results indicate multiscale relations between the basins’ streamflow and climate phenomena not documented in previous works, relevant to forecast the extreme flow events in the Colombian Pacific rivers and for planning and implementing strategies for the sustainable use of water resources in the basins studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial and Temporal Investigation of Dew Potential based on Long-Term Model Simulations in Iran
Water 2019, 11(12), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122463 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
Since water shortage has been a serious challenge in Iran, long-term investigations of alternative water resources are vital. In this study, we performed long-term (1979–2018) model simulation at seven locations (costal, desert, mountain, and urban conditions) in Iran to investigate temporal and spatial [...] Read more.
Since water shortage has been a serious challenge in Iran, long-term investigations of alternative water resources are vital. In this study, we performed long-term (1979–2018) model simulation at seven locations (costal, desert, mountain, and urban conditions) in Iran to investigate temporal and spatial variation of dew formation. The model was developed to simulate the dew formation (water and ice) based on the heat and mass balance equation with ECMWF-ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts–Re-Analysis) meteorological data as input. According to the model simulation, the maximum mean yearly cumulative dew yield (~65 L/m2) was observed in the mountain region in the north part of Iran with a yearly mean cumulative dew yield was ~36 L/m2. The dew yield showed a clear seasonal variation at all selected locations with maximum yields in winter (mean monthly cumulative 3–8 L/m2 depending on the location). Here we showed that dew formation is frequent in northern Iran. In other areas, where there was suffering from water-stress (southern and central parts of Iran), dew can be a utilized as an alternative source of water. The dew yield during 2001–2014 was lower than the overall mean during the past 40 years a result of climate change in Iran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Space–Time Kriging of Precipitation: Modeling the Large-Scale Variation with Model GAMLSS
Water 2019, 11(11), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112368 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Knowing the dynamics of spatial–temporal precipitation distribution is of vital significance for the management of water resources, in highlight, in the northeast region of Brazil (NEB). Several models of large-scale precipitation variability are based on the normal distribution, not taking into consideration the [...] Read more.
Knowing the dynamics of spatial–temporal precipitation distribution is of vital significance for the management of water resources, in highlight, in the northeast region of Brazil (NEB). Several models of large-scale precipitation variability are based on the normal distribution, not taking into consideration the excess of null observations that are prevalent in the daily or even monthly precipitation information of the region under study. This research proposes a novel way of modeling the trend component by using an inflated gamma distribution of zeros. The residuals of this regression are generally space–time dependent and have been modeled by a space–time covariance function. The findings show that the new techniques have provided reliable and precise precipitation estimates, exceeding the techniques used previously. The modeling provided estimates of precipitation in nonsampled locations and unobserved periods, thus serving as a tool to assist the government in improving water management, anticipating society’s needs and preventing water crises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics and Drivers of Reference Evapotranspiration in Hilly Regions in Southern China
Water 2019, 11(9), 1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091914 - 14 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper has adopted related meteorological data collected by 69 meteorological stations between 1951 and 2013 to analyze changes and drivers of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in the hilly regions located in southern China. Results show that: (1) ET0 in southern [...] Read more.
This paper has adopted related meteorological data collected by 69 meteorological stations between 1951 and 2013 to analyze changes and drivers of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in the hilly regions located in southern China. Results show that: (1) ET0 in southern China’s hilly regions reaches its maximum in summer and its minimum in winter, and that the annual ET0 shows an increasing trend. ET0 happened abrupt change due to the impact of abrupt meteorological variables changes, and the significant year of mutation were 1953, 1964 and 2008. Most abrupt changes of ET0 in meteorological stations occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. (2) The low value of ET0 was mainly captured in high-altitude areas. Spatially, the ET0 in the east was higher than that in the west. With the exception of a handful of stations, the trend coefficients of ET0 were all positive, exhibiting a gradual rise. Changes in ET0 in the east were much more sensitive than that in the west. Since ET0 was affected by the cyclical changes in relative humidity, short-period oscillations were observed in all these changes. (3) In general, the ET0 was negatively correlated with relative humidity, and positively correlated with temperature and sunshine percentage. ET0 is most sensitive to changes in average temperature, with a sensitivity coefficient of 1.136. ET0 showed positive sensitivity to average temperature and sunshine hours, which were notable in the northeastern, and uniform in the spatial. ET0 showed negatively sensitivity to relative humidity, and the absolute value of sensitivity coefficient in the northwestern is smaller. The highest contribution to ET0 is the average temperature (6.873%), and the total contribution of the four meteorological variables to the change of ET0 is 7.842%. The contribution of average temperature, relative humidity, and sunshine hours to ET0 is higher in the northern and eastern, northern, northern and eastern areas, respectively. Climate indexes (Western Pacific Index (WP), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Tropical Northern Atlantic Index (TNA), and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) were correlated with the ET0. In addition, the ET0 and altitude, as well as the latitude and longitude were also correlated with each other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Base Flow by Optimal Hydrograph Separation for the Conterminous United States and Implications for National-Extent Hydrologic Models
Water 2019, 11(8), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081629 - 07 Aug 2019
Abstract
Optimal hydrograph separation (OHS) uses a two-parameter recursive digital filter that applies specific conductance mass-balance constraints to estimate the base flow contribution to total streamflow at stream gages where discharge and specific conductance are measured. OHS was applied to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) [...] Read more.
Optimal hydrograph separation (OHS) uses a two-parameter recursive digital filter that applies specific conductance mass-balance constraints to estimate the base flow contribution to total streamflow at stream gages where discharge and specific conductance are measured. OHS was applied to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream gages across the conterminous United States to examine the range/distribution of base flow inputs and the utility of this method to build a hydrologic model calibration dataset. OHS models with acceptable goodness-of-fit criteria were insensitive to drainage area, stream density, watershed slope, elevation, agricultural or perennial snow/ice land cover, average annual precipitation, runoff, or evapotranspiration, implying that OHS results are a viable calibration dataset applicable in diverse watersheds. OHS-estimated base flow contribution was compared to base flow-like model components from the USGS National Hydrologic Model Infrastructure run with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (NHM-PRMS). The NHM-PRMS variable gwres_flow is most conceptually like a base flow component of streamflow but the gwres_flow contribution to total streamflow is generally smaller than the OHS-estimated base flow contribution. The NHM-PRMS variable slow_flow, added to gwres_flow, produced similar or greater estimates of base flow contributions to total streamflow than the OHS-estimated base flow contribution but was dependent on the total flow magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle
Influencing Factors of the Spatial–Temporal Variation of Layered Soils and Sediments Moistures and Infiltration Characteristics under Irrigation in a Desert Oasis by Deterministic Spatial Interpolation Methods
Water 2019, 11(7), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071483 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Soil moisture is the main limiting factor for crop growth and the sustainable development of oases in arid desert areas. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variation and infiltration laws of oasis soil moisture should be studied. The objective of this study is to [...] Read more.
Soil moisture is the main limiting factor for crop growth and the sustainable development of oases in arid desert areas. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variation and infiltration laws of oasis soil moisture should be studied. The objective of this study is to reveal the influencing factors of the spatial–temporal variation of layered soil and sediment moisture and infiltration characteristics under irrigation in desert oases. Hydraulic conductivities were measured using the double-ring infiltrometer, while the regional and site soil moistures were measured and calibrated using weighted method and neutron moisture meter. Deterministic spatial interpolation methods, including multiquadric radial basis function, inverse distance weighted, and local polynomial regression isogram, were adopted to map the regional distribution of hydraulic conductivities, spatial soil moistures, and spatial–temporal isogram of the point site soil moistures in Yaoba Oasis, respectively. Results showed that the leading influencing factors of the (1) regional spatial soil moisture were soil and sediment permeability, stream link direction, microclimate, and dewfalls; (2) spatial layered soil and sediment moistures were microclimate and dew condensation; and (3) spatial–temporal variation at the point site profiles were soil texture, water requirement, and preferential flow. Under irrigation, soil moisture increased significantly, in which the maximum increase was 10.8 times the original state, while the recharging depth substantially increased up to 580 cm with the preferential flow. The spatial–temporal variation of the soil moisture under irrigation indicated that the best irrigation frequency should be 15 days per time. Moreover, the infiltration process can be divided into the preferential flow, piston flow, and balanced infiltration stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
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