Special Issue "Advances in Modelling and Prediction on the Impact of Human Activities and Extreme Events on Environments"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).
Multi-corresponding authors are allowed

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Songdong Shao
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
Interests: River and coastal hydrodynamics; Fluid-structure interaction; Porous flow; Multi-phase flow; Numerical method
Dr. Min Luo
Website
Guest Editor
Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
Interests: Wave hydrodynamics; Two-phase flow in coastal/ocean engineering; Wave–structure interaction; Sloshing & sloshing mitigation; Cavitation; Meshfree numerical method
Dr. Matteo Rubinato
Website
Guest Editor
School of Energy, Construction and Environment & Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
Interests: hydraulics; environmental fluid mechanics; urban and coastal flooding; sustainable urban drainage systems; pollutant transport; river regulation; dynamic water surface patterns; advanced experimental flow measurement; climate change mitigation and adaptation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Xing Zheng
Website
Guest Editor
Fluid Mechanics Institute for CFD and Fluid-Structure Interaction, College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Interests: Wave–structure interactions; High-speed ship hydrodynamics; Sloshing & slamming; Ice–ship interactions; Ice dynamics; Meshfree numerical method
Dr. Jaan H. Pu
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: river hydrodynamics; numerical method; flow measurement; acoustic doppler velocimetry; flow-structure interaction; flow turbulence; sediment transport; vegetated flow
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coastal and river ecosystems are of significant social, economic, and biological value. These areas, however, suffer frequently from natural disasters, such as flooding, erosion, and contamination with pollutants. Substantial research efforts have been devoted to investigating the underlying causes, evaluating the impacts, and identifying various mitigation strategies to reduce their negative effects on society. Despite this, we still face a much more challenging situation than ever due to global climate change and the increase in urbanization.

This special issue aims to gather the latest developments in advanced numerical and other technologies to predict and evaluate the changes in river and coastal environments, thus providing a valuable reference for the regulation of extreme events and human activities. The scope includes, but is not limited to, the forecast of extreme waves and rainfalls; numerical and experimental modeling of flooding; morphological evolution of coastal lines and rivers; dispersion of any contaminants in rivers and coastal areas; coastal and river hydrodynamics linked to any extreme events, such as hurricanes and tsunamis; and local and global erosion and sedimentation in related fields. Although the special issue aims to collect state-of-the art research in the numerical field, interesting works in the analytical and experimental fields are also welcome.

Dr. Songdong Shao
Dr. Min Luo
Dr. Matteo Rubinato
Dr. Xing Zheng
Dr. Jaan H. Pu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Advanced numerical modeling
  • Coastal and river flooding
  • Morphology processes
  • Contaminant transport
  • Extreme events (storm, hurricane, and tsunami)

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Modelling and Prediction on the Impact of Human Activities and Extreme Events on Environments
Water 2020, 12(6), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061768 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fast urbanization and industrialization have progressively caused severe impacts on mountainous, river, and coastal environments, and have increased the risks for people living in these areas. Human activities have changed ecosystems hence it is important to determine ways to predict these consequences to [...] Read more.
Fast urbanization and industrialization have progressively caused severe impacts on mountainous, river, and coastal environments, and have increased the risks for people living in these areas. Human activities have changed ecosystems hence it is important to determine ways to predict these consequences to enable the preservation and restoration of these key areas. Furthermore, extreme events attributed to climate change are becoming more frequent, aggravating the entire scenario and introducing ulterior uncertainties on the accurate and efficient management of these areas to protect the environment as well as the health and safety of people. In actual fact, climate change is altering rain patterns and causing extreme heat, as well as inducing other weather mutations. All these lead to more frequent natural disasters such as flood events, erosions, and the contamination and spreading of pollutants. Therefore, efforts need to be devoted to investigate the underlying causes, and to identify feasible mitigation and adaptation strategies to reduce negative impacts on both the environment and citizens. To contribute towards this aim, the selected papers in this Special Issue covered a wide range of issues that are mainly relevant to: (i) the numerical and experimental characterization of complex flow conditions under specific circumstances induced by the natural hazards; (ii) the effect of climate change on the hydrological processes in mountainous, river, and coastal environments, (iii) the protection of ecosystems and the restoration of areas damaged by the effects of climate change and human activities. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
A New Parallel Framework of SPH-SWE for Dam Break Simulation Based on OpenMP
Water 2020, 12(5), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051395 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to its Lagrangian nature, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been used to solve a variety of fluid-dynamic processes with highly nonlinear deformation such as debris flows, wave breaking and impact, multi-phase mixing processes, jet impact, flooding and tsunami inundation, and fluid–structure interactions. [...] Read more.
Due to its Lagrangian nature, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been used to solve a variety of fluid-dynamic processes with highly nonlinear deformation such as debris flows, wave breaking and impact, multi-phase mixing processes, jet impact, flooding and tsunami inundation, and fluid–structure interactions. In this study, the SPH method is applied to solve the two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations (SWEs), and the solution proposed was validated against two open-source case studies of a 2-D dry-bed dam break with particle splitting and a 2-D dam break with a rectangular obstacle downstream. In addition to the improvement and optimization of the existing algorithm, the CPU-OpenMP parallel computing was also implemented, and it was proven that the CPU-OpenMP parallel computing enhanced the performance for solving the SPH-SWE model, after testing it against three large sets of particles involved in the computational process. The free surface and velocities of the experimental flows were simulated accurately by the numerical model proposed, showing the ability of the SPH model to predict the behavior of debris flows induced by dam-breaks. This validation of the model is crucial to confirm its use in predicting landslides’ behavior in field case studies so that it will be possible to reduce the damage that they cause. All the changes made in the SPH-SWEs method are made open-source in this paper so that more researchers can benefit from the results of this research and understand the characteristics and advantages of the solution proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Filled Check Dams with Different Deployment Strategies on the Flood and Sediment Transport Processes in a Loess Plateau Catchment
Water 2020, 12(5), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051319 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
As one of the most widespread engineering structures for conserving water and soil, check dams have significantly modified the local landform and hydrologic responses. However, the influences of sedimentary lands caused by filled up check dams on the runoff and sediment transport processes [...] Read more.
As one of the most widespread engineering structures for conserving water and soil, check dams have significantly modified the local landform and hydrologic responses. However, the influences of sedimentary lands caused by filled up check dams on the runoff and sediment transport processes were seldom studied. Employing an integrated hydrologic-response and sediment transport model, this study investigated the influences of filled check dams with different deployment strategies in a Loess Plateau catchment. Six hypothetical deployment strategies of check dams were compared with no-dam scenario and the reality scenario. Results showed that filled check dams were still able to reduce Flood peak (Qp) by 31% to 93% under different deployment strategies. Considerable delays of peak time and decreases were also found in scenarios, which were characterized as having larger and more connective sedimentary lands on the main channel. Reduction rates of Sediment yield (SY) and the total mass of Eroded sediment (ES) ranged from 4% to 52% and 2% to 16%, respectively, indicating that proper distributions of check dams can promote sediment deposition in the channel and reduce soil erosion. The results of this study indicate that (1) check dam systems could still be useful in flood attenuation and sediment control even when they were filled, and (2) optimizing the deployment strategies of check dams can help reduce erosion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aeroelastic Performance Analysis of Wind Turbine in the Wake with a New Elastic Actuator Line Model
Water 2020, 12(5), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051233 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The scale of a wind turbine is getting larger with the development of wind energy recently. Therefore, the effect of the wind turbine blades deformation on its performances and lifespan has become obvious. In order to solve this research rapidly, a new elastic [...] Read more.
The scale of a wind turbine is getting larger with the development of wind energy recently. Therefore, the effect of the wind turbine blades deformation on its performances and lifespan has become obvious. In order to solve this research rapidly, a new elastic actuator line model (EALM) is proposed in this study, which is based on turbinesFoam in OpenFOAM (Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation, a free, open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package released by the OpenFOAM Foundation, which was incorporated as a company limited by guarantee in England and Wales). The model combines the actuator line model (ALM) and a beam solver, which is used in the wind turbine blade design. The aeroelastic performances of the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 5 MW wind turbine like power, thrust, and blade tip displacement are investigated. These results are compared with some research to prove the new model. Additionally, the influence caused by blade deflections on the aerodynamic performance is discussed. It is demonstrated that the tower shadow effect becomes more obvious and causes the power and thrust to get a bit lower and unsteady. Finally, this variety is analyzed in the wake of upstream wind turbine and it is found that the influence on the performance and wake flow field of downstream wind turbine becomes more serious. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SPH Simulation of Interior and Exterior Flow Field Characteristics of Porous Media
Water 2020, 12(3), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030918 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
At the present time, one of the most relevant challenges in marine and ocean engineering and practice is the development of a mathematical modeling that can accurately replicate the interaction of water waves with porous coastal structures. Over the last 60 years, multiple [...] Read more.
At the present time, one of the most relevant challenges in marine and ocean engineering and practice is the development of a mathematical modeling that can accurately replicate the interaction of water waves with porous coastal structures. Over the last 60 years, multiple techniques and solutions have been identified, from linearized solutions based on wave theories and constant friction coefficients to very sophisticated Eulerian or Lagrangian solvers of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. In order to explore the flow field interior and exterior of the porous media under different working conditions, the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical simulation method was used to simulate the flow distribution inside and outside a porous media applied to interact with the wave propagation. The flow behavior is described avoiding Euler’s description of the interface problem between the Euler mesh and the material selected. Considering the velocity boundary conditions and the cyclical circulation boundary conditions at the junction of the porous media and the water flow, the SPH numerical simulation is used to analyze the flow field characteristics, as well as the longitudinal and vertical velocity distribution of the back vortex flow field and the law of eddy current motion. This study provides innovative insights on the mathematical modelling of the interaction between porous structures and flow propagation. Furthermore, there is a good agreement (within 10%) between the numerical results and the experimental ones collected for scenarios with porosity of 0.349 and 0.475, demonstrating that SPH can simulate the flow patterns of the porous media, the flow through the inner and outer areas of the porous media, and the flow field of the back vortex region. Results obtained and the new mathematical approach used can help to effectively simulate with high-precision the changes along the water depth, for a better design of marine and ocean engineering solutions adopted to protect coastal areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Characterization of Underground Hydrological Processes under Multiple Rainfall Conditions and Rocky Desertification Degrees in Karst Regions of Southwest China
Water 2020, 12(2), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020594 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Karst regions are widely distributed in Southwest China and due to the complexity of their geologic structure, it is very challenging to collect data useful to provide a better understanding of surface, underground and fissure flows, needed to calibrate and validate numerical models. [...] Read more.
Karst regions are widely distributed in Southwest China and due to the complexity of their geologic structure, it is very challenging to collect data useful to provide a better understanding of surface, underground and fissure flows, needed to calibrate and validate numerical models. Without characterizing these features, it is very problematic to fully establish rainfall–runoff processes associated with soil loss in karst landscapes. Water infiltrated rapidly to the underground in rocky desertification areas. To fill this gap, this experimental work was completed to preliminarily determine the output characteristics of subsurface and underground fissure flows and their relationships with rainfall intensities (30 mm h−1, 60 mm h−1 and 90 mm h−1) and bedrock degrees (30%, 40% and 50%), as well as the role of underground fissure flow in the near-surface rainfall–runoff process. Results indicated that under light rainfall conditions (30 mm h−1), the hydrological processes observed were typical of Dunne overland flows; however, under moderate (60 mm h−1) and high rainfall conditions (90 mm h−1), hydrological processes were typical of Horton overland flows. Furthermore, results confirmed that the generation of underground runoff for moderate rocky desertification (MRD) and severe rocky desertification (SRD) happened 18.18% and 45.45% later than the timing recorded for the light rocky desertification (LRD) scenario. Additionally, results established that the maximum rate of underground runoff increased with the increase of bedrock degrees and the amount of cumulative underground runoff measured under different rocky desertification was SRD > MRD > LRD. In terms of flow characterization, for the LRD configuration under light rainfall intensity the underground runoff was mainly associated with soil water, which was accounting for about 85%–95%. However, under moderate and high rainfall intensities, the underground flow was mainly generated from fissure flow. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Vortex Induced Vibration for Submerged Floating Tunnel under Different Reynolds Numbers
Water 2020, 12(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010171 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A 2D numerical model was established to investigate vortex induced vibration (VIV) for submerged floating tunnel (SFT) by solving incompressible viscous Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations in the frame of Abitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE). The numerical model was closed by solving SST k- [...] Read more.
A 2D numerical model was established to investigate vortex induced vibration (VIV) for submerged floating tunnel (SFT) by solving incompressible viscous Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations in the frame of Abitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE). The numerical model was closed by solving SST k-ω turbulence model. The present numerical model was firstly validated by comparing with published experimental data, and the comparison shows that good achievement is obtained. Then, the numerical model is used to investigate VIV for SFT under current. In the simulation, the SFT was allowed to oscillate in cross flow direction only under the constraint of spring and damping. The force coefficients and motion of SFT were obtained under different reduced velocity. Further research showed that Reynolds number has not only a great influence on the vibration amplitude and ‘lock-in’ region, but also on the force coefficients on of the SFT. A large Reynolds number results in a relatively small ‘lock-in’ region and force coefficient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study on Violent Sloshing with Water Jet Flows by Using the ISPH Method
Water 2019, 11(12), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122590 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been playing a more and more important role in violent flow simulations since it is easy to deal with the large deformation and breaking flows from its Lagrangian particle characteristics. In this paper, the incompressible SPH [...] Read more.
The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been playing a more and more important role in violent flow simulations since it is easy to deal with the large deformation and breaking flows from its Lagrangian particle characteristics. In this paper, the incompressible SPH (ISPH) method was used to simulate the liquid sloshing in a 2D tank with water jet flows. The study compares the liquid sloshing under different water jet conditions to analyze the effects of the excitation frequency and the water jet on impact pressure. The results demonstrate that the water jet flows can significantly affect the impact pressures on the wall caused by violent sloshing. The main purpose of the paper is to test the ISPH ability for this study and some useful regulars that are obtained from different numerical cases and study the effect of their practical importance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Ecosystem Services in the Dongting Lake Wetland
Water 2019, 11(12), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122564 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The Aeronautical Reconnaissance Coverage Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) 10.2 and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model are used to comprehensively evaluate ecosystem services in the Dongting Lake Wetland, focusing on water yield, soil conservation, carbon storage, and snail control and [...] Read more.
The Aeronautical Reconnaissance Coverage Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) 10.2 and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model are used to comprehensively evaluate ecosystem services in the Dongting Lake Wetland, focusing on water yield, soil conservation, carbon storage, and snail control and schistosomiasis prevention. The spatial and temporal variations of these services, as well as their variations between different land use types in a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2015, are investigated, and the value of such services is then estimated and analyzed. The results of this study show various temporal and spatial trends in the ecosystem services, such as (1) the overall increase of all these services during the study period (although significant in some services, such as schistosomiasis patient reduction, by 86.8%; and, very slight in some others such as soil conservation, only by 0.02%); (2) different orders of the services values that are based on different land use types; and, (3) the temporal changes in the proportion of the values of different ecosystem services with respect to the total services value. Besides, it is concluded that the evaluation of ecosystem services of a certain wetland is heavily dependent on the characteristics of the area where the wetland is located, and the assessment indicators and methods should be selected based on such characteristics through the analysis of the results and a comparison with the findings of literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study of Focusing Wave Generation with Improved Wave Amplitude Spectra
Water 2019, 11(12), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122521 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
We experimentally investigate the generating results of space-time focusing waves based on two new wave spectra, i.e., the quasi constant wave amplitude spectrum (QCWA) and the quasi constant wave steepness spectrum (QCWS), in which amplitude and steepness for each wave component can be [...] Read more.
We experimentally investigate the generating results of space-time focusing waves based on two new wave spectra, i.e., the quasi constant wave amplitude spectrum (QCWA) and the quasi constant wave steepness spectrum (QCWS), in which amplitude and steepness for each wave component can be adjusted with fixed wave energy. The wavemaker signal consists of a theoretical wavemaker motion signal and two different auxiliary functions at two ends of the signal. By testing a series of focusing waves in a physical wave tank, we found that with given wave energy, the QCWA spectrum can produce a focusing wave with larger crest elevation and farther focusing location from the wavemaker flap, as compared with the QCWS spectrum. However, both spectra lead to larger focusing wave crests when the wave frequency bandwidth was narrowed down and a positive correlation between the generated relative wave crest elevation and the input wave elevation parameter. The two spectra produce different focusing wave positions for the same wave frequency range. We also found that the focusing time strongly relates to the energy of the highest-frequency wave component of the wave spectrum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Non-Homogeneous Viscous Debris-Flows Based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) Method
Water 2019, 11(11), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112314 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Non-homogeneous viscous debris flows are characterized by high density, impact force and destructiveness, and the complexity of the materials they are made of. This has always made these flows challenging to simulate numerically, and to reproduce experimentally debris flow processes. In this study, [...] Read more.
Non-homogeneous viscous debris flows are characterized by high density, impact force and destructiveness, and the complexity of the materials they are made of. This has always made these flows challenging to simulate numerically, and to reproduce experimentally debris flow processes. In this study, the formation-movement process of non-homogeneous debris flow under three different soil configurations was simulated numerically by modifying the formulation of collision, friction, and yield stresses for the existing Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The results obtained by applying this modification to the SPH model clearly demonstrated that the configuration where fine and coarse particles are fully mixed, with no specific layering, produces more fluctuations and instability of the debris flow. The kinetic and potential energies of the fluctuating particles calculated for each scenario have been shown to be affected by the water content by focusing on small local areas. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding and new insights regarding intermittent debris flows, and explains the impact of the water content on their formation and movement processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Effects of Rainfall Patterns on Runoff Generation and Soil Erosion Processes on Slopes
Water 2019, 11(11), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112221 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Rainfall patterns and landform characteristics are controlling factors in runoff and soil erosion processes. At a hillslope scale, there is still a lack of understanding of how rainfall temporal patterns affect these processes, especially on slopes with a wide range of gradients and [...] Read more.
Rainfall patterns and landform characteristics are controlling factors in runoff and soil erosion processes. At a hillslope scale, there is still a lack of understanding of how rainfall temporal patterns affect these processes, especially on slopes with a wide range of gradients and length scales. Using a physically-based distributed hydrological model (InHM), these processes under different rainfall temporal patterns were simulated to illustrate this issue. Five rainfall patterns (constant, increasing, decreasing, rising-falling and falling-rising) were applied to slopes, whose gradients range from 5° to 40° and projective slope lengths range from 25 m to 200 m. The rising-falling rainfall generally had the largest total runoff and soil erosion amount; while the constant rainfall had the lowest ones when the projective slope length was less than 100 m. The critical slope of total runoff was 15°, which was independent of rainfall pattern and slope length. However, the critical slope of soil erosion amount decreased from 35° to 25° with increasing projective slope length. The increasing rainfall had the highest peak discharge and erosion rate just at the end of the peak rainfall intensity. The peak value discharges and erosion rates of decreasing and rising-falling rainfalls were several minutes later than the peak rainfall intensity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variations in Qinghai Lake in China
Water 2019, 11(10), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102136 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Qinghai Lake is the largest inland saline lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Climate change and catchment modifications induced by human activities are the main drivers playing a significant role in the dramatic variation of water levels in the lake (Δh); hence, [...] Read more.
Qinghai Lake is the largest inland saline lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Climate change and catchment modifications induced by human activities are the main drivers playing a significant role in the dramatic variation of water levels in the lake (Δh); hence, it is crucial to provide a better understanding of the impacts caused by these phenomena. However, their respective contribution to and influence on water level variations in Qinghai Lake are still unclear and without characterizing them, targeted measures for a more efficient conservation and management of the lake cannot be implemented. In this paper, data monitored during the period 1960–2016 (e.g., meteorological and land use data) have been analyzed by applying multiple techniques to fill this gap and estimate the contribution of each parameter recorded to water level variations (Δh). Results obtained have demonstrated that the water level of Qinghai Lake declined between 1960 and 2004, and since then has risen continuously and gradually, due to the changes in evaporation rates, precipitation and consequently surface runoff associated with climate change effects and catchment modifications. The authors have also pinpointed that climate change is the main leading cause impacting the water level in Qinghai Lake because results demonstrated that 93.13% of water level variations can be attributable to it, while the catchment modifications are responsible for 6.87%. This is a very important outcome in the view of the fact that global warming clearly had a profound impact in this sensitive and responsive region, affecting hydrological processes in the largest inland lake of the Tibetan Plateau. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating the Overtopping Failure of Homogeneous Embankment by a Double-Point Two-Phase MPM
Water 2019, 11(8), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081636 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Embankments are usually constructed along rivers as a defense structure against flooding. Overtopping failure can cause devastating and fatal consequences to life and property of surrounding areas. This motivates researchers to study the formation, propagation, and destructive consequences of such hazards in risk [...] Read more.
Embankments are usually constructed along rivers as a defense structure against flooding. Overtopping failure can cause devastating and fatal consequences to life and property of surrounding areas. This motivates researchers to study the formation, propagation, and destructive consequences of such hazards in risk analysis of hydraulic engineering. This paper reports a numerical simulation of failure processes in homogeneous embankments due to flow overtopping. The employed numerical approach is based on a double-point two-phase material point method (MPM) considering water–soil interaction and seepage effects. The simulated results are compared to available laboratory experiments in the literature. It was shown that the proposed method can predict the overtopping failure process of embankments with good accuracy. Furthermore, the effects of the cohesion, internal fiction angle, initial porosity, and maximum porosity of soil on the embankment failure are investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Multi-Scale Coupled Ecological Dispatching Model Based on the Decomposition-Coordination Principle
Water 2019, 11(7), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071443 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Studies on environmental flow have developed into a flow management strategy that includes flow magnitude, duration, frequency, and timing from a flat line minimum flow requirement. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the degree of hydrologic alteration be employed as an evaluation method [...] Read more.
Studies on environmental flow have developed into a flow management strategy that includes flow magnitude, duration, frequency, and timing from a flat line minimum flow requirement. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the degree of hydrologic alteration be employed as an evaluation method of river ecological health. However, few studies have used it as an objective function of the deterministic reservoir optimal dispatching model. In this work, a multi-scale coupled ecological dispatching model was built, based on the decomposition-coordination principle, and considers multi-scale features of ecological water demand. It is composed of both small-scale model and large-scale model components. The small-scale model uses a daily scale and is formulated to minimize the degree of hydrologic alteration. The large-scale model uses a monthly scale and is formulated to minimize the uneven distribution of water resources. In order to avoid dimensionality, the decomposition coordination algorithm is utilized for the coordination among subsystems; and the adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) is utilized for the solution of subsystems. The entire model—which is in effect a large, complex system—was divided into several subsystems by time and space. The subsystems, which include large-scale and small-scale subsystems, were correlated by coordinating variables. The lower reaches of the Yellow River were selected as the study area. The calculation results show that the degree of hydrologic alteration of small-scale ecological flow regimes and the daily stream flow can be obtained by the model. Furthermore, the model demonstrates the impact of considering the degree of hydrologic alteration on the reliability of water supply. Thus, we conclude that the operation rules extracted from the calculation results of the model contain more serviceable information than that provided by other models thus far. However, model optimization results were compared with results from the POF approach and current scheduling. The comparison shows that further reduction in hydrologic alteration is possible and there are still inherent limitations within the model that need to be resolved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Internal Stability Evaluation of Soils
Water 2019, 11(7), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071439 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Suffusion constitutes a major threat to the foundation of a dam, and the likelihood of suffusion is always determined by the internal stability of soils. It has been verified that internal stability is closely related to the grain size distribution (GSD) of soils. [...] Read more.
Suffusion constitutes a major threat to the foundation of a dam, and the likelihood of suffusion is always determined by the internal stability of soils. It has been verified that internal stability is closely related to the grain size distribution (GSD) of soils. In this study, a numerical model is developed to simulate the suffusion process. The model takes the combined effects of GSD and porosity (n) into account, as well as Wilcock and Crowe’s theory, which is also adopted to quantify the inception and transport of soils. This proposed model is validated with the experimental data and shows satisfactory performance in simulating the process of suffusion. By analyzing the simulation results of the model, the mechanism is disclosed on how soils with specific GSD behaving internally unstable. Moreover, the internal stability of soils can be evaluated through the model. Results show that it is able to distinguish the internal stability of 30 runs out of 36, indicating a 83.33% of accuracy, which is higher than the traditional GSD-based approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Local Scour of Armor Layer Processes around the Circular Pier in Non-Uniform Gravel Bed
Water 2019, 11(7), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071421 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Flume experiments have been carried out under clear water scour conditions to analyze the maximum equilibrium scour depth and scour processes in armored streambeds. A total of 85 experiments have been carried out using different diameters of circular piers and non-uniform gravels. A [...] Read more.
Flume experiments have been carried out under clear water scour conditions to analyze the maximum equilibrium scour depth and scour processes in armored streambeds. A total of 85 experiments have been carried out using different diameters of circular piers and non-uniform gravels. A graphical approach for dimensionless scour depth in equilibrium condition around the circular pier in armored streambeds has been developed. As per this curve, the maximum dimensionless scour depth variation with dimensionless armor particle size depends on the densimetric particle Froude number (Frd50), and the decreasing rate of dimensionless scour depth decreases with the value of Frd50. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulated Flow Velocity Structure in Meandering Channels: Stratification and Inertia Effects Caused by Suspended Sediment
Water 2019, 11(6), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061254 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this study, the coupled effects of sediment inertia and stratification on the pattern of secondary currents in bend-flows are evaluated using a 3D numerical model. The sediment inertia effect, as well as the stratification effect induced by the non-uniform distribution of suspended [...] Read more.
In this study, the coupled effects of sediment inertia and stratification on the pattern of secondary currents in bend-flows are evaluated using a 3D numerical model. The sediment inertia effect, as well as the stratification effect induced by the non-uniform distribution of suspended sediment, is accounted for by adopting the hydrodynamic equations without the Boussinesq approximation. The 3D model is validated by existing laboratory experimental results. Simulation results of a simplified meandering channel indicate that sediment stratification effect enhances the intensity of secondary flow via reducing eddy viscosity, while sediment inertia effect suppresses it. The integrated effects result in an increase and a reduction in the secondary flow, respectively, at lower and higher concentrations (near-bed volumetric concentrations of 0.015 and 0.1 are, respectively, considered in this study). This suggests that the dominance of the suspended sediment effect depends on the sediment concentration profile. With the increase of concentration under a specific sediment size, the secondary flow rises to reach a maximum, and then decreases. Moreover, as the sediment concentration increases, an exponentially decaying rate has been found for the secondary flow. It is concluded that in the numerical simulation of flow in meandering channels, when concentration is high, the variable-density hydrodynamic equations without the Boussinesq approximation should be considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physics-Based Simulation of Hydrologic Response and Sediment Transport in a Hilly-Gully Catchment with a Check Dam System on the Loess Plateau, China
Water 2019, 11(6), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061161 - 02 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Check dams are among of the most widespread and effective engineering structures for conserving water and soil in the Loess Plateau since the 1950s, and have significantly modified the local hydrologic responses and landforms. A representative small catchment was chosen as an example [...] Read more.
Check dams are among of the most widespread and effective engineering structures for conserving water and soil in the Loess Plateau since the 1950s, and have significantly modified the local hydrologic responses and landforms. A representative small catchment was chosen as an example to study the influences of check dams. A physics-based distributed model, the Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM), was employed to simulate the impacts of check dam systems considering four scenarios (pre-dam, single-dam, early dam-system, current dam-system). The results showed that check dams significantly alter the water redistribution in the catchment and influence the groundwater table in different periods. It was also shown that gully erosion can be alleviated indirectly due to the formation of the expanding sedimentary areas. The simulated residual deposition heights (Δh) matched reasonably well with the observed values, demonstrating that physics-based simulation can help to better understand the hydrologic impacts as well as predicting changes in sediment transport caused by check dams in the Loess Plateau. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
A Review on Hydrodynamics of Free Surface Flows in Emergent Vegetated Channels
Water 2020, 12(4), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041218 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
This review paper addresses the structure of the mean flow and key turbulence quantities in free-surface flows with emergent vegetation. Emergent vegetation in open channel flow affects turbulence, flow patterns, flow resistance, sediment transport, and morphological changes. The last 15 years have witnessed [...] Read more.
This review paper addresses the structure of the mean flow and key turbulence quantities in free-surface flows with emergent vegetation. Emergent vegetation in open channel flow affects turbulence, flow patterns, flow resistance, sediment transport, and morphological changes. The last 15 years have witnessed significant advances in field, laboratory, and numerical investigations of turbulent flows within reaches of different types of emergent vegetation, such as rigid stems, flexible stems, with foliage or without foliage, and combinations of these. The influence of stem diameter, volume fraction, frontal area of stems, staggered and non-staggered arrangements of stems, and arrangement of stems in patches on mean flow and turbulence has been quantified in different research contexts using different instrumentation and numerical strategies. In this paper, a summary of key findings on emergent vegetation flows is offered, with particular emphasis on: (1) vertical structure of flow field, (2) velocity distribution, 2nd order moments, and distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in horizontal plane, (3) horizontal structures which includes wake and shear flows and, (4) drag effect of emergent vegetation on the flow. It can be concluded that the drag coefficient of an emergent vegetation patch is proportional to the solid volume fraction and average drag of an individual vegetation stem is a linear function of the stem Reynolds number. The distribution of TKE in a horizontal plane demonstrates that the production of TKE is mostly associated with vortex shedding from individual stems. Production and dissipation of TKE are not in equilibrium, resulting in strong fluxes of TKE directed outward the near wake of each stem. In addition to Kelvin–Helmholtz and von Kármán vortices, the ejections and sweeps have profound influence on sediment dynamics in the emergent vegetated flows. Full article
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Open AccessReview
SPH Modeling of Water-Related Natural Hazards
Water 2019, 11(9), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091875 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
This paper collects some recent smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) applications in the field of natural hazards connected to rapidly varied flows of both water and dense granular mixtures including sediment erosion and bed load transport. The paper gathers together and outlines the basic [...] Read more.
This paper collects some recent smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) applications in the field of natural hazards connected to rapidly varied flows of both water and dense granular mixtures including sediment erosion and bed load transport. The paper gathers together and outlines the basic aspects of some relevant works dealing with flooding on complex topography, sediment scouring, fast landslide dynamics, and induced surge wave. Additionally, the preliminary results of a new study regarding the post-failure dynamics of rainfall-induced shallow landslide are presented. The paper also shows the latest advances in the use of high performance computing (HPC) techniques to accelerate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes through the efficient use of current computational resources. This aspect is extremely important when simulating complex three-dimensional problems that require a high computational cost and are generally involved in the modeling of water-related natural hazards of practical interest. The paper provides an overview of some widespread SPH free open source software (FOSS) codes applied to multiphase problems of theoretical and practical interest in the field of hydraulic engineering. The paper aims to provide insight into the SPH modeling of some relevant physical aspects involved in water-related natural hazards (e.g., sediment erosion and non-Newtonian rheology). The future perspectives of SPH in this application field are finally pointed out. Full article
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