Special Issue "Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (4 April 2022) | Viewed by 8956

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Matthias Zessner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Water Quality and Resource Management, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna, Austria
Interests: monitoring of emission pathways of nutrients and micropollutants; emission modeling; water pollution control; water quality and river basin management; regional nutrient management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Stephan Fuchs
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chair Aquatic Environmental Engineering, Institute for Water and River Basin Management, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Interests: emission modeling; water pollution control; water quality and river basin management; wastewater treatment; centralized and decentralized sanitation systems; storm water treatment; reservoir management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Different types of pressures, such as nutrients, micropollutants, microbes, nanoparticles, microplastics, and antibiotic-resistant genes, endanger the quality of waterbodies. Evidence-based pollution control needs to build on the three basic elements of water governance: monitoring, modeling, and management (m3). Monitoring sets the empirical basis by providing space- and time-dependent information on substance concentrations and loads as well as driving boundary conditions for assessing water quality trends, water quality statuses, and providing necessary information for the calibration and validation of models. Modeling requires proper system understanding and helps to derive information for times and locations where no monitoring is conducted or possible; this can include risk assessment for exceedance of quality standards, assessment of regionalized relevance of sources and pathways of pollution, effectiveness of measures, bundles of measures or policies, and assessment of future developments as scenarios or forecasts. Management relies on this information and translates it in a socioeconomic context into specific plans for implementation. Evaluation of success of management plans again includes well-defined monitoring strategies.

After the great success of the first Special Issue “Monitoring, Modeling and Management of Water Quality” in the Water, we now offer a second volume focusing on this topic. For this Special Issue, authors are invited to publish more advances in monitoring, modeling, and management of water quality. We welcome submissions that either address new concepts and methods of water quality monitoring, new developments of modeling tools, or innovative approaches of exploiting those monitoring and modeling strategies for effective water quality management and, therefore, that contribute significant advances to the scientific literature.

Prof. Dr. Matthias Zessner
Dr. Stephan Fuchs
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • effectiveness of measures
  • scenarios and forecasts
  • socioeconomic context
  • sources and pathways of water pollution
  • system understanding
  • water governance
  • water quality statuses and trends

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Modification of Disinfection Process at a Local Water Treatment Plant—Skawina (Poland)
Water 2022, 14(18), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182924 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
This paper summarizes studies undertaken at a water treatment plant in Skawina (WTP Skawina) where the disinfection process was modified by introducing a mobile ozonation system. The application of a small-size, fully-automated ozonation installation only slightly complicates the water treatment process, without the [...] Read more.
This paper summarizes studies undertaken at a water treatment plant in Skawina (WTP Skawina) where the disinfection process was modified by introducing a mobile ozonation system. The application of a small-size, fully-automated ozonation installation only slightly complicates the water treatment process, without the need to redesign the water treatment line, and with relatively low investment costs. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the change of the disinfection method affects the final water quality. The investigated water samples were treated in the mobile ozonation system using a disinfection process with only sodium hypochlorite. Treated water was of excellent quality, and seasonal variations in raw water parameters (variable organic matter contents) did not result in elevated trihalomethanes (THM) and bromate concentrations. Despite the trace amounts of bromides in the water prior to treatment, the water in the municipal drinking water system did not contain determinable amounts of bromates. The bromine concentrations in the treated water supplied to the water distribution system were higher than in raw water, which could be attributable to the presence of bromine as a contaminant in sodium hypochlorite (the disinfection agent). Water quality tests carried out by the water treatment plant (WTP) and by the State Sanitary Inspectorate after the modification of the process line confirmed the high quality of water in the distribution network after the change of disinfection method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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Article
Dissolved Phosphorus Concentrations in Surface Runoff from Agricultural Land Based on Calcium–Acetate–Lactate Soluble Phosphorus Soil Contents
Water 2022, 14(11), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111742 - 28 May 2022
Viewed by 965
Abstract
The input of phosphorus (P) into aquatic systems can result in eutrophication that might manifest in algal blooms and oxygen deficiency and, subsequently, in a poor ecological status. Substance emission modeling on a river basin scale can help to quantify phosphorus emissions into [...] Read more.
The input of phosphorus (P) into aquatic systems can result in eutrophication that might manifest in algal blooms and oxygen deficiency and, subsequently, in a poor ecological status. Substance emission modeling on a river basin scale can help to quantify phosphorus emissions into surface water bodies and to address mitigation measures. The prerequisite is that suitable input data are available. The purpose of this study is to develop a modeling approach that allows the prediction of realistic phosphorus concentrations in surface runoff. During large-scale artificial rain experiments at 23 agricultural sites, dissolved P concentrations in surface runoff and subsurface flow were measured. The characteristics of the experimental sites were investigated by taking and analyzing soil samples and requesting information on the management from the farmers. From the data collected, two linear models were derived. The first model allows the prediction of dissolved phosphorus concentration in surface runoff from PCAL soil content. Applying the second model, the obtained concentration in surface runoff can be transferred to a concentration in subsurface flow. The resulting approaches were derived from realistic field experiments and, for the first time, allow the direct prediction of dissolved phosphorus concentrations in surface runoff and, in a second step, also in subsurface flow from spatially distributed PCAL soil content data. Integrating these approaches into substance emission models can improve their accuracy and, subsequently, allows a better planning of measures for the reduction in phosphorus emissions into surface water bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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Article
Assessment of Phosphorus Input from Urban Areas in the Passaúna River and Reservoir
Water 2022, 14(5), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14050809 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Elevated phosphorus loads play an important role in the deterioration of water quality and can subsequently pose a threat to the aquatic organisms in a river or a standing water body. The accurate assessment of total phosphorus (TP) fluxes from a catchment is [...] Read more.
Elevated phosphorus loads play an important role in the deterioration of water quality and can subsequently pose a threat to the aquatic organisms in a river or a standing water body. The accurate assessment of total phosphorus (TP) fluxes from a catchment is of high importance to the well-being of the entire river ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the yearly input of TP from the urban areas of the Passaúna catchment in southern Brazil. The catchment drains into the eponymous reservoir, which provides drinking water for more than 800,000 inhabitants of the Curitiba Metropolitan region. The protection of the water quality in the river as well as in the reservoir is of paramount importance, yet high phosphorous inputs have been detected. For adequate protection, the catchment emissions need to be accurately assessed. Initially, the TP concentration in the river sediment was determined in order to assess the relationship between the TP export of the urban areas and the TP stock of the river. It was found that in areas with a higher share of urban land cover and especially in areas with a lack of sewage treatment, the TP concentration in the sediment reached up to 6700 mg/kg. The assessment of the overall TP input from urban areas was based on a regionalized emission-modeling approach, combined with data from long-term water quality monitoring of the river. The monitoring station established upstream of the Passaúna Reservoir inflow provided an initial assessment and the necessary output for the validation and calibration of the model. From the drainage basin of the monitoring station, an overall TP input of 2501 kg/a (0.31 kg/(ha a)) was measured between 1 May 2018 and 1 May 2019 (3508 kg TP/a or 0.23 kg/(ha a) when extrapolating the overall catchment of the Passaúna Reservoir). The monitoring data indicated that the TP input increases during the wet months of the year. The sediment stock of the river also plays an important role in the interannual budget of TP. During the timespan of one year, many deposition–resuspension events happen. The resuspended material is included in the baseflow and hinders the differentiation between urban and nonurban input. After calibration, the model was able to predict the yearly input of TP from the urban areas of the Passaúna catchment. In addition, the share of inhabitants who are not connected to the sewer system was assessed. Overall, the combination of monitoring and modeling in this study offers a valuable overview of the TP dynamics of the system, while the model ensures reproducibility with high accuracy at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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Article
Four Years of Sediment and Phosphorus Monitoring in the Kraichbach River Using Large-Volume Samplers
Water 2022, 14(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010120 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Various sampling strategies come into operation to monitor water quality in rivers. Most frequently, grab samples are taken, but they are not suitable for recording the highly dynamic transport of solids and solid-bound pollutants. Composite samples reduce the influence of input and transport [...] Read more.
Various sampling strategies come into operation to monitor water quality in rivers. Most frequently, grab samples are taken, but they are not suitable for recording the highly dynamic transport of solids and solid-bound pollutants. Composite samples reduce the influence of input and transport dynamics and are better suited to determine the annual river loads. Large-volume samplers (LVSs) produce both a composite sample over a long period of time and an amount of solids which allows for further analyses. In the small sub-catchment area of the Kraichbach river in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) two LVSs have been installed to sample the river flow. The concentration of solids and phosphorus in the supernatant water and the settled sediment in the sampler have been determined and mean concentrations have been derived. Annual river loads were calculated in combination with discharge data from the nearby gauging station. Two sampling strategies of the LVS were tested and compared. For the first strategy, the LVS was used to collect quasi-continuous composite samples throughout the year, whereas, with the second strategy, samples were taken specifically for different flow conditions (low, mean and high flow). This study compares the advantages and constraints of both strategies. Results indicate that the first strategy is better suited to determine annual river loads. Quasi-continuous large-volume composite sampling is recommended for further monitoring campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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Article
Use of Monitoring Approaches to Verify the Predictive Accuracy of the Modeling of Particle-Bound Solid Inputs to Surface Waters
Water 2021, 13(24), 3649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243649 - 18 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
For particle-bound substances such as phosphorus, erosion is an important input pathway to surface waters. Therefore, knowledge of soil erosion by water and sediment inputs to water bodies at high spatial resolution is essential to derive mitigation measures at the regional scale. Models [...] Read more.
For particle-bound substances such as phosphorus, erosion is an important input pathway to surface waters. Therefore, knowledge of soil erosion by water and sediment inputs to water bodies at high spatial resolution is essential to derive mitigation measures at the regional scale. Models are used to calculate soil erosion and associated sediment inputs to estimate the resulting loads. However, validation of these models is often not sufficiently possible. In this study, sediment input was modeled on a 10 × 10 m grid for a subcatchment of the Kraichbach river in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany). In parallel, large-volume samplers (LVS) were operated at the catchment outlet, which allowed a plausibility check of the modeled sediment inputs. The LVS produced long-term composite samples (2 to 4 weeks) over a period of 4 years. The comparison shows a very good agreement between the modeled and measured sediment loads. In addition, the monitoring concept of the LVS offers the possibility to identify the sources of the sediment inputs to the water body. In the case of the Kraichbach river, it was found that around 67% of the annual sediment load in the water body is contributed by rainfall events and up to 33% represents dry-weather load. This study shows that the modeling approaches for calculating the sediment input provide good results for the test area Kraichbach and the transfer for a German wide modeling will produce plausible values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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Article
Large-Volume Samplers for Efficient Composite Sampling and Particle Characterization in Sewer Systems
Water 2021, 13(20), 2831; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202831 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The assessment of pollution from sewer discharges requires flexible and reliable sampling methods. The characteristics of the sampling system must be known to allow comparison with other studies. Large volume samplers (LVS) are increasingly used for monitoring in sewer systems and surface waters. [...] Read more.
The assessment of pollution from sewer discharges requires flexible and reliable sampling methods. The characteristics of the sampling system must be known to allow comparison with other studies. Large volume samplers (LVS) are increasingly used for monitoring in sewer systems and surface waters. This article provides a comprehensive description of this widely applicable sampling system, gives insight into its comparability to standard methods, and provides recommendations for researchers and practitioners involved in water quality monitoring and urban water management. Two methods for subsampling from LVS are presented, i.e., collection of homogenized or sedimented samples. Results from a sampling campaign at combined sewer overflows (CSOs) were used to investigate the comparability of both subsampling methods and conventional autosamplers (AS). Event mean concentrations (EMC) of total suspended solids (TSS) derived from homogenized LVS samples and AS pollutographs were comparable. TSS-EMC of homogenized and sedimented LVS samples were also comparable. However, differences were found for particle size distribution and organic matter content. Consequently, sedimented LVS samples, which contained solids masses in the range of 3–70 g, are recommended to be used for particle characterization. The differences between homogenized and sedimented LVS samples, e.g., the quality of homogenization and the stability of samples during sedimentation in LVS, should be further investigated. Based on LVS results, average TSS concentrations of 50–60 mg/L were found for CSOs from centralized treatment facilities in Bavaria. With a median share of 84%, particles <63 µm were the dominant fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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Article
Daily Variation of Lipid Regulators and Personal Care Products in a River Impacted by Domestic Effluents in Southern Brazil
Water 2021, 13(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101393 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
In urban areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a major role in the water quality of rivers. The removal efficiency of emerging contaminants by WWTPs is strongly correlated with the type of treatment and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the process, which [...] Read more.
In urban areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play a major role in the water quality of rivers. The removal efficiency of emerging contaminants by WWTPs is strongly correlated with the type of treatment and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the process, which can vary according to the volumetric influent flow of wastewater and occasional peak flows. This paper aims, for the first time, to assess the daily variation of lipid regulators and personal care products in an urban river impacted by domestic effluents. Samples were collected upstream and downstream of a WWTP. The concentrations downstream of the effluent discharge were higher than upstream, but they varied significantly during the day. Concentration peaks upstream of the WWTP were detected at 07:00, 15:00 and 21:00, while downstream of the effluent discharge, concentration peaks occurred between 13:00 and 19:00 and between 21:00 and 23:00. The highest downstream concentrations of triclosan and methylparaben (420 ng L−1 and 460 ng L−1) were 6.8 and 5.4 times higher than the lowest concentrations detected, respectively. These results show that in WWTP-impacted rivers, the time of the sampling has a great influence on the final results and conclusions of a monitoring study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Modelling and Management of Water Quality II)
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