Special Issue "Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. T. Staffan Lundström
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Lulea University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
Interests: fluid mechanics; computational fluid dynamics; experiments; PIV; flow in porous media; composites; heat & mass transfer
Dr. Anna-Lena Ljung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Lulea University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
Interests: fluid mechanics; computational fluid dynamics; heat & mass transfer; drying; flow in porous media

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fluid mechanics of water is of the highest importance for many industrial and natural processes. To highlight this, the focus of this Special Issue is to, from a genuine fluid mechanical approach, present analytical, numerical or experimental results of importance for one or several such processes. This may, for instance, be the fluid mechanics of manufacturing processes, energy processes, heat transfer processes, urban water flows, and the flow in oceans and rivers. The usage of advanced experimental and numerical methods is of special interest, as well as modern analytical techniques, such as machine learning. All results presented should be based on quality and trust and include error analysis. The results should also be discussed in terms of the industrial or environmental application of interest.

Prof. Dr. T. Staffan Lundström
Dr. Anna-Lena Ljung
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water
  • fluid mechanics
  • industrial flows
  • environmental flows
  • quality and trust
  • advanced experimental methods
  • advanced numerical methods

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Modeling Transport and Adsorption of Arsenic Ions in Iron-Oxide Laden Porous Media. Part I: Theoretical Developments
Water 2021, 13(6), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060779 - 13 Mar 2021
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Abstract
The process of transport and trapping of arsenic ions in porous water filters is treated as a classic mass transport problem which, at the pore scale, is modeled using the traditional convection-diffusion equation, representing the migration of species present in very small (tracer) [...] Read more.
The process of transport and trapping of arsenic ions in porous water filters is treated as a classic mass transport problem which, at the pore scale, is modeled using the traditional convection-diffusion equation, representing the migration of species present in very small (tracer) amounts in water. The upscaling, conducted using the volume averaging method, reveals the presence of two possible forms of the macroscopic equations for predicting arsenic concentrations in the filters. One is the classic convection-dispersion equation with the total dispersion tensor as its main transport coefficient, and which is obtained from a closure formulation similar to that of the passive diffusion problem. The other equation form includes an additional transport coefficient, hitherto ignored in the literature and identified here as the adsorption-induced vector. These two coefficients in the latter form are determined from a system of two closure problems that include the effects of both the passive diffusion as well as the adsorption of arsenic by the solid phase of the filter. This theoretical effort represents the first serious effort to introduce a detailed micro–macro coupling while modeling the transport of arsenic species in water filters representing homogeneous porous media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Modeling the Swelling of Hydrogels with Application to Storage of Stormwater
Water 2021, 13(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010034 - 27 Dec 2020
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Abstract
The swelling effect in hydrogel bodies or sponge-like porous bodies (SPB) used in a specific stormwater storage concept of the down-flow type is considered. A macroscopic swelling model is proposed, in which water is assumed to penetrate into the hydrogel by diffusion described [...] Read more.
The swelling effect in hydrogel bodies or sponge-like porous bodies (SPB) used in a specific stormwater storage concept of the down-flow type is considered. A macroscopic swelling model is proposed, in which water is assumed to penetrate into the hydrogel by diffusion described by diffusion equations together with a free-moving boundary separating the interface between the water and hydrogel. Such a type of problem belongs to the certain class of problems called Stefan-problems. The main objective of this contribution is to compare how the theoretical total amount of absorbed water is modified by the inclusion of swelling, when compared to the previously studied SPB devices analyzed only for the effect of diffusion. The results can be summarized in terms of the geometrical dimensions of the storage device and the magnitude of the diffusion coefficient D. The geometrical variables influence both the maximum possible absorbed volume and the time to reach that volume. The diffusion coefficient D only influences the rate of volume growth and the time to reach the maximum volume of stored water. The initial swelling of the hydrogel SPB grows with time (Dt) until the steady state is reached and the swelling rate approaches zero. In all the cases considered, the swelling in general increases the maximum possible absorbed water volume by an amount of 14%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Normal and Tangential Drag Forces of Nylon Nets, Clean and with Fouling, in Fish Farming. An Experimental Study
Water 2020, 12(8), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082238 - 09 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Experiments in a laboratory tank have provided measurements of the normal and tangential drag forces exerted on flat nets for different flow conditions. From those forces, normal and tangential drag coefficients of the nets have been obtained as functions of the Reynolds number [...] Read more.
Experiments in a laboratory tank have provided measurements of the normal and tangential drag forces exerted on flat nets for different flow conditions. From those forces, normal and tangential drag coefficients of the nets have been obtained as functions of the Reynolds number and the solidity index. The experiments used two types of nets employed in the operation of a cultivation center: the fish net and the sea lion net, for the clean situation and for real operating conditions, with fouling adhered to the nets. Polyethylene ropes were used to characterize the presence of fouling in the nets. The experiments were carried out to determine equations for the normal and tangential drag coefficients. For the normal drag coefficient, the equations are linear with the Reynolds number, and the coefficients of the equations are linear with the solidity index. The equations are not so accurate for the tangential drag coefficient. The Reynolds number is not a relevant parameter for this coefficient and neither is the solidity index for the fish net, but the coefficient grows slightly with it for single and double sea lion nets with fouling. The literature review on the drag forces of nets reports that the tangential drag force is around 30% of the normal drag force. This value is approximately an average value of the ratio for the sea lion net and is higher for the clean fish net in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Dynamic Distributed Storage of Stormwater in Sponge-Like Porous Bodies: Modelling Water Uptake
Water 2020, 12(8), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082080 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
An innovative concept of dynamic stormwater storage in sponge-like porous bodies (SPBs) is presented and modelled using first principles, for down-flow and up-flow variants of SPBs. The rate of inflow driven by absorption and/or capillary action into various porous material structures was computed [...] Read more.
An innovative concept of dynamic stormwater storage in sponge-like porous bodies (SPBs) is presented and modelled using first principles, for down-flow and up-flow variants of SPBs. The rate of inflow driven by absorption and/or capillary action into various porous material structures was computed as a function of time and found to be critically dependent on the type of structure and the porous material used. In a case study, the rates of inflow and storage filling were modelled for various conditions and found to match, or exceed, the rates of rainwater inflow and volume accumulation associated with two types of Swedish rainfalls, of 60-min duration and a return period of 10 years. Hence, the mathematical models indicated that the SPB devices studied could capture relevant amounts of water. The theoretical study also showed that the SPB concepts could be further optimized. Such findings confirmed the potential of dynamic SPB storage to control stormwater runoff and serve as one of numerous elements contributing to restoration of pre-urban hydrology in urban catchments. Finally, the issues to be considered in bringing this theoretical concept to a higher Technological Readiness Level were discussed briefly, including operational challenges. However, it should be noted that a proper analysis of such issues requires a separate study building on the current presentation of theoretical concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Case Study of Transient Dynamics in a Bypass Reach
Water 2020, 12(6), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061585 - 02 Jun 2020
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Abstract
The operating conditions of Nordic hydropower plants are expected to change in the coming years to work more in conjunction with intermittent power production, causing more frequent hydropeaking events. Hydropeaking has been shown to be detrimental to wildlife in the river reaches downstream [...] Read more.
The operating conditions of Nordic hydropower plants are expected to change in the coming years to work more in conjunction with intermittent power production, causing more frequent hydropeaking events. Hydropeaking has been shown to be detrimental to wildlife in the river reaches downstream of hydropower plants. In this work, we investigate how different possible future hydropeaking scenarios affect the water surface elevation dynamics in a bypass reach in the Ume River in northern Sweden. The river dynamics has been modeled using the open-source solver Delft3D. The numerical model was validated and calibrated with water-surface-elevation measurements. A hysteresis effect on the water surface elevation, varying with the downstream distance from the spillways, was seen in both the simulated and the measured data. Increasing the hydropeaking rate is shown to dampen the variation in water surface elevation and wetted area in the most downstream parts of the reach, which could have positive effects on habitat and bed stability compared to slower rates in that region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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Article
Comparing Internal Flow in Freezing and Evaporating Water Droplets Using PIV
Water 2020, 12(5), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051489 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
The study of evaporation and freezing of droplets is important in, e.g., spray cooling, surface coating, ink-jet printing, and when dealing with icing on wind turbines, airplane wings, and roads. Due to the complex nature of the flow within droplets, a wide range [...] Read more.
The study of evaporation and freezing of droplets is important in, e.g., spray cooling, surface coating, ink-jet printing, and when dealing with icing on wind turbines, airplane wings, and roads. Due to the complex nature of the flow within droplets, a wide range of temperatures, from freezing temperatures to heating temperatures, have to be taken into account in order to increase the understanding of the flow behavior. This study aimed to reveal if natural convection and/or Marangoni convection influence the flow in freezing and evaporating droplets. Droplets were released on cold and warm surfaces using similar experimental techniques and setups, and the internal flow within freezing and evaporating water droplets were then investigated and compared to one another using Particle Image Velocimetry. It was shown that, for both freezing and evaporating droplets, a shift in flow direction occurs early in the processes. For the freezing droplets, this effect could be traced to the Marangoni convection, but this could not be concluded for the evaporating droplets. For both evaporating and freezing droplets, after the shift in flow direction, natural convection dominates the flow. In the end of the freezing process, conduction seems to be the only contributing factor for the flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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Technical Note
Numerical Analysis of Drag Force Acting on 2D Cylinder Immersed in Accelerated Flow
Water 2020, 12(6), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061790 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
In this study, the drag exerted by an accelerating fluid on a stationary 2D circular cylinder is numerically investigated using Fluent 19.2 based on the finite-volume method. The SST k–ω model is chosen as the turbulence model because of its superiority in treating [...] Read more.
In this study, the drag exerted by an accelerating fluid on a stationary 2D circular cylinder is numerically investigated using Fluent 19.2 based on the finite-volume method. The SST k–ω model is chosen as the turbulence model because of its superiority in treating the viscous near-wall region. The results are compared to literature, and the numerical methods are validated. The acceleration of the inflow is analyzed for the range of 0.0981–9.81 m/s2, and the drag for each acceleration is compared. Additionally, the effect of the initial velocity on the drag acting on the circular cylinder is investigated at two initial velocities. As a result, a supercritical region, typically found under steady state conditions, is observed. Furthermore, vortex shedding is observed at a high initial velocity. This flow characteristic is explained via comparison with respect to the recirculation length and separation angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Environmental Fluid Mechanics)
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