Special Issue "Hydrology in Water Resources Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2021) | Viewed by 12458

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Andrzej Walega
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Guest Editor
Department of Sanitary Engineering and Water Management, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Mickiewicza St. 24/28, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: surface hydrology; modelling of hydrological processes; urban water management; flood; drought; climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Tamara Tokarczyk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management National Research Institute, Warszawa, Poland
Interests: flood; flood mapping; risk assessment; design flood hydrograph; hydrological modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The management of water resources is a complex decision-making process. Increasing anthropopression, climate variability and change, and environmental issues are affecting the demand and supply of fresh water. The distribution of water resources is subject to high spatial and time variability. For this reason, many regions around the world are experiencing significant problems related to water scarcity, drought, and various types of flooding. There is therefore increasing discussion of the potential to improve water resources through the development of water retention in basins. In general, there is still an urgent need to address issues surrounding water resources and problems with water demands as a result of different human activities. In addition, the impact of water demand on ecosystems and biota must not be neglected. Future responses to the water resource demand must be equitable,  economic, and sustainable. Effective use of hydrology in the framework of integrated water resources management contributes to sustainable development, to assisting in the risk reduction of water-related disasters, and to supporting effective environmental management at basin, regional, and international levels. Moreover, hydrology plays an important role in the credible assessment of the quantity of water resources and the detection of spatio-temporal changes.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to exchange knowledge about the role of hydrology in the sustainable management and planning of water resources. We encourage authors to share their opinions, knowledge, and achievements regarding the impact of the environment and human activity on water resources, especially with regard to the quality of hydrological data, the use of modern in situ and remote data acquisition tools, the accuracy of measurements, the linkage between hydrological processes and ecosystems, assessment of the impact of human activity on water resources, flood and drought risks, water shortage assessment,  modeling of hydrological processes, and the description of methods that can be applied to ecohydrology.

Dr. Andrzej Walega
Dr. Tamara Tokarczyk
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • measurement of hydrological data
  • satelite observation
  • water scarcity
  • droughts and floods
  • trends in hydroclimatic variable
  • modelling of hydrological processes
  • sociohydrology
  • risk and management

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Article
Water Management Balance as a Tool for Analysis of a River Basin with Conflicting Environmental and Navigational Water Demands: An Example of the Warta Mouth National Park, Poland
Water 2021, 13(24), 3628; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243628 - 16 Dec 2021
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Allocating finite water resources between different water uses is always a challenging task. Searching for a solution which satisfies the water needs (requirements) of all water users without compromising the water requirements of river ecosystems calls for analyzing different water management options and [...] Read more.
Allocating finite water resources between different water uses is always a challenging task. Searching for a solution which satisfies the water needs (requirements) of all water users without compromising the water requirements of river ecosystems calls for analyzing different water management options and their expected consequences. Water management balances are usually used for comparison of water resources with the needs of water users. When aquatic and water dependent ecosystems are considered in a similar manner as other users, searching for the optimum water resources allocation, without neglecting requirements of the natural environment, is possible. This paper describes basic modeling assumptions and methodological solutions, which allow for taking into account some tasks related to the protection of aquatic and water dependent ecosystems. The water balance model, developed for a catchment comprising the Warta Mouth National Park, was applied to find out whether supplying adequate amounts of water for conservation (or restoration) of wet meadows and wetland habitats in the area is possible, while still satisfying the demands of other water users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Selected Issues of Adaptive Water Management on the Example of the Białka River Basin
Water 2021, 13(24), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243540 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Water is a fundamental resource needed for human life and functioning and the environment. Water management requires a comprehensive, adaptive approach that also considers the dynamics of changes in the water management system. This is particularly important in areas where different groups of [...] Read more.
Water is a fundamental resource needed for human life and functioning and the environment. Water management requires a comprehensive, adaptive approach that also considers the dynamics of changes in the water management system. This is particularly important in areas where different groups of stakeholders intertwine, whose needs often contradict, which hampers effective water management, particularly in places of high natural value. This research aimed to analyze selected issues in water management in the Białka River Basin in Southern Poland. The analysis was based on a review of scientific publications, internet sources, and a survey on water management in the basin. Our research shows that the dominant issues in the study area are the flood risk and water pollution related to, among other factors, the intensive development of tourism. Moreover, the effective management of water resources is hampered by poor communication between the administration and stakeholders, which results in a low level of knowledge, negative attitudes towards nature protection, and the emergence of conflicts. The main conclusion of this paper indicates that, despite the existing social potential for implementing comprehensive water management methods, the lack of an appropriate legal framework prevents the implementation of concepts such as Adaptive Water Management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Development of a New 8-Parameter Muskingum Flood Routing Model with Modified Inflows
Water 2021, 13(22), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223170 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Flood routing can be subclassified into hydraulic and hydrologic flood routing; the former yields accurate values but requires a large amount of data and complex calculations. The latter, in contrast, requires only inflow and outflow data, and has a simpler calculation process than [...] Read more.
Flood routing can be subclassified into hydraulic and hydrologic flood routing; the former yields accurate values but requires a large amount of data and complex calculations. The latter, in contrast, requires only inflow and outflow data, and has a simpler calculation process than the hydraulic one. The Muskingum model is a representative hydrologic flood routing model, and various versions of Muskingum flood routing models have been studied. The new Muskingum flood routing model considers inflows at previous and next time during the calculation of the inflow and storage. The self-adaptive vision correction algorithm is used to calculate the parameters of the proposed model. The new model leads to a smaller error compared to the existing Muskingum flood routing models in various flood data. The sum of squares obtained by applying the new model to Wilson’s flood data, Wang’s flood data, the flood data of River Wye from December 1960, Sutculer flood data, and the flood data of River Wyre from October 1982 were 4.11, 759.79, 18,816.99, 217.73, 38.81 (m3/s)2, respectively. The magnitude of error for different types of flood data may be different, but the error may be large if the flow rate of the flood data is large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Hydrological Response of the Kunhar River Basin in Pakistan to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Impacts on Runoff Characteristics
Water 2021, 13(22), 3163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223163 - 09 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Pakistan is amongst the most water-stressed countries in the world, with changes in the frequency of extreme events, notably droughts, under climate change expected to further increase water scarcity. This study examines the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on the runoff [...] Read more.
Pakistan is amongst the most water-stressed countries in the world, with changes in the frequency of extreme events, notably droughts, under climate change expected to further increase water scarcity. This study examines the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on the runoff of the Kunhar River Basin (KRB) in Pakistan. The Mann Kendall (MK) test detected statistically significant increasing trends in both precipitation and evapotranspiration during the period 1971–2010 over the basin, but with the lack of a statistically significant trend in runoff over the same time-period. Then, a change-point analysis identified changes in the temporal behavior of the annual runoff time series in 1996. Hence, the time series was divided into two time periods, i.e., prior to and after that change: 1971–1996 and 1997–2010, respectively. For the time-period prior to the change point, the analysis revealed a statistically significant increasing trend in precipitation, which is also reflected in the runoff time series, and a decreasing trend in evapotranspiration, albeit lacking statistical significance, was observed. After 1996, however, increasing trends in precipitation and runoff were detected, but the former lacked statistical significance, while no trend in evapotranspiration was noted. Through a hydrological modelling approach reconstructing the natural runoff of the KRB, a 16.1 m3/s (or 15.3%) reduction in the mean flow in the KRB was simulated for the period 1997–2010 in comparison to the period 1971–1996. The trend analyses and modeling study suggest the importance of anthropogenic activities on the variability of runoff over KRB since 1996. The changes in streamflow caused by irrigation, urbanization, and recreational activities, in addition to climate change, have influenced the regional water resources, and there is consequently an urgent need to adapt existing practices for the water requirements of the domestic, agricultural and energy sector to continue being met in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Trends of Meteorological Droughts in the Wadi Mina Basin, Northwest Algeria
Water 2021, 13(21), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213103 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
Drought has become a recurrent phenomenon in Algeria in the last few decades. Significant drought conditions were observed during the late 1980s and late 1990s. The agricultural sector and water resources have been under severe constraints from the recurrent droughts. In this study, [...] Read more.
Drought has become a recurrent phenomenon in Algeria in the last few decades. Significant drought conditions were observed during the late 1980s and late 1990s. The agricultural sector and water resources have been under severe constraints from the recurrent droughts. In this study, spatial and temporal dimensions of meteorological droughts in the Wadi Mina basin (4900 km2) were investigated to assess vulnerability. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) method and GIS were used to detail temporal and geographical variations in drought based on monthly records for the period 1970–2010 at 16 rainfall stations located in the Wadi Mina basin. Trends in annual SPI for stations in the basin were analyzed using the Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator. Results showed that the SPI was able to detect historical droughts in 1982/83, 1983/84, 1989/90, 1992/93, 1993/94, 1996/97, 1998/99, 1999/00, 2004/05 and 2006/07. Wet years were observed in 1971/72, 1972/73, 1995/96, 2008/09 and 2009/10. Six out of 16 stations had significant decreasing precipitation trends (at 95% confidence), whereas no stations had significant increasing precipitation trends. Based on these findings, measures to ameliorate and mitigate the effects of droughts, especially the dominant intensity types, on the people, community and environment are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
A Probabilistic Model for Maximum Rainfall Frequency Analysis
Water 2021, 13(19), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192688 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
As determining the probability of the exceedance of maximum precipitation over a specified duration is critical to hydrotechnical design, particularly in the context of climate change, a model was developed to perform a frequency analysis of maximum precipitation of a specified duration. The [...] Read more.
As determining the probability of the exceedance of maximum precipitation over a specified duration is critical to hydrotechnical design, particularly in the context of climate change, a model was developed to perform a frequency analysis of maximum precipitation of a specified duration. The PMAXΤP model (Precipitation MAXimum Time (duration) Probability) harbors a pair of computational modules fulfilling different roles: (i) statistical analysis of precipitation series, and (ii) estimation of maximum precipitation for a specified duration and its probability of exceedance. The input data consist of homogeneous 30-element series of precipitation values for 16 different durations: 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 360, 720, 1080, 1440, 2160, 2880, and 4320 min, obtained through Annual Maximum Precipitation (AMP) and Peaks-Over-Threshold (POT) approaches. The statistical analysis of the precipitation series includes: (i) detecting outliers using the Grubbs-Beck test; (ii) checking for the random variable’s independence using the Wald-Wolfowitz test and the Anderson serial correlation coefficient test; (iii) checking the random variable’s stationarity using nonparametric tests, e.g., the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient test for trends of mean and variance; (iv) identifying the trend of the random variables using correlation and regression analysis, including an evaluation of the form of the trend function; and (v) checking for the internal correlation of the random variables using the Anderson autocorrelation coefficient test. To estimate maximum precipitations of a specified duration and with a specified probability of exceedance, three-parameter theoretical probability distributions were used: a shifted gamma distribution (Pearson type III), a log-normal distribution, a Weibull distribution (Fisher-Tippett type III), a log-gamma distribution, as well as a two-parameter Gumbel distribution. The best distribution was selected by: (i) maximum likelihood estimation of parameters; (ii) tests of the hypothesis of goodness of fit of the theoretical probability distribution function with the empirical distribution using Pearson’s χ2 test; (iii) selection of the best-fitting function within each type according to the criterion of minimum Kolmogorov distance; (iv) selection of the most credible probability distribution function from the set of various types of best-fitting functions according to the Akaike information criterion; and (v) verification of the most credible function using single-dimensional tests of goodness of fit: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Anderson-Darling test, the Liao-Shimokawa test, and Kuiper’s test. The PMAXTP model was tested on data from two meteorological stations in northern Poland (Chojnice and Bialystok) drawn from a digital database of high-resolution precipitation records for the period of 1986 to 2015, available for 100 stations in Poland (i.e., the Polish Atlas of Rainfall Intensities (PANDa)). Values of maximum precipitation with a specified probability of exceedance obtained from the PMAXTP model were compared with values obtained from the probabilistic Bogdanowicz-Stachý model. The comparative analysis was based on the standard error of fit, graphs of the density function for the probability of exceedance, and estimated quantile errors. The errors of fit were lower for the PMAXTP compared to the Bogdanowicz-Stachý model. For both stations, the smallest errors were obtained for the quantiles determined on the basis of maximum precipitation POT using PMAXTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Study of the Overflow Transport of the Nordic Sea
Water 2021, 13(19), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192675 - 27 Sep 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Changes in the climate system over recent decades have had profound impacts on the mean state and variability of ocean circulation, while the Nordic Sea overflow has remained stable in volume transport during the last two decades. The changes of the overflow flux [...] Read more.
Changes in the climate system over recent decades have had profound impacts on the mean state and variability of ocean circulation, while the Nordic Sea overflow has remained stable in volume transport during the last two decades. The changes of the overflow flux depend on the pressure difference at the depth of the overflow outlet on both sides of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR). Combining satellite altimeter data and the reanalysis hydrological data, the analysis found that the barotropic pressure difference and baroclinic pressure difference on both sides of the GSR had a good negative correlation from 1993 to 2015. Both are caused by changes in the properties of the upper water, and the total pressure difference has no trend change. The weakening of deep convection can only change the temperature and salt structure of the Nordic Sea, but cannot reduce the mass of the water column. Therefore, the stable pressure difference drives a stable overflow. The overflow water storage in the Nordic Sea is decreasing, which may be caused by the reduction of local overflow water production and the constant overflow flux. When the upper interface of the overflow water body in the Nordic Sea is close to or below the outlet depth, the overflow is likely to greatly slow down or even experience a hiatus in the future, which deserves more attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Simulating Rainfall Interception by Caatinga Vegetation Using the Gash Model Parametrized on Daily and Seasonal Bases
Water 2021, 13(18), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182494 - 11 Sep 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Rainfall partitioning by trees is an important hydrological process in the contexts of water resource management and climate change. It becomes even more complex where vegetation is sparse and in vulnerable natural systems, such as the Caatinga domain. Rainfall interception modelling allows extrapolating [...] Read more.
Rainfall partitioning by trees is an important hydrological process in the contexts of water resource management and climate change. It becomes even more complex where vegetation is sparse and in vulnerable natural systems, such as the Caatinga domain. Rainfall interception modelling allows extrapolating experimental results both in time and space, helping to better understand this hydrological process and contributing as a prediction tool for forest managers. In this work, the Gash model was applied in two ways of parameterization. One was the parameterization on a daily basis and another on a seasonal basis. They were validated, improving the description of rainfall partitioning by tree species of Caatinga dry tropical forest already reported in the scientific literature and allowing a detailed evaluation of the influence of rainfall depth and event intensity on rainfall partitioning associated with these species. Very small (0.0–5.0 mm) and low-intensity (0–2.5 mm h−1) events were significantly more frequent during the dry season. Both model approaches resulted in good predictions, with absence of constant and systematic errors during simulations. The sparse Gash model parametrized on a daily basis performed slightly better, reaching maximum cumulative mean error of 9.8%, while, for the seasonal parametrization, this value was 11.5%. Seasonal model predictions were also the most sensitive to canopy and climatic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Bivariate Frequency of Meteorological Drought in the Upper Minjiang River Based on Copula Function
Water 2021, 13(15), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152056 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 622
Abstract
Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and copula function, this study analyzed the meteorological drought in the upper Minjiang River basin. The Tyson polygon method is used to divide the research area into four regions based on four meteorological stations. The monthly [...] Read more.
Based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and copula function, this study analyzed the meteorological drought in the upper Minjiang River basin. The Tyson polygon method is used to divide the research area into four regions based on four meteorological stations. The monthly precipitation data of four meteorological stations from 1966 to 2016 were used for the calculation of SPI. The change trend of SPI1, SPI3 and SPI12 showed the historical dry-wet evolution phenomenon of short-term humidification and long-term aridification in the study area. The major drought events in each region are counted based on SPI3. The results show that the drought lasted the longest in Maoxian region, the occurrence of minor drought events was more frequent than the other regions. Nine distribution functions are used to fit the marginal distribution of drought duration (D), severity (S) and peak (P) estimated based on SPI3, the best marginal distribution is obtained by chi-square test. Five copula functions are used to create a bivariate joint probability distribution, the best copula function is selected through AIC, the univariate and bivariate return periods were calculated. The results of this paper will help the study area to assess the drought risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Annual Rainfall Variability in the Wadi Cheliff Basin (Algeria) over the Period 1970 to 2018
Water 2021, 13(11), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111477 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
In the context of climate variability and hydrological extremes, especially in arid and semi-arid zones, the issue of natural risks and more particularly the risks related to rainfall is a topical subject in Algeria and worldwide. In this direction, the spatiotemporal variability of [...] Read more.
In the context of climate variability and hydrological extremes, especially in arid and semi-arid zones, the issue of natural risks and more particularly the risks related to rainfall is a topical subject in Algeria and worldwide. In this direction, the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation in the Wadi Cheliff basin (Algeria) has been evaluated by means of annual time series of precipitation observed on 150 rain gauges in the period 1970–2018. First, in order to identify the natural year-to-year variability of precipitation, for each series, the coefficient of variation (CV) has been evaluated and spatially distributed. Then, the precipitation trend at annual scale has been analyzed using two nonparametric tests. Finally, the presence of possible change points in the data has been investigated. The results showed an inverse spatial pattern between CV and the annual rainfall, with a spatial gradient between the southern and the northern sides of the basin. Results of the trend analysis evidenced a marked negative trend of the annual rainfall (22% of the rain gauges for a significant level equal to 95%) involving mainly the northern and the western-central area of the basin. Finally, possible change points have been identified between 1980 and 1985. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Integrating a GIS-Based Multi-Influence Factors Model with Hydro-Geophysical Exploration for Groundwater Potential and Hydrogeological Assessment: A Case Study in the Karak Watershed, Northern Pakistan
Water 2021, 13(9), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091255 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The optimization of groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), the evaluation of groundwater potential (GWpot), the hydrogeological characterization of aquifer geoelectrical properties and borehole lithological information are of great significance in the complex decision-making processes of groundwater resource management (GRM). In this study, [...] Read more.
The optimization of groundwater conditioning factors (GCFs), the evaluation of groundwater potential (GWpot), the hydrogeological characterization of aquifer geoelectrical properties and borehole lithological information are of great significance in the complex decision-making processes of groundwater resource management (GRM). In this study, the regional GWpot of the Karak watershed in Northern Pakistan was first evaluated by means of the multi-influence factors (MIFs) model of optimized GCFs through geoprocessing tools in geographical information system (GIS). The distribution of petrophysical properties indicated by the measured resistivity fluctuations was then generated to locally verify the GWpot, and to analyze the hydrogeological and geoelectrical characteristics of aquifers. According to the weighted overlay analysis of MIFs, GWpot map was zoned into low, medium, high and very high areas, covering 9.7% (72.3 km2), 52.4% (1307.7 km2), 31.3% (913.4 km2), and 6.6% (44.8 km2) of the study area. The GWpot accuracy sequentially depends on the classification criteria, the mean rating score, and the weights assigned to GCFs. The most influential factors are geology, lineament density, and land use/land cover followed by drainage density, slope, soil type, rainfall, elevation, and groundwater level fluctuations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the confusion matrix, and Kappa (K) analysis show satisfactory and consistent results and expected performances (the area under the curve value 68%, confusion matrix 68%, Kappa (K) analysis 65%). The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) data interpretations reveals five regional hydrological layers (i.e., coarse gravel and sand, silty sand mixed lithology, clayey sand/fine sand, fine sand/gravel, and clayey basement). The preliminary interpretation of ERT results highlights the complexity of the hydrogeological strata and reveals that GWpot is structurally and proximately constrained in the clayey sand and silicate aquifers (sandstone), which is of significance for the determination of drilling sites, expansion of drinking water supply and irrigation in the future. Moreover, quantifying the spatial distribution of aquifer hydrogeological characteristics (such as reflection coefficient, isopach, and resistivity mapping) based on Olayinka’s basic standards, indirectly and locally verify the performance of the MIF model and ultimately determine new locations for groundwater exploitation. The combined methods of regional GWpot mapping and hydrogeological characterization, through the geospatial MIFs model and aquifer geoelectrical interpretation, respectively, facilitate decision-makers for sustainable GRM not only in the Karak watershed but also in other similar areas worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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Article
Performance Evaluation of a Two-Parameters Monthly Rainfall-Runoff Model in the Southern Basin of Thailand
Water 2021, 13(9), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091226 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Accurate monthly runoff estimation is crucial in water resources management, planning, and development, preventing and reducing water-related problems, such as flooding and droughts. This article evaluates the monthly hydrological rainfall-runoff model’s performance, the GR2M model, in Thailand’s southern basins. The GR2M model requires [...] Read more.
Accurate monthly runoff estimation is crucial in water resources management, planning, and development, preventing and reducing water-related problems, such as flooding and droughts. This article evaluates the monthly hydrological rainfall-runoff model’s performance, the GR2M model, in Thailand’s southern basins. The GR2M model requires only two parameters: production store (X1) and groundwater exchange rate (X2). Moreover, no prior research has been reported on its application in this region. The 37 runoff stations, which are located in three sub-watersheds of Thailand’s southern region, namely; Thale Sap Songkhla, Peninsular-East Coast, and Peninsular-West Coast, were selected as study cases. The available monthly hydrological data of runoff, rainfall, air temperature from the Royal Irrigation Department (RID) and the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) were collected and analyzed. The Thornthwaite method was utilized for the determination of evapotranspiration. The model’s performance was conducted using three statistical indices: Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), Correlation Coefficient (r), and Overall Index (OI). The model’s calibration results for 37 runoff stations gave the average NSE, r, and OI of 0.657, 0.825, and 0.757, respectively. Moreover, the NSE, r, and OI values for the model’s verification were 0.472, 0.750, and 0.639, respectively. Hence, the GR2M model was qualified and reliable to apply for determining monthly runoff variation in this region. The spatial distribution of production store (X1) and groundwater exchange rate (X2) values was conducted using the IDW method. It was susceptible to the X1, and X2 values of approximately more than 0.90, gave the higher model’s performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in Water Resources Management)
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