Special Issue "Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Sabrina Saponaro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Interests: soil sediment, and groundwater remediation technologies; risk assessment
Prof. Snežana Maletić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Serbia
Interests: remediation technologies; organic pollutant bioavailability, and risk assessment
Dr. Elena Sezenna
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Interests: pollutant transport modeling; bioelectrochemical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing availability of scientific studies has progressively drawn attention to in situ remediation technologies for groundwater. Most of them are innovative compared to the “pump and treat” approach, and allow to reduce the remediation time and to increase remediation sustainability.

The exploitation of petroleum products and the development of industrial chemistry have given rise to a large number of organic chemicals. Various studies have shown that pesticides, industrial chemicals, solvents, fuel additives, and nitrate occur in groundwater. Chemical mixtures are frequently detected, often with concentrations of individual contaminants approaching human-health benchmarks. Recently, micropollutants originating from pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine-disrupting compounds have posed an increasing concern.

A number of relevant pollutant mixtures can be present in groundwater as a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), due to very low water solubility. In general, pollutants in a non-aqueous phase can be extremely persistent and the in situ remediation highly demanding.

Contributions are invited for manuscripts referring to innovative in situ technology for groundwater remediation, based on chemical or biological processes, from either traditional or emerging pollutants, and NAPLs. Original research papers and critical reviews will be considered. All scales of application are well accepted.

Prof. Dr. Sabrina Saponaro
Prof. Snežana Maletić
Dr. Elena Sezenna
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • In situ remediation technologies
  • Innovative remediation
  • Traditional pollutants
  • Emerging pollutants
  • NAPL

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Adsorption Performance of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Oxidized by Varying Degrees for Removal of Low Levels of Copper, Nickel and Chromium(VI) from Aqueous Solutions
Water 2020, 12(3), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030723 (registering DOI) - 06 Mar 2020
Abstract
Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have drawn wide attention in recent years as novel materials for the removal of heavy metals from the aquatic media. This paper investigates the effect that the functionalization (oxidation) process duration time (3 h or 6 h) has [...] Read more.
Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have drawn wide attention in recent years as novel materials for the removal of heavy metals from the aquatic media. This paper investigates the effect that the functionalization (oxidation) process duration time (3 h or 6 h) has on the ability of MWCNTs to treat water contaminated with low levels of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cr(VI) (initial concentrations 0.5–5 mg L−1) and elucidates the adsorption mechanisms involved. Adsorbent characterization showed that the molar ratio of C and O in these materials was slightly lower for the oxMWCNT6h, due to the higher degree of oxidation, but the specific surface areas and mesopore volumes of these materials were very similar, suggesting that prolonging the functionalization duration had an insignificant effect on the physical characteristics of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (oxMWCNTs). Increasing the Ph of the solutions from Ph 2 to Ph 8 had a large positive impact on the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) by oxMWCNT, but reduced the adsorption of Cr(VI). However, the ionic strength of the solutions had far less pronounced effects. Coupled with the results of fitting the kinetics data to the Elowich and Weber–Morris models, we conclude that adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) is largely driven by electrostatic interactions and surface complexation at the interface of the adsorbate/adsorbent system, whereas the slower adsorption of Cr(VI) on the oxMWCNTs investigated is controlled by an additional chemisorption step where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). Both oxMWCNT3h and oxMWCNT6h have high adsorption affinities for the heavy metals investigated, with adsorption capacities (expressed by the Freundlich coefficient KF) ranging from 1.24 to 13.2 (mg g−1)/(mg l−1)n, highlighting the great potential such adsorbents have in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Microbial Assisted Hexavalent Chromium Removal in Bioelectrochemical Systems
Water 2020, 12(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020466 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Groundwater is the environmental matrix that is most frequently affected by anthropogenic hexavalent chromium contamination. Due to its carcinogenicity, Cr(VI) has to be removed, using environmental-friendly and economically sustainable remediation technologies. BioElectrochemical Systems (BESs), applied to bioremediation, thereby offering a promising alternative to [...] Read more.
Groundwater is the environmental matrix that is most frequently affected by anthropogenic hexavalent chromium contamination. Due to its carcinogenicity, Cr(VI) has to be removed, using environmental-friendly and economically sustainable remediation technologies. BioElectrochemical Systems (BESs), applied to bioremediation, thereby offering a promising alternative to traditional bioremediation techniques, without affecting the natural groundwater conditions. Some bacterial families are capable of oxidizing and/or reducing a solid electrode obtaining an energetic advantage for their own growth. In the present study, we assessed the possibility of stimulating bioelectrochemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a dual-chamber polarized system using an electrode as the sole energy source. To develop an electroactive microbial community three electrodes were, at first, inserted into the anodic compartment of a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell, and inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic digester. After a period of acclimation, one electrode was transferred into a polarized system and it was fixed at −0.3 V (versus standard hydrogen electrode, SHE), to promote the reduction of 1000 µg Cr(VI) L−1. A second electrode, served for the set-up of an open circuit control, operated in parallel. Cr(VI) dissolved concentration was analysed at the initial, during the experiment and final time by spectrophotometric method. Initial and final microbial characterization of the communities enriched in polarized system and open circuit control was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The bioelectrode set at −0.3 V showed high Cr(VI) removal efficiency (up to 93%) and about 150 µg L−1 day−1 removal rate. Similar efficiency was observed in the open circuit (OC) even at about half rate. Whereas, purely electrochemical reduction, limited to 35%, due to neutral operating conditions. These results suggest that bioelectrochemical Cr(VI) removal by polarized electrode offers a promising new and sustainable approach to the treatment of groundwater Cr(VI) plumes, deserving further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hydrochemical Conditions for Aerobic/Anaerobic Biodegradation of Chlorinated Ethenes—A Multi-Site Assessment
Water 2020, 12(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020322 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A stall of cis-1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride (VC) is frequently observed during bioremediation of groundwater chloroethenes via reductive dechlorination. These chloroethenes may be oxidised by aerobic methanotrophs or ethenotrophs co-metabolically and/or metabolically. We assessed the potential for such oxidation at 12 sites [...] Read more.
A stall of cis-1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride (VC) is frequently observed during bioremediation of groundwater chloroethenes via reductive dechlorination. These chloroethenes may be oxidised by aerobic methanotrophs or ethenotrophs co-metabolically and/or metabolically. We assessed the potential for such oxidation at 12 sites (49 groundwater samples) using hydrochemical and molecular biological tools. Both ethenotroph (etnC and etnE) and methanotroph (mmoX and pmoA) functional genes were identified in 90% of samples, while reductive dehalogenase functional genes (vcrA and bvcA) were identified in 82%. All functional genes were simultaneously detected in 78% of samples, in actively biostimulated sites in 88% of samples. Correlation analysis revealed that cis-1,2-DCE concentration was positively correlated with vcrA, etnC and etnE, while VC concentration was correlated with etnC, etnE, vcrA and bvcA. However, feature selection based on random forest classification indicated a significant relationship for the vcrA in relation to cis-1,2-DCE, and vcrA, bvcA and etnE for VC and no prove of relationship between cis-1,2-DCE or VC and the methanotroph functional genes. Analysis of hydrochemical parameters indicated that aerobic oxidation of chloroethenes by ethenotrophs may take place under a range of redox conditions of aquifers and coincide with high ethene and VC concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Arsenic Removal from Water by Green Synthesized Magnetic Nanoparticles
Water 2019, 11(12), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122520 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and ecofriendly method using onion peel (MNp-OP) and corn silk extract (MNp-CS), in order to develop new low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal from groundwater. As a point of comparison, magnetite nanoparticles were also synthesized with a [...] Read more.
Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and ecofriendly method using onion peel (MNp-OP) and corn silk extract (MNp-CS), in order to develop new low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal from groundwater. As a point of comparison, magnetite nanoparticles were also synthesized with a conventional chemical process (MNp-CO). The antioxidant potential of onion peel and corn silk extracts was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and free radical (DPPH) scavenging assays, including the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins contents. The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were characterised using different techniques (Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer). The adsorption capacity of MNp-OP and MNp-CS and the arsenic removal mechanism of these novel adsorbents was investigated through kinetic and equilibrium experiments and their corresponding mathematical models. Characterisation of MNp-OP and MNp-CS shows high BET specific surface areas of 243 m2/g and 261 m2/g, respectively. XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed the formation and presence of magnetite nanoparticles. The arsenic adsorption mechanism on MNp-OP, MNp-CS and MNp-CO involves chemisorption, intraparticle and external diffusion. Maximal adsorption capacities of MNp-OP, MNp-CS and MNp-CO were 1.86, 2.79, and 1.30 mg/g respectively. The green synthesis applied using onion peel and corn silk extracts was cost effective and environmentally friendly, and results in adsorbents with a high capacity for arsenic and magnetic properties, making them a very promising alternative approach in the treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Phosphate Induced Arsenic Mobilization as a Potentially Effective In-Situ Remediation Technique—Preliminary Column Tests
Water 2019, 11(11), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112364 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is commonly remediated by pump and treat. However, this technique is difficult to apply or maintain efficiently because the mobility of arsenic varies depending on the geochemical aquifer conditions. Arsenic interacting with the sediment can cause strong retardation, [...] Read more.
Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is commonly remediated by pump and treat. However, this technique is difficult to apply or maintain efficiently because the mobility of arsenic varies depending on the geochemical aquifer conditions. Arsenic interacting with the sediment can cause strong retardation, which is counteracted by ions competing for sedimentary sorption sites like silica, bicarbonate and phosphate. Phosphate competes most effectively with arsenic for sorption sites due to its chemical similarity. To accelerate an ongoing but ineffective pump and treat remediation, we examined the competitive effect of increasing phosphate doses on contaminated aquifer material of different depths and thus under distinct geochemical conditions. In the columns with phosphate addition, significant amounts of arsenic were released rapidly under oxic and anoxic conditions. In all tests, the grade of leaching was higher under anoxic conditions than under oxic conditions. As(III) was the dominant species, in particular during the first release peaks and the anoxic tests. Higher amounts of phosphate did not trigger the arsenic release further and led to a shift of arsenic species. We suggest that the competitive surface complexation is the major process of arsenic release especially when higher amounts of phosphate are used. Commonly arsenic release is described at iron reducing conditions. In contrast, we observed that a change in prevailing redox potential towards manganese reducing conditions in the oxic tests and iron reducing conditions in the anoxic column took place later and thus independently of arsenic release. The reduction of As(V) to As(III) under both redox conditions is presumed to be an effect of microbial detoxification. A loss of sulphate in all columns with phosphate indicates an increased microbial activity, which might play a significant role in the process of arsenic release. Preliminary tests with sediment material from a contaminated site showed that phosphate additions did not change the pH value significantly. Therefore, a release of other metals is not likely. Our results indicate that in-situ application of phosphate amendments to arsenic-contaminated sites could accelerate and enhance arsenic mobility to improve the efficiency of pump and treat remediation without negative side effects. The novelty of this approach is the use of only small amounts of phosphate in order to stimulate microbial activity in addition to surface complexation. Therefore, this method might become an innovative and cost-effective remediation for arsenic contaminated sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Significance of Chlorinated Phenols Adsorption on Plastics and Bioplastics during Water Treatment
Water 2019, 11(11), 2358; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112358 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Microplastics and chlorinated phenols (CPs) are pollutants found ubiquitously in freshwater systems. Meanwhile, bioplastics are attracting much attention as alternatives to conventional plastics, but there is little data about their effect on the behaviour of pollutants. This work therefore investigates the sorption of [...] Read more.
Microplastics and chlorinated phenols (CPs) are pollutants found ubiquitously in freshwater systems. Meanwhile, bioplastics are attracting much attention as alternatives to conventional plastics, but there is little data about their effect on the behaviour of pollutants. This work therefore investigates the sorption of four CPs (4-chlorophenol—4-CP, 2,4-dichlorophenol—2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol—2,4,6-TCP and pentachlorophenol—PCP) on three different plastics (polyethylene (PЕg), polypropylene (PP) and polylactic acid (PLA)) using kinetics and isotherm studies. All experiments were carried out in a synthetic water matrix and in spiked Danube river water. In all cases, adsorption kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second order rate model. Adsorption proceeded through two linear phases, corresponding to transport from the bulk solution to the external surfaces and then into the interior pores of the sorbents. Maximum adsorption capacities calculated with the Langmuir isotherm indicated that whereas adsorption of 4-CP was not significantly affected by the type of plastic present, the adsorption of 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP and PCP varied greatly, with polypropylene showing the greatest affinity for CPs adsorption. The differences observed between the adsorption behaviour of CPs in the synthetic and natural water matrices suggest further investigation is required into how the different fractions of natural organic matter impact interactions between CPs and plastics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in In Situ Biological and Chemical Groundwater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop