Special Issue "Modeling and Practice of Erosion and Sediment Transport under Change"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gil Mahé
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
IRD, UMR HSM IRD/Univ Montpellier, France
Interests: Hydrology; Climatology; Solid transport; Human impact; Environment; Hydrological modelling; Climatic scenarios
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Hafzullah Aksoy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istanbul Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Hydraulics Division 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey
Interests: hydrology; solid transport; hydrological modelling; water resources; statistical approaches; stochastic modelling; experimental sediment transport
Prof. Mohamed Meddi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Hydraulique, Blida, Algeria
Interests: hydrology; solid transport; hydrological modelling; water resources; stochastic modelling; climatic scenarios

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate and anthropogenic changes impact the conditions of erosion and of sediment transport in rivers. The rainfall variability and, for many places, the increase of rainfall intensity have a direct impact on rainfall erosivity. Increasing demography leads to acceleration of land cover changes in natural areas to cultivated areas, and then sometimes in degraded areas and desertified landscapes. These anthropogenized landscapes are more sensitive to erosion. On the other hand, the increase in the number of dams in watersheds trap a great part of sediment fluxes, which do not reach the sea in the same amount, nor at the same quality, with consequences on coastal geomorphodynamics.

This Special Issue is dedicated to studies of sediment fluxes, from continental areas to coastal areas, observation, modelling and impacts, at different scales, from watershed slopes to the outputs of large river basins.

Dr. Gil  Mahe
Prof. Dr. Hafzullah  Aksoy
Prof. Dr. Mohamed  Meddi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Hydrology
  • Solid transport
  • Human impact
  • Environment
  • Hydrological modelling
  • Climatic scenarios
  • Sediment transport model
  • Experimental research

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Modeling and Practice of Erosion and Sediment Transport under Change
Water 2019, 11(8), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081665 - 12 Aug 2019
Abstract
Climate and anthropogenic changes impact on the erosion and sediment transport processes in rivers. Rainfall variability and, in many places, the increase of rainfall intensity have a direct impact on rainfall erosivity. Increasing changes in demography have led to the acceleration of land [...] Read more.
Climate and anthropogenic changes impact on the erosion and sediment transport processes in rivers. Rainfall variability and, in many places, the increase of rainfall intensity have a direct impact on rainfall erosivity. Increasing changes in demography have led to the acceleration of land cover changes from natural areas to cultivated areas, and then from degraded areas to desertification. Such areas, under the effect of anthropogenic activities, are more sensitive to erosion, and are therefore prone to erosion. On the other hand, with an increase in the number of dams in watersheds, a great portion of sediment fluxes is trapped in the reservoirs, which do not reach the sea in the same amount nor at the same quality, and thus have consequences for coastal geomorphodynamics. The Special Issue “Modeling and Practice of Erosion and Sediment Transport under Change” is focused on a number of keywords: erosion and sediment transport, model and practice, and change. The keywords are briefly discussed with respect to the relevant literature. The papers in this Special Issue address observations and models based on laboratory and field data, allowing researchers to make use of such resources in practice under changing conditions. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Modelling of Soil Erosion and Accumulation in an Agricultural Landscape—A Comparison of Selected Approaches Applied at the Small Stream Basin Level in the Czech Republic
Water 2019, 11(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030404 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This article deals with the modelling of erosion and accumulation processes in the contemporary cultural landscape of Central Europe. The area of interest is the headwater part of the small stream catchment—the Kopaninský Stream in central Czech Republic. It is an agricultural and [...] Read more.
This article deals with the modelling of erosion and accumulation processes in the contemporary cultural landscape of Central Europe. The area of interest is the headwater part of the small stream catchment—the Kopaninský Stream in central Czech Republic. It is an agricultural and forest–agricultural landscape with a relatively rugged topography and riverbed slope, which makes the terrain very vulnerable to water erosion. The main aim of this article is to compare the results of four selected soil erosion and sediment delivery models, which are currently widely used to quantitate the soil erosion and sediment accumulation rates, respectively. The models WaTEM/SEDEM, USPED, InVEST and TerrSet work on several different algorithms. The model outputs are compared in terms of the total volume of eroded and accumulated sediment within the catchment per time unit, and further according to the spatial distribution of sites susceptible to soil loss or sediment accumulation. Although each model is based partly on a specific calculation algorithm and has different data pre-processing requirements, we have achieved relatively comparable results in calculating the average annual soil loss and accumulation. However, each model is distinct in identifying the spatial distribution of specific locations prone to soil loss or accumulation processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Shear Reynolds Number-Based Classification Method of the Nonuniform Bed Load Transport
Water 2019, 11(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010073 - 03 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study is to introduce a novel method which can separate sand- or gravel-dominated bed load transport in rivers with mixed-size bed material. When dealing with large rivers with complex hydrodynamics and morphodynamics, the bed load transport modes can indicate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to introduce a novel method which can separate sand- or gravel-dominated bed load transport in rivers with mixed-size bed material. When dealing with large rivers with complex hydrodynamics and morphodynamics, the bed load transport modes can indicate strong variation even locally, which requires a suitable approach to estimate the locally unique behavior of the sediment transport. However, the literature offers only few studies regarding this issue, and they are concerned with uniform bed load. In order to partly fill this gap, we suggest here a decision criteria which utilizes the shear Reynolds number. The method was verified with data from field and laboratory measurements, both performed at nonuniform bed material compositions. The comparative assessment of the results show that the shear Reynolds number-based method operates more reliably than the Shields–Parker diagram and it is expected to predict the sand or gravel transport domination with a <5% uncertainty. The results contribute to the improvement of numerical sediment transport modeling as well as to the field implementation of bed load transport measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Riverbed Migrations in Western Taiwan under Climate Change
Water 2018, 10(11), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111631 - 12 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, extreme weather phenomena have occurred worldwide, resulting in many catastrophic disasters. Under the impact of climate change, the frequency of extreme rainfall events in Taiwan will increase, according to a report on climate change in Taiwan. This study analyzed riverbed [...] Read more.
In recent years, extreme weather phenomena have occurred worldwide, resulting in many catastrophic disasters. Under the impact of climate change, the frequency of extreme rainfall events in Taiwan will increase, according to a report on climate change in Taiwan. This study analyzed riverbed migrations, such as degradation and aggradation, caused by extreme rainfall events under climate change for the Choshui River, Taiwan. We used the CCHE1D model to simulate changes in flow discharge and riverbed caused by typhoon events for the base period (1979–2003) and the end of the 21st century (2075–2099) according to the climate change scenario of representative concentration pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and dynamical downscaling of rainfall data in Taiwan. According to the results on flow discharge, at the end of the 21st century, the average peak flow during extreme rainfall events will increase by 20% relative to the base period, but the time required to reach the peak will be 8 h shorter than that in the base period. In terms of the results of degradation and aggradation of the riverbed, at the end of the 21st century, the amount of aggradation will increase by 33% over that of the base period. In the future, upstream sediment will be blocked by the Chichi weir, increasing the severity of scouring downstream. In addition, due to the increased peak flow discharge in the future, the scouring of the pier may be more serious than it is currently. More detailed 2D or 3D hydrological models are necessary in future works, which could adequately address the erosive phenomena created by bridge piers. Our results indicate that not only will flood disasters occur within a shorter time duration, but the catchment will also face more severe degradation and aggradation in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Shear Stress-Based Analysis of Sediment Incipient Deposition in Rigid Boundary Open Channels
Water 2018, 10(10), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101399 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Urban drainage and sewer systems, and channels in general, are treated by the deposition of sediment that comes from water collecting systems, such as roads, parking lots, land, cultivation areas, and so forth, which are all under gradual or sudden change. The carrying [...] Read more.
Urban drainage and sewer systems, and channels in general, are treated by the deposition of sediment that comes from water collecting systems, such as roads, parking lots, land, cultivation areas, and so forth, which are all under gradual or sudden change. The carrying capacity of urban area channels is reduced heavily by sediment transport that might even totally block the channel. In order to solve the sedimentation problem, it is therefore important that the channel is designed by considering self-cleansing criteria. Incipient deposition is proposed as a conservative method for channel design and is the subject of this study. With this aim, an experimental study carried out in trapezoidal, rectangular, circular, U-shape, and V-bottom channels is presented. Four different sizes of sand were used as sediment in the experiments performed in a tilting flume under nine different longitudinal channel bed slopes. A shear stress approach is considered, with the Shields and Yalin methods used in the analysis. Using the experimental data, functionals are developed for both methods. It is seen that the bed shear stress changes with the shape of the channel cross-section. Incipient deposition in rectangular and V-bottom channels starts under the lowest and the highest shear stress, respectively, due mainly to the shape of the channel cross-section that affects the distribution of shear stress on the channel bed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Attenuation and Land Management in Small Catchments to Remove Sediment and Phosphorus: A Modelling Study of Mitigation Options and Impacts
Water 2018, 10(9), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091227 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is well known that soil, hillslopes, and watercourses in small catchments possess a degree of natural attenuation that affects both the shape of the outlet hydrograph and the transport of nutrients and sediments. The widespread adoption of Natural Based Solutions (NBS) practices [...] Read more.
It is well known that soil, hillslopes, and watercourses in small catchments possess a degree of natural attenuation that affects both the shape of the outlet hydrograph and the transport of nutrients and sediments. The widespread adoption of Natural Based Solutions (NBS) practices in the headwaters of these catchments is expected to add additional attenuation primarily through increasing the amount of new storage available to accommodate flood flows. The actual type of NBS features used to add storage could include swales, ditches, and small ponds (acting as sediment traps). Here, recent data collected from monitored features (from the Demonstration Test Catchments project in the Newby Beck catchment (Eden) in northwest England) were used to provide first estimates of the percentages of the suspended sediment (SS) and total phosphorus (TP) loads that could be trapped by additional features. The Catchment Runoff Attenuation Flux Tool (CRAFT) was then used to model this catchment (Newby Beck) to investigate whether adding additional attenuation, along with the ability to trap and retain SS (and attached P), will have any effect on the flood peak and associated peak concentrations of SS and TP. The modelling tested the hypothesis that increasing the amount of new storage (thus adding attenuation capacity) in the catchment will have a beneficial effect. The model results implied that a small decrease of the order of 5–10% in the peak concentrations of SS and TP was observable after adding 2000 m3 to 8000 m3 of additional storage to the catchment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Climate Change and Human Activities on Soil Erosion in the Xihe River Basin, China
Water 2018, 10(8), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081085 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Climate change and human activities are the major factors affecting runoff and sediment load. We analyzed the inter-annual variation trends of the annual rainfall, air temperature, runoff and sediment load in the Xihe River Basin from 1969–2015. Pettitt’s test and the Soil and [...] Read more.
Climate change and human activities are the major factors affecting runoff and sediment load. We analyzed the inter-annual variation trends of the annual rainfall, air temperature, runoff and sediment load in the Xihe River Basin from 1969–2015. Pettitt’s test and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model were used to detect sudden changes in hydro-meteorological variables and simulate the basin hydrological cycle, respectively. According to the simulation results, we explored spatial distribution of soil erosion in the watershed by utilizing ArcGIS10.0, analyzed the average soil erosion modulus by different types of land use, and quantified the contributions of climate change and human activities to runoff and sediment load in changes. The results showed that: (1) From 1969–2015, both rainfall and air temperature increased, and air temperature increased significantly (p < 0.01) at 0.326 °C/10 a (annual). Runoff and sediment load decreased, and sediment load decreased significantly (p < 0.01) at 1.63 × 105 t/10 a. In 1988, air temperature experienced a sudden increased and sediment load decreased. (2) For runoff, R2 and Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (Ens) were 0.92 and 0.91 during the calibration period and 0.90 and 0.87 during the validation period, for sediment load, R2 and Ens were 0.60 and 0.55 during the calibration period and 0.70 and 0.69 during the validation period, meeting the model’s applicability requirements. (3) Soil erosion was worse in the upper basin than other regions, and highest in cultivated land. Climate change exacerbates runoff and sediment load with overall contribution to the total change of −26.54% and −8.8%, respectively. Human activities decreased runoff and sediment load with overall contribution to the total change of 126.54% and 108.8% respectively. The variation of runoff and sediment load in the Xihe River Basin is largely caused by human activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Erosion Process from a Single-Stripe Laser-Scanned Topography: A Laboratory Case Study
Water 2018, 10(7), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070956 - 19 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Topographies during the erosion process obtained from the single-stripe laser-scanning method may provide an accurate, but affordable, soil loss estimation based on high-precision digital elevation model (DEM) data. In this study, we used laboratory erosion experiments with a sloping flume, a rainfall simulator, [...] Read more.
Topographies during the erosion process obtained from the single-stripe laser-scanning method may provide an accurate, but affordable, soil loss estimation based on high-precision digital elevation model (DEM) data. In this study, we used laboratory erosion experiments with a sloping flume, a rainfall simulator, and a stripe laser apparatus to evaluate topographic changes of soil surface and the erosion process. In the experiments, six slope gradients of the flume (5° to 30° with an increment of 5°) were used and the rainfall simulator generated a 30-min rainfall with the kinetic energy equivalent to 80 mm/h on average. The laser-scanned topography and sediment yield were collected every 5 min in each test. The difference between the DEMs from laser scans of different time steps was used to obtain the eroded soil volumes and the corresponding estimates of soil loss in mass. The results suggest that the collected sediment yield and eroded soil volume increased with rainfall duration and slope, and quantified equations are proposed for soil loss prediction using rainfall duration and slope. This study shows the applicability of the stripe laser-scanning method in soil loss prediction and erosion evaluation in a laboratory case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropogenic Reservoirs of Various Sizes Trap Most of the Sediment in the Mediterranean Maghreb Basin
Water 2018, 10(7), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070927 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to obtain a spatially explicit assessment of the impact of reservoirs on natural river sediment fluxes to the sea in the Mediterranean Maghreb Basin (MMB), a region where both mechanical erosion rates and the anthropogenic pressure on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to obtain a spatially explicit assessment of the impact of reservoirs on natural river sediment fluxes to the sea in the Mediterranean Maghreb Basin (MMB), a region where both mechanical erosion rates and the anthropogenic pressure on surface water resources are high. We combined modeling of riverine sediment yields (sediment fluxes divided by the drainage basin area) and water drainage intensities in a 5’ × 5’ grid point resolution (~10 km × 10 km) with a compilation of existing reservoirs in the area, and calculated sediment trapping based on average water residence time in these reservoirs. A total number of 670 reservoirs could be assembled from various sources (including digitization from Google maps), comprising large-scale, small-scale and hillside reservoirs. 450 of them could be implemented in our modeling approach. Our results confirm that natural sediment yields are clearly above the world average, with the greatest values for Morocco (506 t km−2 year−1), followed by Algeria (328 t km−2 year−1) and by Tunisia (250 t km−2 year−1). Including dams in the downstream routing of suspended sediments to the sea reduces the natural sediment flux in the entire MMB to the sea from 96 to 36 Mt km−1 year−1, which corresponds to an average sediment retention of 62%. Trapping rates are highest in the Tunisian basin part, with about 72%, followed by the Algerian (63%) and the Moroccan basin parts (55%). Small reservoirs and hillside reservoirs are quantitatively important in the interception of these sediments compared to large reservoirs. If we only considered the dams included in the widely used Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database which comprises mainly large reservoirs sediment retention behind dams would account for 36% of the natural suspended particulate matter (SPM) flux to the Mediterranean Sea. Our data reveal negative correlation between sediment retention and natural erosion rates among the three Maghreb countries, which can be explained by the greater difficulties to build dams in steep terrains where natural sediment yields are high. Although the lowest sediment retention rates are found in the Moroccan part of the MMB, it is probably here where riverine sediment starvation has the greatest impacts on coastline dynamics. Understanding the impact of dams and related water infrastructures on riverine sediment dynamics is key in arid zones such as the MMB, where global warming is predicted to cause important changes in the climatic conditions and the water availability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Erosion, Suspended Sediment Transport and Sedimentation on the Wadi Mina at the Sidi M’Hamed Ben Aouda Dam, Algeria
Water 2018, 10(7), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070895 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective of this study was to follow-up on the evolution of the hydro-pluviometric schemes and particular elements of Wadi Mina (6048 km2) to the Sidi M’Hamed Ben Aouda Dam to evaluate the silting origin and status of this dam situated [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to follow-up on the evolution of the hydro-pluviometric schemes and particular elements of Wadi Mina (6048 km2) to the Sidi M’Hamed Ben Aouda Dam to evaluate the silting origin and status of this dam situated in the northwest of Algeria. The pluviometric study targeted a series of rains during 77 years (1930–2007), the liquid discharge data cover a period of 41 years (1969–2010) and the solids and suspended sediment concentrations data cover very variable periods, starting from 22 to 40 years for the entire catchment area. The statistical tests for ruptures detection on the chronological series of rains and discharges indicate a net reduction of rains of more than 20% on the entire basin since 1970. The evolution of solids inputs was quantified: the maximum values are registered on autumn start and at the end of spring. The Wadi Mina basin brings annually 38 × 106 m3 of water with a specific degradation of 860 t·km−2·year−1. By comparing the results found, we thus observe that the basin upstream of SMBA (1B) Dam is the greatest sediment producer towards the dam because it shows a specific degradation equal to 13.36 t·ha−1·year−1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Relationship between Soil Slurry Transfer and Deposition in Urban Sewer Conduits
Water 2018, 10(7), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070825 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Soil slurry deposited on the surface of the Earth during rainfall mixes with fluids and flows into urban sewer conduits. Turbulent energy and energy dissipation in the conduits lead to separation, and sedimentation at the bottom lowers the discharge capacity of conduits. This [...] Read more.
Soil slurry deposited on the surface of the Earth during rainfall mixes with fluids and flows into urban sewer conduits. Turbulent energy and energy dissipation in the conduits lead to separation, and sedimentation at the bottom lowers the discharge capacity of conduits. This study proposes a functional relationship between shear stress in urban sewer conduits and the physical properties of particles in a conduit bed containing less than 20 mm of soil. Several conditions were implemented for analyzing two-phase flow (soil slurry and fluid in urban sewer conduits) in terms of turbulent flow by considering soil slurry flowing into urban sewer conduits. The internal flows of fluid and soil slurry in urban sewer conduits were numerically analyzed and modeled by applying the Navier–Stokes equation and the k-ε turbulence model. The transfer deposition of the soil slurry in the conduits was reviewed and, based on the results, a limiting tractive force was calculated and used to propose criteria for transfer deposition occurring in urban sewer conduits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Grain Size Distribution of Bedload Transport in a Glaciated Catchment (Baranowski Glacier, King George Island, Western Antarctica)
Water 2018, 10(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040360 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The relationships among grain size distribution (GSD), water discharge, and GSD parameters are investigated to identify regularities in the evolution of two gravel-bed proglacial troughs: Fosa Creek and Siodło Creek. In addition, the potential application of certain parameters obtained from the GSD analysis [...] Read more.
The relationships among grain size distribution (GSD), water discharge, and GSD parameters are investigated to identify regularities in the evolution of two gravel-bed proglacial troughs: Fosa Creek and Siodło Creek. In addition, the potential application of certain parameters obtained from the GSD analysis for the assessment of the formation stage of both creeks is comprehensively discussed. To achieve these goals, River Bedload Traps (RBTs) were used to collect the bedload, and a sieving method for dry material was applied to obtain the GSDs. Statistical comparisons between both streams showed significant differences in flow velocity; however, the lack of significant differences in bedload transport clearly indicated that meteorological conditions are among the most important factors in the erosive process for this catchment. In particular, the instability of flow conditions during high water discharge resulted in an increase in the proportion of medium and coarse gravels. The poorly sorted fine and very fine gravels observed in Siodło Creek suggest that this trough is more susceptible to erosion and less stabilized than Fosa Creek. The results suggest that GSD analyses can be used to define the stage of development of riverbeds relative to that of other riverbeds in polar regions. Full article
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