Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2022) | Viewed by 25223

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani, Greece
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); physicochemical processes; photocatalysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physicochemical processes have always played a vital role in wastewater treatment, as they can treat non-biodegradable effluents. Electrochemistry has always stood out, as it has many advantages such as high efficiency, easy scaling, combination, and synergy with other technologies such as fenton reaction, photocatalysis, coagulation and even biological reactors. Additionally, if combined with renewable energy sources, it can provide a unified green solution. In recent years, the development of new electrocatalytic materials has led to a significant increase in the environmental applications of electrochemistry. Under this perspective, this Special Issue of Water welcomes the application of environmental electrochemistry, including:

- Electrochemical treatment of agro-industrial wastewater;

- Environmental electrochemistry for the removal of persistent pollutants and pathogens;

- Design and scale-up of electrochemical reactors;

- New electrocatalytic material for wastewater treatment;

- Combination of electrochemistry with other processes (electrocoagulation, electro fenton, photoelectrocatalysis) and investigation of synergy;

- Electrochemical activation fo persulfate and electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide;

- Microbial fuel cells;

- Modeling of environmental electrochemistry.

Dr. Zacharias Frontistis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Electrochemical oxidation
  • Electrofenton
  • DSA
  • Boron-doped diamond
  • Electrocoagulation
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Agroindustrial effluents

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 167 KiB  
Editorial
Current and Future Trends in Environmental Electrochemistry for Wastewater Treatment
by Zacharias Frontistis
Water 2022, 14(11), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111817 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
In recent years, the demand for high-quality water has constantly been increasing, while at the same time, the legislations regarding wastewater reuse are becoming stricter [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)

Research

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19 pages, 16724 KiB  
Article
Construction of Novel Electro-Fenton Systems by Magnetically Decorating Zero-Valent Iron onto RuO2-IrO2/Ti Electrode for Highly Efficient Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment
by Miao Deng, Keming Wu, Tao Yang, Deyou Yu, Gaojie Liu, Shuai Gong, Dongni Sun and Michal Petru
Water 2022, 14(7), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071044 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
The Electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) technique has shown great potential in wastewater treatment, while the sustainable and continuing supply of Fe2+ remains challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the construction of a novel E-Fenton system by magnetically decorating zero-valent iron (ZVI) onto a RuO2-IrO [...] Read more.
The Electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) technique has shown great potential in wastewater treatment, while the sustainable and continuing supply of Fe2+ remains challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the construction of a novel E-Fenton system by magnetically decorating zero-valent iron (ZVI) onto a RuO2-IrO2/Ti (ZVI-RuO2-IrO2/Ti) electrode for high-efficient treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater, which is considerably refractory and harmful to conventional biological processes. By using ZVI as a durable source of Fe(II) irons, 78.69% of COD and 76.40% of TOC may be rapidly removed by the developed ZVI-RuO2-IrO2/Ti electrode, while the ZVI-RuO2-IrO2/Ti electrode using ZVI only reduces 35.64% of COD under optimized conditions at initial COD and TOC values of 5500 mg/L and 4300 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the increase in BOD5/COD from 0.21 to 0.52 highlights the enhanced biodegradability of the treated effluent. The analysis of a simultaneously formed precipitation on electrodes suggests that the coagulation process dominated by Fe3+/Fe2+ also plays a non-negligible role in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. In addition, the monitoring of the evolution of nitrogen elements and the formation of by-products in the E-Fenton process verifies its great capacity toward those organic pollutants found in pharmaceutical wastewater. Our study offers a practical solution for enhancing the performance of E-Fenton systems, and effectively treating refractory pharmaceutical wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
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15 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Recovery to Overcome Direct Osmosis Concentrate-Bearing Lead: Optimization of Treatment Process via RSM-CCD
by Milaad Moosazade, Razieh Ashoori, Hamid Moghimi, Mohammad Ali Amani, Zacharias Frontistis and Ramezan Ali Taheri
Water 2021, 13(21), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213136 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
The use of electrochemistry is a promising approach for the treatment of direct osmosis concentrate that contains a high concentration of organic pollutants and has high osmotic pressure, to achieve the safe discharge of effluent. This work addresses, for the first time, this [...] Read more.
The use of electrochemistry is a promising approach for the treatment of direct osmosis concentrate that contains a high concentration of organic pollutants and has high osmotic pressure, to achieve the safe discharge of effluent. This work addresses, for the first time, this major environmental challenge using perforated aluminum electrodes mounted in an electrocoagulation–flotation cell (PA-ECF). The design of the experiments, the modeling, and the optimization of the PA-ECF conditions for the treatment of DO concentrate rich in Pb were explored using a central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). Therefore, the CCD-RSM was employed to optimize and study the effect of the independent variables, namely electrolysis time (5.85 min to 116.15 min) and current intensity (0.09 A to 2.91 A) on Pb removal. Optimal values of the process parameters were determined as an electrolysis time of 77.65 min and a current intensity of 0.9 A. In addition to Pb removal (97.8%), energy consumption, electrode mass-consumed material, and operating cost were estimated as 0.0025 kWh/m3, 0.217 kg Al/m3, and 0.423 USD/m3, respectively. In addition, it was found that DO concentrate obtained from metallurgical wastewater can be recovered through PA-ECF (almost 94% Pb removal). This work demonstrated that the PA-ECF technique could became a viable process applicable in the treatment of DO concentrate containing Pb-rich for reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
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15 pages, 20577 KiB  
Article
Combined Electro-Fenton and Anodic Oxidation Processes at a Sub-Stoichiometric Titanium Oxide (Ti4O7) Ceramic Electrode for the Degradation of Tetracycline in Water
by Busisiwe N. Zwane, Benjamin O. Orimolade, Babatunde A. Koiki, Nonhlangabezo Mabuba, Chaimaa Gomri, Eddy Petit, Valérie Bonniol, Geoffroy Lesage, Matthieu Rivallin, Marc Cretin and Omotayo A. Arotiba
Water 2021, 13(19), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13192772 - 6 Oct 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3345
Abstract
The mineralization of tetracycline by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) as well as the study of the toxicity of its intermediates and degradation products are presented. Electro-Fenton (EF), anodic oxidation (AO), and electro-Fenton coupled with anodic oxidation (EF/AO) were used to degrade tetracycline [...] Read more.
The mineralization of tetracycline by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) as well as the study of the toxicity of its intermediates and degradation products are presented. Electro-Fenton (EF), anodic oxidation (AO), and electro-Fenton coupled with anodic oxidation (EF/AO) were used to degrade tetracycline on carbon felt (cathode) and a sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide (Ti4O7) layer deposited on Ti (anode). As compared to EF and AO, the coupled EF/AO system resulted in the highest pollutant removal efficiencies: total organic carbon removal was 69 ± 1% and 68 ± 1%, at 20 ppm and 50 ppm of initial concentration of tetracycline, respectively. The effect of electrolysis current on removal efficiency, mineralization current efficiency, energy consumption, and solution toxicity of tetracycline mineralization were investigated for 20 ppm and 50 ppm tetracycline. The EF/AO process using a Ti4O7 anode and CF cathode provides low energy and high removal efficiency of tetracycline caused by the production of hydroxyl radicals both at the surface of the non-active Ti4O7 electrode and in solution by the electro-Fenton process at the cathodic carbon felt. Complete removal of tetracycline was observed from HPLC data after 30 min at optimized conditions of 120 mA and 210 mA for 20 ppm and 50 ppm tetracycline concentrations. Degradation products were elucidated, and the toxicity of the products were measured with luminescence using Microtox® bacteria toxicity test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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23 pages, 1049 KiB  
Review
Use of Electrocoagulation for Treatment of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Water/Wastewater: A Review Exploring Opportunities and Challenges
by Rahat Alam, Mohd Sheob, Bilal Saeed, Saif Ullah Khan, Maryam Shirinkar, Zacharias Frontistis, Farrukh Basheer and Izharul Haq Farooqi
Water 2021, 13(15), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152105 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6643
Abstract
Increasing dependency on pharmaceutical compounds including antibiotics, analgesics, antidepressants, and other drugs has threatened the environment as well as human health. Their occurrence, transformation, and fate in the environment are causing significant concerns. Several existing treatment technologies are there with their pros and [...] Read more.
Increasing dependency on pharmaceutical compounds including antibiotics, analgesics, antidepressants, and other drugs has threatened the environment as well as human health. Their occurrence, transformation, and fate in the environment are causing significant concerns. Several existing treatment technologies are there with their pros and cons for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater (PWW). Still, electrocoagulation is considered as the modern and decisive technology for treatment. In the EC process, utilizing electricity (AC/DC) and electrodes, contaminants become coagulated with the metal hydroxide and are separated by co-precipitation. The main mechanism is charge neutralization and adsorption of contaminants on the generated flocs. The range of parameters affects the EC process and is directly related to the removal efficiency and its overall operational cost. This process only could be scaled up on the industrial level if process parameters become optimized and energy consumption is reduced. Unfortunately, the removal mechanism of particular pharmaceuticals and complex physiochemical phenomena involved in this process are not fully understood. For this reason, further research and reviews are required to fill the knowledge gap. This review discusses the use of EC for removing pharmaceuticals and focuses on removal mechanism and process parameters, the cost assessment, and the challenges involved in mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
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29 pages, 2604 KiB  
Review
Electrocoagulation as a Promising Defluoridation Technology from Water: A Review of State of the Art of Removal Mechanisms and Performance Trends
by Milad Mousazadeh, S. M. Alizadeh, Zacharias Frontistis, Işık Kabdaşlı, Elnaz Karamati Niaragh, Zakaria Al Qodah, Zohreh Naghdali, Alaa El Din Mahmoud, Miguel A. Sandoval, Erick Butler and Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh
Water 2021, 13(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050656 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 6577
Abstract
Fluoride ions present in drinking water are beneficial to human health when at proper concentration levels (0.5–1.5 mg L−1), but an excess intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg L−1) may pose several health problems. In this context, reducing high fluoride [...] Read more.
Fluoride ions present in drinking water are beneficial to human health when at proper concentration levels (0.5–1.5 mg L−1), but an excess intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg L−1) may pose several health problems. In this context, reducing high fluoride concentrations in water is a major worldwide challenge. The World Health Organization has recommended setting a permissible limit of 1.5 mg L−1. The application of electrocoagulation (EC) processes has received widespread and increasing attention as a promising treatment technology and a competitive treatment for fluoride control. EC technology has been favourably applied due to its economic effectiveness, environmental versatility, amenability of automation, and low sludge production. This review provides more detailed information on fluoride removal from water by the EC process, including operating parameters, removal mechanisms, energy consumption, and operating costs. Additionally, it also focuses attention on future trends related to improve defluoridation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
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