Special Issue "Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2022 | Viewed by 10197

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nickolai Shadrin
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Sevastopol, Russia
Interests: general, saline lake and semi-aquatic ecology, geoecology, life in extreme environment, biofilms, stromatolites, ecosystem functioning, alien species, food webs, integrated sustainable environmental management, aquaculture, eco-physiology and ethology of hydrobionts, long-term changes, evolution, and etc.
Dr. Elena Anufriieva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Sevastopol, Russia
Interests: hydrobiology, saline lake, invertebrate zoology, life in extreme environment, ecosystem functioning, alien species, food webs, aquaculture, eco-physiology and ethology, long-term changes
Prof. Dr. Gonzalo Gajardo
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratorio de Genética, Acuicultura & Biodiversidad Universidad de Los Lagos Avda. Fuchslocher 1305, Osorno. Chile
Interests: gene and population-level biodiversity, fitness and other traits relevant to aquaculture and biodiversity conservation

Special Issue Information

Inland saline waters include different types of water bodies (lake, lagoons, estuaries, rivers, springs, ponds, etc.) and play an important many face role in the Biosphere on different spatial scales. Their total area is very close to total area of freshwaters on the planet. Despite this, they attract much less attention then freshwaters. Currently, it is  inadmissible due to some main reasons: 1. growing proccess of salinization of freshwater systems worldwide, 2. increasing demand for their human sustainable multi-purpose use, 3. their significant landscape role, including the conservation of aquatic organisms living in them and the related numerous bird species. This Special Issue aims to decrease lack of knowledge on these unique and diverse water bodies also providing information to environmental managers, polititions, and general public needed to the conservation and sustainable use.

The Issue main topic would be:

  1. Diversity and peculiarities of inland saline water bodies;
  2. Ecosystems in inland saline waters: structure, functioning, state and dynamics;
  3. Salinisation of freshwaters and ecosystem transformations;
  4. Long-term changes of ecosystem changes due to climatic variability and antropogenic interventions.
  5. Integrated sustainable management of saline water ecosystems and aquaculture development.
  6. Public awarness about problems of saline water bodies.

Dr. Nickolai Shadrin
Dr. Elena Anufriieva
Prof. Dr. Gonzalo Gajardo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • inland saline waters
  • lakes
  • lagoons
  • ecosystems
  • functioning
  • biodiversity
  • climate variability
  • human interventions
  • sustainable use
  • long-term changes
  • aquaculture

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Article
Using Wavelet Analysis to Examine Long-Term Variability of Phytoplankton Biomass in the Tropical, Saline Lake Alchichica, Mexico
Water 2022, 14(9), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091346 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a, Chl-a) is directly related to the total production of lakes. Chl-a in temperate lakes oscillates on an annual scale. However, Chl-a oscillations in tropical lakes have hardly been documented, particularly over multiple years. Here, we described the periodicity of [...] Read more.
The phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a, Chl-a) is directly related to the total production of lakes. Chl-a in temperate lakes oscillates on an annual scale. However, Chl-a oscillations in tropical lakes have hardly been documented, particularly over multiple years. Here, we described the periodicity of the Chl-a by performing a continuous wavelet analysis of 21 years (1998–2018), monthly Chl-a data from tropical, saline Lake Alchichica, Mexico. Parallel wavelet analyses were made on environmental time series (i.e., euphotic zone, mixed layer, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, soluble reactive silica). Throughout the time series, the wavelet transforms identified a regular and predictable annual cycle of the Chl-a associated with the warm-monomictic thermal-mixing pattern, the variability of the annual Chl-a cycle, and the presence of other cyclicities, 2-year and ~4–5 years, associated with external forcing agents (e.g., North Pacific Oscillation). The water quality variables display a recurrent annual cycle. At the same time, the trophic variables (nutrient concentration) showed the same cyclicity as Chl-a (1-year, 2-year, and 4-year), suggesting the external forcing agents promote Chl-a augment through nutrient increase made available from stronger, deeper, mixing periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Applying Generic Water Quality Criteria to Cu and Zn in a Dynamic Aquatic Environment—The Case of the Brackish Water Formation Strömmen-Saltsjön
Water 2022, 14(6), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060847 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
The EU Water Framework Directive stipulates that all EU waterways shall have good chemical and ecological status by 2027. Methodologies are described for how to assess and classify waterbodies and make 7-year management plans. Aquatic risk assessment methodologies and environmental quality standards are [...] Read more.
The EU Water Framework Directive stipulates that all EU waterways shall have good chemical and ecological status by 2027. Methodologies are described for how to assess and classify waterbodies and make 7-year management plans. Aquatic risk assessment methodologies and environmental quality standards are defined and a biotic ligand model methodology is available to assess the influence of water chemistry on the ability of aquatic organisms to take up metals. Aquatic status classification practices of naturally occurring river basin-specific metals are discussed, specifically how Cu and Zn water quality criteria guideline values have been adopted and defined for Swedish coastal and estuarine waters and how well they represent possible ecological risks. Calculations of bioavailability and ecotoxicity are conducted using recognised models for the Strömmen-Saltsjön water body in Stockholm, in which naturally occurring metals, especially Cu, have among the highest background concentrations of Sweden. Proposals are made to improve risk assessment methodologies to better reflect the vitality of living organisms, and to what extent current levels of these metals in Swedish waterways may influence their welfare. The study concludes that a more local assessment including, e.g., studies of the benthic fauna would be relevant for ecological status classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Human-Induced Sharp Salinity Changes in the World’s Largest Hypersaline Lagoon Bay Sivash (Crimea) and Their Effects on the Ecosystem
Water 2022, 14(3), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030403 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Lakes and lagoons play an important role worldwide, and salinity fluctuations significantly affect their ecosystems. Bay Sivash, the world’s largest hypersaline water body, underwent a sharp change in salinity, induced by the closing of the North Crimean Canal. To monitor a shift in [...] Read more.
Lakes and lagoons play an important role worldwide, and salinity fluctuations significantly affect their ecosystems. Bay Sivash, the world’s largest hypersaline water body, underwent a sharp change in salinity, induced by the closing of the North Crimean Canal. To monitor a shift in the ecosystem, a study was carried out from 2014 to 2020 at 15 sites of the lagoon. Since the closure of the canal, the average salinity increased from 22 g L−1 (2013) to 94 g L−1 (2020). Suspended solids and dissolved organic matter also increased. When salinity increased above 50 g L−1, the number of taxa significantly decreased; this was a negative linear relation. The increase in salinity significantly changed the structure of zooplankton and benthos. The most dramatic changes occurred with the salinity increase from 25 to 70 g L−1. Chironomidae larvae numbers began to increase greatly in the ecosystem of the bay, and since 2014, they have rapidly increased their contribution to the abundance of benthos and plankton. The concentration of benthic–planktonic species increased in plankton, in particular, in Harpacticoida and Chironomidae. At salinity above 80–90 g L−1, nauplii and adult brine shrimp appeared to become abundant in plankton and benthos. The transit of the ecosystem to a new alternative state occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metabarcoding under Brine: Microbial Ecology of Five Hypersaline Lakes at Rottnest Island (WA, Australia)
Water 2021, 13(14), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141899 - 09 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Hypersaline ecosystems—aquatic environments where concentration of salt exceeds 35 g L−1—host microbial communities that are highly specialised to cope with these extreme conditions. However, our knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and functional metabolisms characterising microbial communities in the water columns of [...] Read more.
Hypersaline ecosystems—aquatic environments where concentration of salt exceeds 35 g L−1—host microbial communities that are highly specialised to cope with these extreme conditions. However, our knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and functional metabolisms characterising microbial communities in the water columns of hypersaline ecosystems is still limited, and this may compromise the future preservation of these unique environments. DNA metabarcoding provides a reliable and affordable tool to investigate environmental dynamics of aquatic ecosystems, and its use in brine can be highly informative. Here, we make use of bacterial 16S metabarcoding techniques combined with hydrochemical analyses to investigate the microbial patterns (diversity and functions) from five hypersaline lakes located at Rottnest Island (WA). Our results indicate lake-driven microbial aquatic assemblages that are characterised by taxonomically and functionally moderately to extremely halophilic groups, with TDS (total dissolved solids) and alkalinity amongst the most influential parameters driving the community patterns. Overall, our findings suggest that DNA metabarcoding allows rapid but reliable ecological assessment of the hypersaline aquatic microbial communities at Rottnest Island. Further studies involving different hypersaline lakes across multiple seasons will help elucidate the full extent of the potential of this tool in brine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Explaining Variation in Abundance and Species Diversity of Avian Cestodes in Brine Shrimps in the Salar de Atacama and Other Chilean Wetlands
Water 2021, 13(13), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131742 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Further biogeographical studies of parasites are vital to improve our understanding of biodiversity distribution and predict the impacts of global change. Hypersaline lakes are good laboratories to investigate the avian cestode abundance and species diversity given the abundance of hosts (waterbirds and Artemia [...] Read more.
Further biogeographical studies of parasites are vital to improve our understanding of biodiversity distribution and predict the impacts of global change. Hypersaline lakes are good laboratories to investigate the avian cestode abundance and species diversity given the abundance of hosts (waterbirds and Artemia) and their broad latitudinal distribution. We analysed cestode infection in brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in northern (Atacama) and central Chile and compared them to results from A. persimilis in southern Chile (Patagonia). Thus, we covered a broad latitudinal gradient from 23° to 53° S. Five cestode taxa including two species of the genus Flamingolepis, Gynandrotaenia stammeri, Eurycestus avoceti, and Fuhrmannolepis averini were recorded from A. franciscana in Atacama lagoons (prevalence = 4.1%). In contrast, no cestode infection was detected in central Chile, likely because they are temporary wetlands. Parasites of flamingos and shorebirds were associated with Atacama lagoons (arid and higher salinity), while Confluaria podicipina and Fimbriarioides sp. (parasites of grebes and ducks, respectively) were dominant in Patagonian lagoons (sub-antarctic and of lower salinity). These differences mirror changes in the relative abundance of the respective final hosts. The flamingo parasite Flamingolepis sp. 1 was the most prevalent and abundant cestode in Atacama, where it was recorded only in autumn. Seasonality and habitat effects (especially abundance and phenology of different bird species) appear to override any latitudinal trends in the prevalence, diversity, and distribution of cestodes. Cestode prevalence was higher in larger wetlands but was not related to the sex of either intermediate host. We recorded a greater taxonomic richness at the cestode family level in Atacama, but a greater dominance of a single family of avian hosts (the flamingos). Ours is the first spatio–temporal study of Artemia cestodes at local and regional scales in the southern hemisphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Microphytobenthos in the Hypersaline Water Bodies, the Case of Bay Sivash (Crimea): Is Salinity the Main Determinant of Species Composition?
Water 2021, 13(11), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111542 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
In hypersaline water bodies, the microphytobenthos plays a very important ecosystem role and demonstrates variability along with a salinity change. Due to anthropogenic activity, the sharp salinity increase in Bay Sivash occurred after 2014. To assess the changes in the microalgae community during [...] Read more.
In hypersaline water bodies, the microphytobenthos plays a very important ecosystem role and demonstrates variability along with a salinity change. Due to anthropogenic activity, the sharp salinity increase in Bay Sivash occurred after 2014. To assess the changes in the microalgae community during the bay ecosystem transformation, the study was conducted four times in 2018 and 2019. At every sampling period, the samples were taken in a salinity gradient (from 7 to 10 sites). A total of 40 species of microalgae were identified during all research, including Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyceae, 2 species), Ochrophyta (Bacillariophyceae, 35 species), Haptophyta (Prymnesiophyceae, 2 species), and Miozoa (Dinophyceae, 1 species). According to the calculated similarity indices of Jaccard and Czekanowski–Sørensen–Dice, the species composition significantly differed during sampling periods. A total of 15 species were recorded at salinities of 80–90 psu, and 10 species at higher salinities, which contribute 64% of all species found in this study. The microalgae abundance was two times more in the floating green algae mat than on the bottom. There was no significant correlation between the number of species and salinity in all sampling periods. In November 2018, a significant positive correlation between the number of species in the sample and total suspended solids (TSS) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) was revealed. A significant correlation between the cell length in different species and salinity and DOM concentration was noted. Before the onset of the salinity increase, 61 species of microalgae were found in Eastern Sivash, of which only 12 have now been recorded, 31% of the currently found species. The characteristics of the total microphytobenthos abundance also significantly changed during all studies. Many characteristics have changed in the bay: the concentration of total suspended matter and dissolved organic matter, the temperature regime, composition of zoobenthos and plankton, and oxygen concentration. Due to this, it is unlikely that only the salinity increase caused the microphytobenthos changes in the lagoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Zooplankton Community Structure in Shallow Saline Steppe Inland Waters
Water 2021, 13(9), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091164 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Several shallow saline waters can be found in Central Asia in arid steppe climate, but our knowledge of their zooplankton community has been so far rather limited. The aim of our research was to provide data on the steppe zooplankton community in a [...] Read more.
Several shallow saline waters can be found in Central Asia in arid steppe climate, but our knowledge of their zooplankton community has been so far rather limited. The aim of our research was to provide data on the steppe zooplankton community in a large-scale regional study. Therefore, a baseline survey was carried out in 23 shallow inland waters of different salinity in Northern Kazakhstan. We measured the quantity and identified the taxonomic composition of zooplankton in the spring period and examined changes in community structure in correlation with salinity. Lesser salt concentration of the hyposaline–mesosaline waters was indicated by the presence of halophilic rotifer species: Brachionus asplanchnoides, Br. dimidiatus, Br. plicatilis. Mesosaline and hypersaline waters were indicated by the presence of halobiont crustaceans: Moina salina, Arctodiaptomus salinus, Cletocamptus retrogressus. Very high concentration of salt was indicated by presence of Artemia alone which is the only group, that can tolerate and adapt to this extreme environment. In the hypersaline waterbodies at over 79 gL−1 high TDS conditions a very simple tropical structure was found. Artemia playing monopolistic ecological function in the zooplankton community. We identified three characteristic groups of shallow inland saline waters based on their zooplankton composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Aquatic Invertebrate Community Resilience and Recovery in Response to a Supra-Seasonal Drought in an Ecologically Important Naturally Saline Lake
Water 2021, 13(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070948 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Climate induced drought is a prominent threat to natural saline aquatic ecosystems by modifying their hydrology and salinity, which impacts the biodiversity of these ecosystems. Lake Nyamithi is a naturally saline lake in South Africa that experienced the effects of a two-year supra-seasonal [...] Read more.
Climate induced drought is a prominent threat to natural saline aquatic ecosystems by modifying their hydrology and salinity, which impacts the biodiversity of these ecosystems. Lake Nyamithi is a naturally saline lake in South Africa that experienced the effects of a two-year supra-seasonal drought (2015–2016). This study aimed to determine potential effects of the drought and accompanying increased salinity (between 9.8 and 11.5 g L−1) on aquatic invertebrate communities of Lake Nyamithi, and assess their potential recovery following the drought. Aquatic invertebrates and water were collected for biodiversity and chemical assessments during predrought conditions (2014), the peak of the drought (2016) and after the site had received water (2017). Taxon richness was considerably reduced during the peak of the drought as many biota could not tolerate the increased salinity. Ecological resilience and recovery was evident in the lake since numerous biota (re)colonized the lake promptly after the site received water and salinity decreased (<8 g L−1). By the end of 2017, invertebrate biodiversity exceeded that of predrought conditions. Although some biota may be able to temporarily cope with extreme weather conditions, frequent or prolonged periods of drought and increased salinity pose a threat to naturally saline lakes such as Nyamithi and dilution with fresh water is vital for the persistence of species diversity and ecological integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Trace Elements in the Bottom Sediments of the Crimean Saline Lakes. Is It Possible to Explain Their Concentration Variability?
Water 2020, 12(9), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092364 - 23 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Knowledge of trace elements content and their behavior in aquatic ecosystems is important for their sustainable use. There is a lack of such data for saline and, especially, hypersaline lakes and lagoons. Concentrations of more than 20 elements were evaluated in bottom sediments [...] Read more.
Knowledge of trace elements content and their behavior in aquatic ecosystems is important for their sustainable use. There is a lack of such data for saline and, especially, hypersaline lakes and lagoons. Concentrations of more than 20 elements were evaluated in bottom sediments of 15 saline/hypersaline lakes and Lagoon Sivash in Crimea. An average salinity varied from 4 to 335 g/L in studied water bodies. The concentration of the trace elements varied from lake to lake. The highest variability was recorded for Cd, from 4.13 mg/kg to below the detectable level (CV = 1.463), and for Se, from 5.52 to 0.05 mg/kg (CV = 1.053). The lowest variability demonstrated by Cr, from 368 to 17 mg/kg (CV = 0.463), and by V, from 67.8 to 1.7 mg/kg (CV = 0.481). According to the found content of studied elements, all lakes were separated into three groups, and Lagoon Sivash was not included in these clusters. Salinity affected the concentration of some elements in bottom sediments, and this effect was not linear or unidirectional. In some cases, the action of other factors, often unknown, masked the effect of salinity. The geochemical background affects the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, but the state of these ecosystems can significantly modify this background. An understanding of the differences in the elemental composition of bottom sediments in different lakes is possible only based on an integrated consideration of the interaction of all landscape, intra-ecosystem, and anthropogenic processes and factors that can influence this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Brief Report
A Note of a Unique Inland, Saline Water Fishery: Brine Flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) of Lake Cuitzeo, Mexico
Water 2022, 14(6), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060900 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Fisheries in Cuitzeo, the second largest Mexican lake, used to take place on the permanent freshwater East and Central Basins as opposed to the temporal, saline, and initially thought barren West Basin. The 1980 fisheries collapse forced fishers to look for non-conventional fishing [...] Read more.
Fisheries in Cuitzeo, the second largest Mexican lake, used to take place on the permanent freshwater East and Central Basins as opposed to the temporal, saline, and initially thought barren West Basin. The 1980 fisheries collapse forced fishers to look for non-conventional fishing products elsewhere in the lake. The West Basin’s temporal, saline-alkaline, and shallow water provides exceptional habitat for ephydrids to flourish. Locally known as “pupa”, ephydrids are collected in large numbers. Although consumed since pre-Hispanic times, no other commercial fisheries of ephydrids are known worldwide. This study records the species composition and abundance of the “pupa” throughout an annual cycle in the West Basin, where fisheries occur. Two species were found: Ephydra hians and Lamproscatella muria. Ephydrids co-occurred in June and July at the end of the dry season when salinity was highest. L. muria was more abundant (954 ± 2385 ind m−2) than E. hians (94 ± 38 ind m−2). The relatively low salinity of the West Basin favoured L. muria over E. hians, which prefers higher salinities. This “pupa” fishery is still unpredictable due to the astatic nature of the lake, and hence limited economic importance to the local fishers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecosystems of Inland Saline Waters)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop