Special Issue "Water Economics and Water Distribution Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Joaquin Melgarejo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Catedrático Historia e Instituciones Económicas, Universidad de Alicante
Interests: water resources; strategic management; desalination; wastewater reuse; agri-food systems; history of economy; local development; interbasin transfers; hydrological planning; circular economy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Growing global scarcity of water, population growth, economic development, and climate change are factors forcing a change in the way water resources are managed. Moreover, the circular economy demands interdisciplinary research and discussion on these complex relationships. This Special Issue aims to take an in-depth look at ‘’Water Economics and Water Distribution Management’’, and invites publications on the following topics related to water management: alternative sources, energy efficiency, the effectiveness of wastewater treatment infrastructure, costs evaluation, leakage control, stormwater drainage, the risk management of natural disasters, wastewater disposal, hydrology modelling, urban planning, water law and good governance, environmental and social impact assessments, or circular economy approaches.

Dr. Joaquin Melgarejo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water policy
  • Energy efficiency
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Costs evaluation
  • Risk management
  • Hydrology modelling
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Urban planning
  • Water law
  • Circular economy.

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Legal Aspects of Urban Water and Sanitation Regulatory Services: An Analysis of How the Spanish Experience Positively Would Contribute to the Brazilian New Regulation
Water 2021, 13(8), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081023 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
This paper focuses on the legal and institutional framework of urban water services in Spain, emphasizing water sanitation by using proposals that would positively contribute to wastewater management in Brazil. The recent Brazilian Federal Law No. 14,026/20 aims to encourage investment in water [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the legal and institutional framework of urban water services in Spain, emphasizing water sanitation by using proposals that would positively contribute to wastewater management in Brazil. The recent Brazilian Federal Law No. 14,026/20 aims to encourage investment in water sanitation, promoting public-private collaboration formulas so that service management is viable even in economically less-favored regions. In Spain, sanitation policies are aimed at fulfilling the set of obligations and objectives imposed by European Union Directives within the environmental policies of the Union. From an economic point of view, supply and sanitation water services are classified at European legal framework as “services of general economic interest” (SGEI), not subject to harmonized regulation and open to a natural monopoly provision regime, which they admit various types of management formulas, public and private, based on the ownership and public intervention of the service, both at national and European level. We believe that the Spanish experience in this field, beyond its singularities, can serve as a useful reference for Brazilian’s urban wastewater new regulation for several reasons: (1) Because of the decentralized political scheme that both countries share and the need to articulate an adequate system of competencies in consequence; (2) Because of the international experience that Spanish companies have at the sector’s technological forefront, they are very competitive; (3) Due to the adequate functioning of the Spanish legal and organizational framework since, despite its shortcomings, as we later will comment, it has managed to develop successful financing formulas and management models that, in general terms, have allowed to ensure with reasonable efficiency, continuity, stability and sustainability in the provision of urban water services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Groundwater Recharge at a Regional Scale for Sustainable Resource Management: Province of Alicante (SE Spain)
Water 2021, 13(6), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060862 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 438
Abstract
For decades, the Province of Alicante, located in the Southeast of Spain, has experienced important economic development associated with groundwater exploitation. The scarcity of superficial resources and irregular distribution in the time and space of rainfall, typical of the Mediterranean environment, together with [...] Read more.
For decades, the Province of Alicante, located in the Southeast of Spain, has experienced important economic development associated with groundwater exploitation. The scarcity of superficial resources and irregular distribution in the time and space of rainfall, typical of the Mediterranean environment, together with the extensive limestone outcrops, have made groundwater a key resource for the area. However, insufficient knowledge about aquifers, especially the lack of precise recharge estimates, hinders regional water management. This study establishes updated recharge estimates and water budgets for the 200 aquifers found in Alicante, using readily usable methodologies and available data. These are soil water budget models, groundwater flow models, water table fluctuation methods, and spring flow analyses. The results show low mean annual values of recharge from precipitation (69 mm/year and a coefficient of 12%) and two main differentiated domains. The first one, in the northeast of the province, under more humid climatic conditions with larger carbonate aquifer systems, has higher recharge coefficients, ranging from 14% to 24%, and greater resources. For the rest of the province, where aquifers are smaller and annual averages of rainfall range between 250 and 400 mm, average recharge rates are low (9–12%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Mapping Proposal in Small Watersheds: A Case Study of the Rebollos and Miranda Ephemeral Streams (Cartagena, Spain)
Water 2021, 13(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010102 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Anthropogenic landscape changes cause significant disturbances to fluvial system dynamics and such is the case of the watersheds studied near the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Cartagena). Economic growth resulted in the addition of external water resources from the Tajo River (1979) as part of [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic landscape changes cause significant disturbances to fluvial system dynamics and such is the case of the watersheds studied near the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Cartagena). Economic growth resulted in the addition of external water resources from the Tajo River (1979) as part of the National Water Plan (1933). Irrigation water has caused the water table to rise since 1979. Furthermore, water resources have boosted urban touristic expansion, industrial estates, and road infrastructures. This study presents a diagnosis of the official flood hazard maps by applying remote sensing techniques that enable the identification of (i) areas flooded during recent events; and (ii) the possible effects of anthropogenic actions on fluvial processes affecting flooding (land use and land cover change—LULCC). The flooded areas were identified from a multispectral satellite image taken by a sensor on Sentinel-2. A multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs (1929, 1956, 1981, 2009, and 2017) showing the fluvial and anthropic environment at a detailed scale (1:25,000) was used to define the fluvial geomorphology and the main anthropic alterations on the Rebollos ephemeral stream. Official inputs from geographical information repositories about land use were also gathered (LULC). The result was compared to the official flood hazard maps (SNCZI) and this revealed floodable areas that had not been previously mapped because official maps rely only on the hydraulic method. Finally, all the recent changes that will have increased the disastrous consequences of flooding have been detected, analyzed, and mapped for the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation in Carbon Dioxide Equivalent and CHG Emissions for Water and Energy Management in Water Users Associations. A Case Study in the Southeast of Spain
Water 2020, 12(12), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123536 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Agriculture is an activity linked to the environment and has a great influence on climate change. As more and more crops are producing in less time, agricultural production is intensified and water consumption and energy demand is increasing. Since the energy consumed is [...] Read more.
Agriculture is an activity linked to the environment and has a great influence on climate change. As more and more crops are producing in less time, agricultural production is intensified and water consumption and energy demand is increasing. Since the energy consumed is not renewable, greenhouse gases (GHG) are emitted and their concentration in the atmosphere increases. The objective of this article is to apply various methodologies for the precise quantification of the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) and GHG emissions in the management of irrigation water and energy in ten water user’s associations (WUAs) in the southeast of Spain. All the studied WUAs include irrigation facilities. This paper is based on obtained data in different water and energy audits during 2017. The concept of “irrigation water management” considered in the article covers the process from its extraction through management data to its transport and application to crops through irrigation systems, as well as the reception of water. The way in which water and energy is used to irrigate crops is taken into account. Moreover, the type of energy used for irrigation and at what moment energy is demanded influence the total amount of generated GHG emissions. The tariff periods for electricity and the water needs of the crops planted also has to be taken into account, as well as the economic emissions valuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the Water-Energy Binomial through Governance and ICT. A Case Study
Water 2020, 12(11), 3187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113187 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 503
Abstract
This paper reveals reductions of up to 485 t CO2 eq (CO2 equivalent) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy origin associated with the water-energy binomial which can be achieved after modernizing and automating a Water User Association (WUA) of over [...] Read more.
This paper reveals reductions of up to 485 t CO2 eq (CO2 equivalent) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy origin associated with the water-energy binomial which can be achieved after modernizing and automating a Water User Association (WUA) of over 1780 users with microplots in a total area of 775 ha in southeastern Spain. This case study aims to show how the latest advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) for precision agriculture are being applied efficiently with the implementation of a Smart Agri system, capable of making improvements through the use of renewable energies (64.49% of the total CO2e- avoided), automation in irrigation water management, by applying adequate governance, use of ICTs (731,014 m3 per water footprint reduction with 20.41% of total CO2 eq of associated electrical origin), hydraulic improvements (283,995 m3 per water footprint reduction, 13.77% of the total CO2 eq of associated electrical origin) and reduction of evaporation in reservoirs (26,022 m3 of water by water footprint reduction with 1.33% of the total CO2 eq electrical origin avoided) that act as batteries to accumulate the daily solar energy and enable watering at night, when irrigation is most efficient. It is important to consider the valuable contribution of these artificial green lungs, not only in terms of food for the European Union, but also as a CO2 eq sink that supports the planet’s GHGs. As shown in this study, this is made possible by the joint governance led by the Water Users Association (WUA) and co-led by different management organizations with the support of ICT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Price: Environment Sustainability and Resource Cost
Water 2020, 12(11), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113176 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The determination of a price for water is an open discussion among related players, directly or indirectly, in water management. In the context of the recovery of water service costs, as referred to in Article 9 of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD), [...] Read more.
The determination of a price for water is an open discussion among related players, directly or indirectly, in water management. In the context of the recovery of water service costs, as referred to in Article 9 of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD), legislation applicable in all member countries of the European Union, the total water cost is broken down into three blocks; financial, environmental, and resource. It is the last component that generates the most uncertainty both in its conceptualization and in its valuation. The need to establish a pricing system for water (water tariff) implies that the different concepts that make it up are correctly delimited. The main goal of this paper is to propose a first approximation to a new theoretical framework to establish a relationship between environmental sustainability and the valuation of the resource cost—given that current water consumption can provoke future water availability difficulties, making it a scarce commodity that resource cost must be correctly delimited. Taking into account the prospective nature of environmental sustainability, the measure of its value should be based on the use of stochastic models that reflect the associated uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Economic Impact of Drought on the Irrigated Crops in the Segura River Basin
Water 2020, 12(11), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112955 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Throughout history, the Segura River Basin, located in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula, has suffered from countless drought periods. They have largely been managed as occasional episodes of crisis through the reduction of the resources applied or the mobilisation of extraordinary resources. [...] Read more.
Throughout history, the Segura River Basin, located in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula, has suffered from countless drought periods. They have largely been managed as occasional episodes of crisis through the reduction of the resources applied or the mobilisation of extraordinary resources. Recently, the phenomena of drought and water scarcity have been incorporated into Spain’s national hydrological plan. This has given rise to an improvement in their diagnosis and management and enables us to learn about how climate change affects their frequency and intensity. Agriculture is highly relevant in the basin, comprising mainly irrigated crops that represent more than 80% of total demand for a net area of more than 260,000 ha. There is an undeniable connection between this sector and the availability of water and in periods of drought, such as the recent episode in the Segura River Basin (drought declaration in the territorial area of the Segura River Basin through Royal Decree 356/2015 of 8 May), the reduction in the availability of water generates a significant impact on the agricultural sector. Therefore, by analysing the production value and net margin generated in the agri-food systems, both the values established in the 2015/21 Hydrological Plan and those estimated in the drought period 2015–2019, we seek to assess the economic impacts generated, as knowing the direct effect on the agricultural sector will enable us to quantify the opportunity cost resulting from not being able to apply 100% of the resources demanded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Activated Carbon and Ozone to Reduce Simazine in Water
Water 2020, 12(10), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102900 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
In this study, the reduction of the pesticide simazine at an initial concentration of 0.7 mg L−1 in water has been investigated using two different technologies: adsorption with powdered and granulated activated carbon, advanced oxidation processes with ozone and finally, the combination [...] Read more.
In this study, the reduction of the pesticide simazine at an initial concentration of 0.7 mg L−1 in water has been investigated using two different technologies: adsorption with powdered and granulated activated carbon, advanced oxidation processes with ozone and finally, the combination of both technologies. The results obtained for a carbon dose of 16 mg L−1 show that powdered activated carbon, with contact times of 60 min, obtained 81% of reduction and in 24 h 92%, while granulated activated carbon at 60 min obtained a reduction of 2%, rising to 34% after 24 h of contact time. Therefore, powdered activated carbon achieves better reductions compared to granulated; when ozone was applied at a dose of 19.7 mg L−1, with a reaction time of 18 min, a reduction of 93% was obtained, achieving a better reduction in less time than with adsorption treatments; however, during oxidation, by-products of simazine were produced. In the combined treatments, with the same doses of carbon and ozone mentioned above, the treatment that starts with ozone followed by activated carbon powder is recommended due to the adsorption in the last phase reaching a 90% reduction of the simazine and its by-products in 38 min of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Century of Water Supply Companies and Their Influence on the Development of Spanish Society (1842–1942)
Water 2020, 12(9), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092634 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 611
Abstract
During a certain period in the history of Spain, in the years of the Second Industrial Revolution, water companies played a very important role in managing a public service as necessary and complex as the supply of drinking water to the population. This [...] Read more.
During a certain period in the history of Spain, in the years of the Second Industrial Revolution, water companies played a very important role in managing a public service as necessary and complex as the supply of drinking water to the population. This article describes the emergence of these companies in the economic framework of the second half of the 19th century, as well as their expansion and territorial distribution, their evolution towards large companies that unified and monopolised the sector and their progressive decline in the 20th century, characterised by an increase in municipal control and influenced by different national and international war conflicts. The data collected in the different statistical yearbooks allows us to study these companies, and identify the characteristics of the modern drinking water system in Spain, together with the importance of foreign investment and the influence of these companies on the economic development of the time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Stormwater Management, a Tool for Adapting to Climate Change: From Risk to Resource
Water 2020, 12(9), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092616 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 864
Abstract
The effects of climate change on rainfall in the Mediterranean region are manifested in an overall decreasing trend, and greater irregularity in annual volumes and the city of Alicante is no exception. In addition, there has also been a spread of the urbanised [...] Read more.
The effects of climate change on rainfall in the Mediterranean region are manifested in an overall decreasing trend, and greater irregularity in annual volumes and the city of Alicante is no exception. In addition, there has also been a spread of the urbanised area, which has led to an increase in the flood risk in urban areas (due to a greater runoff and the occupation of flood hazard areas) and drought events due to an increase in the water demand. In light of these new scenarios, the Mediterranean cities should design adaptation systems based on rainwater harvesting within the framework of a circular economy. This study analyses the integration of rainwater in flood and water demand management in the city of Alicante (Southern Spain). In recent years, this city has developed infrastructures in order to use these resources. To do this, different databases have been analysed (rainfall and volume of water collected in the green infrastructure systems). The results reveal that stormwater has become highly important in urban water management in Alicante as the city is now using a resource that previously went to waste and created problems (flooding and pollution). By way of conclusion, it is worth mentioning that the incorporation of rainwater for urban use in Alicante has reduced the pressure on traditional resources in satisfying water demand and has also acted as a measure for adapting to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Legal Analysis and Case Study on the Choice between Setting Environmental Flows by Using Reclaimed Water in Non-Permanent Rivers and the Sustainable Management of Groundwater in Southeast Spain
Water 2020, 12(8), 2171; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082171 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
This article studies the interaction between two environmental objectives actively pursued in water governance. On the one hand, the convenience of establishing or raising a minimum circulating flow in surface water bodies so to improve their quantitative and qualitative status. On the other [...] Read more.
This article studies the interaction between two environmental objectives actively pursued in water governance. On the one hand, the convenience of establishing or raising a minimum circulating flow in surface water bodies so to improve their quantitative and qualitative status. On the other hand, the need to carry out an intelligent management of aquifers avoiding their overexploitation. In the case study, the proposal consisting of increasing the minimum flow rate on a non-permanent river by means of discharging reclaimed water is studied. Such strategy jeopardizes the recovery of a number of overexploited aquifers since reclaimed water is currently being used for farming under the condition to proportionally reduce groundwater withdrawals. The aim is to discuss whether it is reasonable and rational to ensure continuous flows in water courses which do not have that pattern according to their natural dynamics to the detriment of other environmental or socioeconomic goals. In order to help decision makers to make a right choice, a set of criteria based on legal principles is proposed. According to the principles of minimum intervention, rationality and reasonableness, proportionality, and water economy, it is concluded that the use of reclaimed water to set higher environmental flows in discontinuous and ephemeral streams should only have a minor role in water policies, especially whether it may jeopardize other critical environmental goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Water and Energy Demand Management in Pressurized Irrigation Networks
Water 2020, 12(7), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071878 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
Minimizing energy expenditure is one of the main purposes of the managers of pressurized irrigation systems. From the energy consumption standpoint, they can reduce energy consumption by supplying a constant flow into the system (a scheme different from urban water pressurized networks in [...] Read more.
Minimizing energy expenditure is one of the main purposes of the managers of pressurized irrigation systems. From the energy consumption standpoint, they can reduce energy consumption by supplying a constant flow into the system (a scheme different from urban water pressurized networks in which water demands depend on users). Managers can keep energy demands (opening and closing valves) while meeting pressure restrictions. We developed a computer application in MATLAB containing a genetic algorithm to find the best moment to open and to close valves to minimize an objective function which measures the differences between the objective and the real injected flows. We tested this program in the pressurized irrigation network of the San Vicente Campus, University of Alicante (Southeast Spain) and we calculated the water and energy balance (from the later and present irrigation network) and the carbon credits not emitted to the atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Prospective Models for Water Service Demand and Price Analyses
Water 2020, 12(6), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061613 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
One way to address the practical challenges of the current problems of water services is through demand-side measures. These types of measures impact on demand through price changes or on water use control, considering that the impacts of these measures would be extremely [...] Read more.
One way to address the practical challenges of the current problems of water services is through demand-side measures. These types of measures impact on demand through price changes or on water use control, considering that the impacts of these measures would be extremely useful in order to implement an adequate policy mix. One of the objectives of this paper is to show the possibilities of water management tools, particularly the use of prospective prices and demand models, in order to anticipate scarcity scenarios. This can best be done using better predictive models. Current computer tools provide a good basis for developing applications to perform prospective analysis on water prices and demand. Through simulation, we can try to optimize financial flows of costs and revenues based on the behavior of certain variables. This aims to find a better combination of price levels for urban water uses, making it possible to adjust the chargeback mechanisms, the level of cost recovery of investments, and the allocation between user types. This paper aims to show the advantages of these tools and illustrates its usefulness with a registered model that allows simulations of potential scenarios resulting from certain management measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Price Effects on Consumption and Territorial Imbalances in Spain in the Context of the Water Framework Directive
Water 2020, 12(6), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061604 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
This research examines the water tariff applied to Spanish households with the aim of determining the adequacy of the river-basin approach established by the water framework directive (WFD). The analysis pays particular attention to Spain’s interregional differences in water prices, as well as [...] Read more.
This research examines the water tariff applied to Spanish households with the aim of determining the adequacy of the river-basin approach established by the water framework directive (WFD). The analysis pays particular attention to Spain’s interregional differences in water prices, as well as determining the most influential factors in household water consumption. The results achieved through minimum ordinary squares and 2-stage least squares show the great influence of relevant factors such as the composition of the household, as the most populated households are penalized by the structure of the rate. In addition, there is evidence of inefficiency of the approach derived from the existence of regional differences, since the prices are higher in those regions where resources are reduced, a fact related to the higher cost of service. Thus, taking into account the excessive attention to the cost of the service, the results obtained allow to propose a change in the rate with the aim of balancing prices between regions taking into account factors such as the structure of the household or income. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Cost-Effective Methods to Reduce Industrial Wastewater Emissions in China
Water 2020, 12(6), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061600 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 583
Abstract
To reduce industrial wastewater emissions, likely scenarios involve saving water in the production process or treating the emissions that are discharged. In this regard, our paper aims to evaluate the costs of these two paths and then analyze whether the industrial sector has [...] Read more.
To reduce industrial wastewater emissions, likely scenarios involve saving water in the production process or treating the emissions that are discharged. In this regard, our paper aims to evaluate the costs of these two paths and then analyze whether the industrial sector has made a good trade-off. In particular, we measured costs of the two paths by shadow prices of water use and wastewater emissions, and then we built a non-parametric input–output model to produce the estimates. For 2015, the shadow price of water use was 37.85 RMB/ton at the national level, which indicated the marginal cost of saving each ton of water was 37.864 RMB and that of wastewater emissions was 141.759 RMB/ton, which meant that the marginal cost of abating each ton of wastewater emissions was 141.759 RMB. Over the period 2004–2015, both shadow prices exhibited an upward trend at the national and regional levels, which suggested there was an increased cost to reduce emissions. However, the two shadow prices did not follow a common trend, but deviated from each other in most of China’s provinces, which resulted in a bad trade-off between the two scenarios. As a result, the bad trade-off not only lowered the efficiency to reduce emissions, but it was also linked to a high cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessCase Report
From Private Company to Water User Association and Natural Park over a Century: The Case of Riegos de Levante, Izquierda del Segura (Spain)
Water 2021, 13(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050680 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
This work examines the transformations occurred with the shift from private company to water user association and natural park, looking at one collective irrigation system located in Alicante province (Spain): Riegos de Levante, Izquierda del Segura, one of the most extensive irrigation areas [...] Read more.
This work examines the transformations occurred with the shift from private company to water user association and natural park, looking at one collective irrigation system located in Alicante province (Spain): Riegos de Levante, Izquierda del Segura, one of the most extensive irrigation areas in Europe. Between 1918 and 2018, a process of change and transformation of both landscape and institutions occurred, considering: infrastructure expansion and its operation, the transfer of irrigation management responsibilities to water user association, after years of financial operations with water, thanks to state intervention, the coexistence of traditional agriculture with the modernisation of the irrigation systems, the history of an irrigation reservoir which was transformed into a natural site in 1988, or the evolution of the composition of water resources, taking into account the arrival of the Tajo-Segura transfer waters from the year 1979. The general objective is to understand key factors driving these changes, by means of a paradigmatic case study, as well as to identify policymaking and context-relevant dynamics that could enable it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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Open AccessCase Report
Sadyt: A Successful Business Case 1995–2019
Water 2020, 12(11), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113003 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
This paper seeks to explain the internationalization process of Sadyt from 1995 (date of foundation) to the present day. This company, belonging to the Sacyr de Vallehermoso group, began its international expansion in markets such as Algeria, Tunisia, and Australia. Carrying out this [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to explain the internationalization process of Sadyt from 1995 (date of foundation) to the present day. This company, belonging to the Sacyr de Vallehermoso group, began its international expansion in markets such as Algeria, Tunisia, and Australia. Carrying out this case study focused on one of the companies is justified by its substantial improvement in the global ranking of desalination companies. The history of this case of business success is relevant because ten of the twenty companies that lead the global desalination market are Spanish and this fact is completely unknown outside of the sector. We will analyze in detail the main elements of the company such as its customers, strategies, suppliers, and the theories that explain the internationalization of Sadyt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
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