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Article

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the Water-Energy Binomial through Governance and ICT. A Case Study

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Engineering Department, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, 03312 Orihuela, Spain
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Structures, Construction and Graphical Expression Department, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
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Mining and Civil Engineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena, Spain
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Agromotic Engineering and the Sea R+D+i Research Group, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113187
Received: 10 September 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 14 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
This paper reveals reductions of up to 485 t CO2 eq (CO2 equivalent) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy origin associated with the water-energy binomial which can be achieved after modernizing and automating a Water User Association (WUA) of over 1780 users with microplots in a total area of 775 ha in southeastern Spain. This case study aims to show how the latest advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) for precision agriculture are being applied efficiently with the implementation of a Smart Agri system, capable of making improvements through the use of renewable energies (64.49% of the total CO2e- avoided), automation in irrigation water management, by applying adequate governance, use of ICTs (731,014 m3 per water footprint reduction with 20.41% of total CO2 eq of associated electrical origin), hydraulic improvements (283,995 m3 per water footprint reduction, 13.77% of the total CO2 eq of associated electrical origin) and reduction of evaporation in reservoirs (26,022 m3 of water by water footprint reduction with 1.33% of the total CO2 eq electrical origin avoided) that act as batteries to accumulate the daily solar energy and enable watering at night, when irrigation is most efficient. It is important to consider the valuable contribution of these artificial green lungs, not only in terms of food for the European Union, but also as a CO2 eq sink that supports the planet’s GHGs. As shown in this study, this is made possible by the joint governance led by the Water Users Association (WUA) and co-led by different management organizations with the support of ICT. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; photovoltaic; reclaimed water; irrigation modernization; reservoirs water footprint; photovoltaic; reclaimed water; irrigation modernization; reservoirs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chazarra-Zapata, J.; Parras-Burgos, D.; Pérez-de-la-Cruz, F.-J.; Ruíz-Canales, A.; Molina-Martínez, J.M. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the Water-Energy Binomial through Governance and ICT. A Case Study. Water 2020, 12, 3187. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113187

AMA Style

Chazarra-Zapata J, Parras-Burgos D, Pérez-de-la-Cruz F-J, Ruíz-Canales A, Molina-Martínez JM. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the Water-Energy Binomial through Governance and ICT. A Case Study. Water. 2020; 12(11):3187. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113187

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chazarra-Zapata, Jesús, Dolores Parras-Burgos, Francisco-Javier Pérez-de-la-Cruz, Antonio Ruíz-Canales, and José M. Molina-Martínez 2020. "Reducing the Carbon Footprint of the Water-Energy Binomial through Governance and ICT. A Case Study" Water 12, no. 11: 3187. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113187

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