Special Issue "Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Renata J. Romanowicz *
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: catchment hydrology; uncertainty analysis; forecasting; climate change
* Passed away.
Prof. Dr. Wen Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Interests: climate change; drought; catchment hydrology; hydrologic remote sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the Anthropocene, the Earth system is profoundly affected by human activities, and drought is no longer considered a natural hazard. Drought management is inefficient because feedbacks between drought and people are not fully understood. At the same time, global warming influences hydrological regimes by reducing snow storage, causing a rise in potential evapotranspiration and introducing changes in the seasonality of flow. These changes impact the frequency and magnitude of droughts causing increasing losses in many places over the world.

The Special Issue is focused on the direct and indirect causes of drought and the processes governing the transformation from meteorological to hydrological drought. In particular, the feedbacks between land use and drought propagation are of interest for the purposes of sustainable water management and drought prevention.

We encourage submission of papers aiming at understanding physical and social processes involved in evolution of drought conditions, its propagation in time and space and strategies of water resource management for enhancing drought resilience in the context of climate change.

Prof. Dr. Renata J. Romanowicz
Prof. Dr. Wen Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • low flow indices
  • drought propagation
  • climate change
  • feedback mechanisms
  • drought resilience
  • land use impact on drought
  • spatiotemporal dynamics of reginal drought
  • socioeconomic vulnerability to drought
  • drought management

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Temporal Changes in Flow Regime along the River Vistula
Water 2021, 13(20), 2840; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202840 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
The flow regime in the River Vistula is influenced by climatic and geographical factors and human intervention. In this study, we focus on an analysis of flow and precipitation variability over time and space following the course of the River Vistula. Multi-purpose statistical [...] Read more.
The flow regime in the River Vistula is influenced by climatic and geographical factors and human intervention. In this study, we focus on an analysis of flow and precipitation variability over time and space following the course of the River Vistula. Multi-purpose statistical analyses of a number of runoff and precipitation characteristics were performed to present a general overview of the temporal and spatial changes. Since the important feature of the hydrological regime of Polish rivers is the seasonality of runoff associated with the occurrence of cold (winter) and warm (summer) seasons within a hydrological year, a seasonal approach is applied to describe specific seasonal features that can be masked when using annual data. In general, the results confirm popular impressions about changes in winter season runoff characteristics, i.e., significantly decreasing daily maxima, increasing daily minima and a decrease in concentration, and so a bigger uniformity of winter daily flows. An interesting behaviour of minimum flows in the summer has been revealed, which is contrary to social perceptions and the alarming changes taking place in the other parts of the world. Additionally, precipitation indexes related to the formation of droughts show no trends, e.g., the mean value of the maximum dry spell length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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Article
Propagation from Meteorological to Hydrological Drought and Its Influencing Factors in the Huaihe River Basin
Water 2021, 13(14), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141985 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
Understanding the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought is crucial for hydrological drought monitoring and forecasting. In this study, daily precipitation and streamflow data of 16 sub-catchments in the Huaihe River Basin from 1980 to 2014 are used to establish a framework to [...] Read more.
Understanding the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought is crucial for hydrological drought monitoring and forecasting. In this study, daily precipitation and streamflow data of 16 sub-catchments in the Huaihe River Basin from 1980 to 2014 are used to establish a framework to quantitatively reveal the propagation relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought and explore the impact of climate, catchment properties, and human activities on drought propagation. The propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought is divided into three types. Type-1 propagation indicates that one or several meteorological droughts trigger a hydrological drought. The occurrence probability of Type-1 calculated by the conditional probability on SPI and SRI series varies from 0.25 to 0.48 among all catchments. Features of Type-1 propagation can be concluded as lengthening of duration, amplification of severity, lag of onset time, and reduction of speed. Type-2 propagation indicates that a meteorological drought occurs but no hydrological drought occurs, which accounts for 63–77% of the total meteorological drought events in all catchments. Type-3 indicates that a hydrological drought occurs without a proceeding meteorological drought, which is caused mostly by human activities. The occurrence probability of Type-3 ranges from 0.31 to 0.58. Climate factors have significant effects on hydrological drought duration, while catchment properties represented by topographic index and base flow index significantly relate to hydrological drought severity, propagation time, and occurrence probability of Type-1 propagation. The ratio of crop land reflecting irrigation on hydrological drought is far less than that of topographic index, denoting that the impact of irrigation on hydrological drought is less than that of catchment properties. Reservoirs have significant effects on alleviating the duration and severity of extreme hydrological droughts, but little effects on the average duration and severity of hydrological droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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Article
Temperature Changes and Their Impact on Drought Conditions in Winter and Spring in the Vistula Basin
Water 2021, 13(14), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141973 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 547
Abstract
Inter-annual variability of hydro-meteorological variables indirectly influence soil moisture conditions in winter and early spring seasons. The interactions between temperature changes and drought conditions are studied by an application of statistical analyses of minimum temperature (Tmin), consecutive days with temperature exceeding the 0 [...] Read more.
Inter-annual variability of hydro-meteorological variables indirectly influence soil moisture conditions in winter and early spring seasons. The interactions between temperature changes and drought conditions are studied by an application of statistical analyses of minimum temperature (Tmin), consecutive days with temperature exceeding the 0 °C threshold value, the number of melting pulses in the winter season and Standardized Evaporation Precipitation Index (SPEI). Additionally, shifts in the onset of days with spring temperature and snow cover occurrence are analysed. A Mann–Kendall test is applied for the trend analysis. Studies have shown significant changes in thermal characteristics in the winter season over the past 70 years, which affect the moisture conditions in the Vistula River Basin. As a result of those changes, the Vistula Basin is more prone to droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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Article
The Response of the HydroGeoSphere Model to Alternative Spatial Precipitation Simulation Methods
Water 2021, 13(14), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141891 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 588
Abstract
This paper presents the simulation results obtained from a physically based surface-subsurface hydrological model in a 5730 km2 watershed and the runoff response of the physically based hydrological models for three methods used to generate the spatial precipitation distribution: Thiessen polygons (TP), [...] Read more.
This paper presents the simulation results obtained from a physically based surface-subsurface hydrological model in a 5730 km2 watershed and the runoff response of the physically based hydrological models for three methods used to generate the spatial precipitation distribution: Thiessen polygons (TP), Co-Kriging (CK) interpolation and simulated annealing (SA). The HydroGeoSphere model is employed to simulate the rainfall-runoff process in two watersheds. For a large precipitation event, the simulated patterns using SA appear to be more realistic than those using the TP and CK method. In a large-scale watershed, the results demonstrate that when HydroGeoSphere is forced by TP precipitation data, it fails to reproduce the timing, intensity, or peak streamflow values. On the other hand, when HydroGeoSphere is forced by CK and SA data, the results are consistent with the measured streamflows. In a medium-scale watershed, the HydroGeoSphere results show a similar response compared to the measured streamflow values when driven by all three methods used to estimate the precipitation, although the SA case is slightly better than the other cases. The analytical results could provide a valuable counterpart to existing climate-based drought indices by comparing multiple interpolation methods in simulating land surface runoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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Article
Meteorological Drought Events and Their Evolution from 1960 to 2015 Using the Daily SWAP Index in Chongqing, China
Water 2021, 13(14), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141887 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
Meteorological droughts are natural disasters that have been linked to economic losses and casualties. Decision-makers need to understand the temporal and spatial variation of meteorological drought events at a daily to weekly scale to develop a more elaborate framework for drought risk management. [...] Read more.
Meteorological droughts are natural disasters that have been linked to economic losses and casualties. Decision-makers need to understand the temporal and spatial variation of meteorological drought events at a daily to weekly scale to develop a more elaborate framework for drought risk management. The present study used the standardized weighted average of precipitation index (SWAP) as an indicator of meteorological droughts, computed from the daily precipitation dataset (1960–2015) of 34 meteorological stations in Chongqing, China. The multi-threshold run theory was applied to identify drought events. Variation of drought characteristics was estimated by the modified Sen’s trend test. The results suggested the following findings: (1) the onset, duration, and severity of drought events identified by the SWAP index are in good agreement with the real local records; (2) there was no significant linear trend and abrupt change in annual duration and severity of drought events, but the decadal variation was obvious. From a decadal perspective, the annual frequency, duration, and severity of drought events showed a steady decreasing trend before the 1990s, and then fluctuated upward; (3) the spatial variation of the duration and severity of ordinary drought events was quite inconsistent at different periods. The annual drought days and severity increased from 1960 to 2015 but decreased after 1990. From 1960 to 2015, the duration days and severity of persistent, long persistent, severe, and extreme drought events declined insignificantly in most parts of the middle and southeast regions but increased in the western and northeast regions. The drought situation in Chongqing shows a large range of variation and obvious spatial heterogeneity. The SWAP index is an effective tool to identify the evolution of daily scale meteorological drought events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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Article
Analysis of Characteristics of Hydrological and Meteorological Drought Evolution in Southwest China
Water 2021, 13(13), 1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131846 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Based on the data of 82 meteorological stations and six representative hydrological stations in four provinces in Southwest China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing), this paper uses standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and standardized runoff index (SRI) to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution [...] Read more.
Based on the data of 82 meteorological stations and six representative hydrological stations in four provinces in Southwest China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing), this paper uses standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and standardized runoff index (SRI) to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of drought in the study area from 1968 to 2018. Combined with the Southwest monsoon index and historical drought data, the correlation of drought and the applicability of different drought indices were verified. The results show that: (1) SPEI-12 in Southwest China shows a downward trend from 1968 to 2018, with a linear trend rate of −0.074/10a, and SPEI-3 has a downward trend in four seasons, the maximum linear trend rate being −0.106/10a in autumn;(2) The change in SRI-12 and SRI-24 value directly reflected the decrease in SRI value, indicating that drought events are increasing in recent times, especially in the 21st century (3). Severe drought occurred in the south of Southwest China, as indicated by the increase of drought frequency in this area. The main reason for the variations in the frequency distribution of drought in Southwest China is the combined effect of the change of precipitation and evapotranspiration. (4) The correlation between hydrological drought index and disaster areas is stronger than the correlation between meteorological drought and disaster areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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Article
Is It a Drought or Only a Fluctuation in Precipitation Patterns?—Drought Reconnaissance in Poland
Water 2021, 13(6), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060807 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
The process of propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought is studied using the Vistula basin in Poland (193,960 km2) as a case study. The study aims to set a background for the analysis of processes influencing drought propagation in the basin, [...] Read more.
The process of propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought is studied using the Vistula basin in Poland (193,960 km2) as a case study. The study aims to set a background for the analysis of processes influencing drought propagation in the basin, including the availability of data on hydro-meteorological factors, groundwater, and major human activities that might influence the water cycle in the region. A recent history of drought events in the basin is derived based on a statistical analysis of flow measured at nine gauging stations located along the river, starting from upstream downwards in the 1951–2018 period. The study is enhanced by the analysis of the temporal and spatial variability of a number of drought indices. As a result, the factors affecting temporal and spatial variability of drought—with particular emphasis on the interaction between the variability induced by natural processes and human interaction—are identified. The drought dynamics is studied by analysis of the relationships between meteorological and hydrological drought indices. The results indicate that the Vistula River basin has been influenced in its upstream part mainly by the mining industry, and the middle and downstream parts are additionally affected by industry and agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human and Climate Impacts on Drought Dynamics and Vulnerability)
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