Climate, Water, and Soil

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 44372

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Division of Water Resources, Department of Natural Resources & Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: atmospheric enviroment; climate agricultural micrometeorology; crop water requirements

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Guest Editor
Division of Water Resources, Department of Natural Resources & Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: water quality; irrigation; environmental soil physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term “Climate” is more of a complex concept than a normative one. It could mean a recorded mean statistical noise of principal planetary heat exchanges, ranging from three decades or more to thousands of years and starting to obtain a distinguishable trend in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales in response to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. Today, trying to disclose the mechanisms that drive the Earth’s climate and its variation, we are faced with an exceedingly complex system that includes five fundamental physical components and their interactions (i.e., atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere). It is a mistake to believe that we have reached the point where we can fully understand the complex relationships between all the processes of the Earth’s climate.

Global shifts in rainfall and temperature patterns due to climate fluctuation can alter the status and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in many areas of the world by causing changes in the natural hydrological cycle and the critical biochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients, related to the sustainability of ecosystems’ services. Areas with larger climate variability and water scarcity phenomena, such as the Mediterranean basin, are more vulnerable to these alterations and may display high risk for soil and water resources. Climate parameters (precipitation and temperature) strongly affect water availability and crop water requirements. Under water scarcity conditions, irrigation practices are carried out with water of marginal quality, causing soil salinization and reduced crop yields. Moreover, there are areas that face challenges from a growing population and economy that further stress natural resources. Despite the available knowledge gained so far, there are still considerable uncertainties around the future climate drivers and their potential effect on hydrological systems and ecosystems’ sustainability. Thus, further work is needed in the domains of technology and research focusing on climate and resource interactions, implications on the function and productivity of ecosystems, resource management, as well as on legislation and policy issues. 

This Special Issue “Climate Water and Soil” in the Water journal aims to identify, discuss, and address the above challenges by seeking research and review manuscripts dealing with climate monitoring and future climatic changes and interactions of climate with resources (water and soil), hydrological cycles, and the critical biochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Additionally, links between climate and natural and agricultural (crops) ecosystem productivity, resource quality, soil and water resource management, adaptation measures in the agricultural sector, water management to mitigate water scarcity and the degradation of water and soil resources, and water use efficiency issues are included.

In this Special Issue, the goal is for authors to respond to developing solid research on climate, water, and soil in a context that is sometimes missing in mainstream literature on climate. Therefore, our intention in this context is to encourage scientists who promote realistic and innovative approaches to participate in the various issues of the potential thematology, taking the existing knowledge a step further.

Potential thematology

  • Anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic impacts on climate (the role of natural and anthropogenic influence on climate)
  • History of hydrological cycle (changes over time of Hydrological cycle)
  • History of CO2 emission (historical atmospheric CO2 over the last two centuries)
  • Climatic changes vs. climatic variability and/or fluctuations
  • Climate variations in the last millennium
  • Predictability of meteorological variables in the short-term vs. unpredictability in the long run
  • Climate impacts on hydrological cycles and the status of water resources (quality and availability)
  • Effects of climate change on water use efficiency across different users (agricultural, urban, and industrial sectors)
  • Scenarios (and/or models) of projected hydroclimatological regime vs. measurements
  • Water management and adaptations under climate challenges
  • Irrigation under scarcity water conditions
  • Irrigation with poor water quality from conventional and non-conventional sources (effects on soil quality and crop productivity)
  • Climatic parameters and irrigation
  • Water supply of the future megacities
  • Links between climate and the status of soil resources
  • Interactions between climate and C and N cycling in terrestrial (natural and agricultural) ecosystems
  • Interactions between the climate and the critical soil physical and (bio) chemical processes (e.g., mineralization, nitrification and denitrification).
  • Implications by climate change in soil moisture, soil biodiversity and microbial activities, soil organic matter, greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions (e.g., CO2 and N2O), soil productivity and health, and overall ecosystem services
  • Scenarios (and/or models) of projected soil biodiversity, soil quality, and health and GHGs emission regimes vs. measurements
  • Land use and soil management and adaptations to tackle the climate change challenges, e.g., strategies and practices enhancing CO2 capturing by plants and C sequestration into soil and reducing nutrients’ losses as GHGs emissions and nitrates and phosphorus leaching
  • Identification of indicators for land use, soil health, water, and ecosystems that have strong links to climate change
  • Climate, water, and soil impacts on human life quality and life-expectancy
  • The present and the future of climate, water, and soil

Dr. Vasileios Tzanakakis
Dr. Stavros Alexandris
Dr. Maria Psychogiou
Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • climate change
  • climate variability
  • hydrological cycle
  • carbon and nitrogen cycles
  • GHG emissions
  • climate water and soil interactions
  • climate vs. ecosystem functioning and services
  • irrigation water quality
  • crop water requirements

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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9 pages, 762 KiB  
Editorial
Climate, Water, Soil
by Vasileios A. Tzanakakis and Andreas N. Angelakis
Water 2023, 15(23), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234196 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
“Climate” is a complex concept [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

24 pages, 2561 KiB  
Article
Effects of Silicon Application and Groundwater Level in a Subirrigation System on Yield of a Three-Cut Meadow
by Joanna Kocięcka, Daniel Liberacki, Jerzy Mirosław Kupiec, Marcin Stróżecki and Paweł Dłużewski
Water 2023, 15(11), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112103 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
The increasing demand for food and animal products makes it important to ensure that animals have sufficient fodder obtained from grassland. Unfortunately, there has been a recent decline in grassland areas, which makes it essential to find solutions to increase the grassland’s productivity [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for food and animal products makes it important to ensure that animals have sufficient fodder obtained from grassland. Unfortunately, there has been a recent decline in grassland areas, which makes it essential to find solutions to increase the grassland’s productivity and the quality of the fodder it yields. One of these solutions may be the use of appropriate irrigation and fertilization. The present study investigated the effect of the foliar application of silicon fertilizer and the groundwater level in a subirrigation system on the yield of a three-cut meadow. Four different experimental plots were used: high groundwater level (HWL), high groundwater level with silicon application (HWL_Si), lower groundwater level (LWL), and lower groundwater level with silicon application (LWL_Si). The analyses showed that silicon significantly reduced the amount of dry matter obtained in each of the three meadow cuts during the year. Furthermore, the plot with a higher groundwater level had an annual yield of 12.69 Mg·ha−1, whereas when silicon was applied to this area, it was 10.43 Mg·ha−1 (17.8% reduction in dry matter). A similar trend was noted at lower water levels, in which silicon also caused a dry matter reduction. However, the experiment did not indicate a statistically significant effect of silicon application on plant height and NDVI values. These results show that further research is still needed to better understand silicon’s effect on meadow sward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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24 pages, 3408 KiB  
Article
Climate Water Balance in the Warm Half-Year and Its Circulation Conditions in the Sudetes Mountains and Their Foreland (Poland and Czechia)
by Bartłomiej Miszuk
Water 2023, 15(4), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040795 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Mountains are one of the most sensitive regions in terms of climate changes. This also concerns water balance, which plays an important role, especially in the context of the ecological state. Furthermore, numerous studies indicate the atmospheric circulation as one of the crucial [...] Read more.
Mountains are one of the most sensitive regions in terms of climate changes. This also concerns water balance, which plays an important role, especially in the context of the ecological state. Furthermore, numerous studies indicate the atmospheric circulation as one of the crucial factors affecting climate conditions. Therefore, the goal of the paper is to examine the impact of the atmospheric circulation on the changes in climate water balance (CWB) in the Sudetes Mountains and their foreland. The analysis was carried out based on the 1981–2020 data derived from the Polish and Czech meteorological stations. The impact of the circulation factor was examined using the Lityński classification, while the calculation of evapotranspiration based on the Penman–Monteith equation. The results showed that despite positive trends for evapotranspiration, the changes in CWB in 1981–2020 were generally statistically insignificant. The only exception was the increase in CWB under the eastern circulation and its negative tendency for the western and southern sectors for some of the stations. This corresponds to the changes in the frequency of the circulation types. The results of the study can be used in further research on water balance in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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17 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Influence of Climate and Land Cover/Use Change on Water Balance: An Approach to Individual and Combined Effects
by Rebeca Martínez-Retureta, Mauricio Aguayo, Norberto J. Abreu, Roberto Urrutia, Cristian Echeverría, Octavio Lagos, Lien Rodríguez-López, Iongel Duran-Llacer and Ricardo O. Barra
Water 2022, 14(15), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152304 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
Land use/cover change (LUCC) and climate change (CC) affect water resource availability as they alter important hydrological processes. Mentioned factors modify the magnitude of surface runoff, groundwater recharge, and river flow among other parameters. In the present work, changes that occurred in the [...] Read more.
Land use/cover change (LUCC) and climate change (CC) affect water resource availability as they alter important hydrological processes. Mentioned factors modify the magnitude of surface runoff, groundwater recharge, and river flow among other parameters. In the present work, changes that occurred in the recent decades at the Quino and Muco river watersheds in the south-central zone of Chile were evaluated to predict future cover/use changes considering a forest expansion scenario according to Chilean regulations. In this way an expansion by 42.3 km2 and 52.7 km2 at Quino and Muco watersheds, respectively, was predicted, reaching a watersheds’ occupation of 35.4% and 22.3% in 2051. Additionally, the local climatic model RegCM4-MPI-ESM-MR was used considering periods from 2020–2049 and 2050–2079, under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Finally, the SWAT model was applied to assess the hydrological response of both watersheds facing the considered forcing factors. Five scenarios were determined to evaluate the LUCC and CC individual and combined effects. The results depict a higher sensitivity of the watersheds to CC impacts, where an increase of evapotranspiration, with a lessening of percolation, surface flow, lateral flow, and groundwater flow, triggered a water yield (WYLD) decrease in all predicted scenarios. However, when both global changes act synergistically, the WYLD decreases considerably with reductions of 109.8 mm and 123.3 mm at the Quino and Muco watersheds, respectively, in the most extreme simulated scenario. This water scarcity context highlights the necessity to promote land use management strategies to counteract the imminent effects of CC in the watersheds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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13 pages, 5568 KiB  
Article
Zinnia (Zinnia elegans L.) and Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) Responses to Salinity Stress
by Monika Marković, Jasna Šoštarić, Antonija Kojić, Brigita Popović, Ante Bubalo, Dejan Bošnjak and Aleksandar Stanisavljević
Water 2022, 14(7), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071066 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2989
Abstract
The study of salinity stress in irrigated floriculture can make a significant contribution to the preservation of freshwater sources. To analyze the morphological and aesthetic responses of zinnia (Zinnia elegans L.) and periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) to different salinity [...] Read more.
The study of salinity stress in irrigated floriculture can make a significant contribution to the preservation of freshwater sources. To analyze the morphological and aesthetic responses of zinnia (Zinnia elegans L.) and periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) to different salinity stress levels, the following treatments were performed: s0 = municipal water (control), s1 = 3 dS m−1, s2 = 4.5 dS m−1, and s3 = 6 dS m−1. The growth of zinnia (flower number, plant height, branch and leaf number, total fresh and dry biomass, and root length) was linearly reduced by increasing salinity levels, while all observed periwinkle traits for the s2 salinity treatment were either equal to or greater than the control treatment (n.s.) and a further increase in salinity stress showed a significant (p < 0.01) decrease. The first flower buds on zinnia appeared with the control treatment (s0), while for periwinkle the first flower bud appeared with the s1 treatment. With regard to both zinnia and periwinkle leaf necrosis, drying and firing occurred during the third week in the s2 and s3 treatments. Zinnia proved to be sensitive to salinity, while periwinkle showed mild tolerance to salinity stress, up to 3 dS m−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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14 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
Farmers’ Participatory Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation Method Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emission and Improves Water Productivity and Paddy Yield in Bangladesh
by Mohammad Mobarak Hossain and Mohammad Rafiqul Islam
Water 2022, 14(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14071056 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3504
Abstract
In dry season paddy farming, the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation has the potential to improve water productivity and paddy production and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG), such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), emissions when compared to [...] Read more.
In dry season paddy farming, the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation has the potential to improve water productivity and paddy production and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG), such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), emissions when compared to continuous flooding (CF). Participatory on-farm trials were conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 in the Feni and Chattogram districts of Bangladesh. Total 62 farmers at Feni and 43 at Chattogram district, each location has 10 hectares of land involved in this study. We compared irrigation water and cost reductions, paddy yield, and CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy fields irrigated under AWD and CF irrigation methods. The mean results of randomly selected 30 farmers from each location showed that relative to the CF irrigation method, the AWD method reduced seasonal CH4 emissions by 47% per hectare and CH4 emission factor by 88% per hectare per day. Moreover, the AWD decreased the overall global warming potential and the intensity of GHG by 41%. At the same time, no noticeable difference in N2O emission between the two methods was observed. On the other hand, AWD method increased paddy productivity by 3% while reducing irrigation water consumption by 27% and associated costs by 24%. Ultimately it improved water productivity by 32% over the CF method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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18 pages, 3385 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Water Balance Changes and Parameterization Reflecting Soil Characteristics in a Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN Model
by Soohong Kim, Jonggun Kim, Hyeongsik Kang, Won Seok Jang and Kyoung Jae Lim
Water 2022, 14(6), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14060990 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
Efficient water resource management requires accurate analyses of hydrological components and water balance. The Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN (HSPF) model serves this purpose at the watershed scale. It has limited accuracy in calculating runoff and infiltration because the model simulates hydrological processes using one [...] Read more.
Efficient water resource management requires accurate analyses of hydrological components and water balance. The Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN (HSPF) model serves this purpose at the watershed scale. It has limited accuracy in calculating runoff and infiltration because the model simulates hydrological processes using one representative parameter for each land use in the watershed. Accuracy requires field-scale analysis of hydrological components. We calculated the lower zone storage nominal parameter, which markedly affects runoff in HSPF, from effective moisture content and depth of each soil layer. Analysis of hydrological components suggested re-calculating the parameters reflecting soil characteristics. We investigated two scenarios through simulations: Scenario 1 used the existing method. Scenario 2 used parameters that reflected soil properties. Total flows for each sub-catchment were identical, but proportions of direct and intermediate runoff were larger in Scenario 1. Ratios of baseflow, evapotranspiration, and infiltration were larger in Scenario 2, reflecting soil characteristics. Comparing the baseflow ratio to total flow, Scenario 2 values were similar to observed values. Comparisons of R2 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) at the end of the watershed were well matched (R2 and NSE are higher than 0.9) in both scenarios, but proportions of each hydrological component differed. It is important to consider soil characteristics when applying water quantity and quality analyses in an HSPF simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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24 pages, 9851 KiB  
Article
Uncoupled Precipitation and Water Availability: The Case Study of Municipality of Sfakia, Crete, Greece
by Vasileios A. Tzanakakis, Aikaterini Pavlaki, Emmanouil Lekkas, Emmanouil A. Varouchakis, Nikolaos V. Paranychianakis, Giorgos Fasarakis and Andreas N. Angelakis
Water 2022, 14(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030462 - 4 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3477
Abstract
Sfakia is a mountainous municipality located in the southwestern area of the island of Crete, including the southern part of the Lefka Ori Mountain, with an elevation ranging from sea level to over 2400 m. The mountainous massif mainly consists of carbonate rocks [...] Read more.
Sfakia is a mountainous municipality located in the southwestern area of the island of Crete, including the southern part of the Lefka Ori Mountain, with an elevation ranging from sea level to over 2400 m. The mountainous massif mainly consists of carbonate rocks and intense karstic phenomena can be observed. The part of the area exceeding over the elevation of 600 m is characterized by high amounts of precipitation (1500 mm). Despite this high precipitation, the water availability in the area is low. This work aims to identify the factors that affect the water-resources availability in this area. In addition, issues related to proper water management are presented and discussed that will allow areas with similar characteristics to adapt to climate change. Our study identified the complex geological setting of the area that redirects water away of the hydrological basin (karsts) and the geomorphology that favors precipitation loss through runoff as the most important factors for the low availability of water resources. This paper attempts to create a base of discussion for similar cases worldwide by providing a framework of approaching scientifically analogous problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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16 pages, 5440 KiB  
Article
Soil-Related Predictors for Distribution Modelling of Four European Crayfish Species
by Andrei Dornik, Mihaela Constanța Ion, Marinela Adriana Chețan and Lucian Pârvulescu
Water 2021, 13(16), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162280 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
One of the most critical challenges in species distribution modelling is testing and validating various digitally derived environmental predictors (e.g., remote-sensing variables, topographic variables) by field data. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the value of soil properties in the spatial distribution of [...] Read more.
One of the most critical challenges in species distribution modelling is testing and validating various digitally derived environmental predictors (e.g., remote-sensing variables, topographic variables) by field data. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the value of soil properties in the spatial distribution of four European indigenous crayfish species. A database with 473 presence and absence locations in Romania for Austropotamobius bihariensis, A. torrentium, Astacus astacus and Pontastacus leptodactylus was used in relation to eight digitalised soil properties. Using random forest modelling, we found a preference for dense soils with lower coarse fragments content together with deeper sediment cover and higher clay values for A. astacus and P. leptodactylus. These descriptors trigger the need for cohesive soil river banks as the microenvironment for building their burrows. Conversely, species that can use banks with higher coarse fragments content, the highland species A. bihariensis and A. torrentium, prefer soils with slightly thinner sediment cover and lower density while not influenced by clay/sand content. Of all species, A. astacus was found related with higher erosive soils. The value of these soil-related digital descriptors may reside in the improvement of approaches in crayfish species distribution modelling to gain adequate conservation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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38 pages, 5145 KiB  
Article
Rethinking Climate, Climate Change, and Their Relationship with Water
by Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Water 2021, 13(6), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060849 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 20116
Abstract
We revisit the notion of climate, along with its historical evolution, tracing the origin of the modern concerns about climate. The notion (and the scientific term) of climate was established during the Greek antiquity in a geographical context and it acquired its statistical [...] Read more.
We revisit the notion of climate, along with its historical evolution, tracing the origin of the modern concerns about climate. The notion (and the scientific term) of climate was established during the Greek antiquity in a geographical context and it acquired its statistical content (average weather) in modern times after meteorological measurements had become common. Yet the modern definitions of climate are seriously affected by the wrong perception of the previous two centuries that climate should regularly be constant, unless an external agent acts upon it. Therefore, we attempt to give a more rigorous definition of climate, consistent with the modern body of stochastics. We illustrate the definition by real-world data, which also exemplify the large climatic variability. Given this variability, the term “climate change” turns out to be scientifically unjustified. Specifically, it is a pleonasm as climate, like weather, has been ever-changing. Indeed, a historical investigation reveals that the aim in using that term is not scientific but political. Within the political aims, water issues have been greatly promoted by projecting future catastrophes while reversing true roles and causality directions. For this reason, we provide arguments that water is the main element that drives climate, and not the opposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate, Water, and Soil)
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