Special Issue "Anthropogenic and Climatic Disturbances in Freshwater and Coastal Ecosystems: Interactive Impacts and Expected Threats"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Stefano Cozzi
Website
Guest Editor
CNR—ISMAR Marine Science Institute, 34149 Trieste, Italy
Interests: chemical oceanography; biogeochemistry; climate change; coastal ecosystems; air–sea interactions; eutrophication; runoff; mucilage phenomenon

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last century, freshwater and coastal marine environments have been impacted by growing anthropogenic pressure, which is now globally spread. Discharges of nutrients, pollutants, sediments, and biogeochemical transformations originated by an intensive usage of ecosystem services, have often definitively changed the structure of these aquatic environments, even in regions where recent improvements of environmental management practices have mitigated pollution and eutrophication.

At the same time, these environments are currently exposed to direct and indirect disturbances originated by the climate change, as their status depends on the evolution of meteorological conditions, runoff, extreme events, hydrology, circulation, sea level, and orographic characteristics. Today, there is a growing body of knowledge about climate change at regional scales.

This Special Issue will explore current and expected interactions between anthropogenic pressures and climate change in freshwater and coastal ecosystems. A large variety of environments can be considered, from tropical to high-latitude systems, provided that they are analyzed as case studies that highlight the combination of anthropogenic and climatic disturbances. Multidisciplinary studies based on experimental activities, reanalysis of data-series, ecological modeling, and review and synthesis of the scientific information are encouraged.

Dr. Stefano Cozzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrological regime
  • water quality
  • water resource management
  • eutrophication
  • ecosystem services
  • community dynamics
  • ecosystem structure
  • environmental indicators
  • coastal zones
  • river and lake ecosystems

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Seasonal and Interannual Trends of Oceanographic Parameters over 40 Years in the Northern Adriatic Sea in Relation to Nutrient Loadings Using the EMODnet Chemistry Data Portal
Water 2020, 12(8), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082280 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
Long-term data series (1971–2015) of physical and biogeochemical parameters were analyzed in order to assess trends and variability of oceanographic conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea (NAS), a mid-latitude shallow continental shelf strongly impacted by river discharges, human activities and climate changes. Interpolation [...] Read more.
Long-term data series (1971–2015) of physical and biogeochemical parameters were analyzed in order to assess trends and variability of oceanographic conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea (NAS), a mid-latitude shallow continental shelf strongly impacted by river discharges, human activities and climate changes. Interpolation maps and statistical models were applied to investigate seasonal and spatial variability, as well as decadal trends of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a and nutrients. This analysis shows that sea surface temperature increased by +0.36% year−1 over four decades. Annual mean flow of the Po River markedly changed due to the occurrence of periods of persistent drought, whereas the frequency of flow rates higher than 3000 m3 s−1 decreased between 2006 and 2015. Moreover, we observed a long-term decrease in surface phosphate concentrations in Po River water (−1.34% year−1) and in seawater (in summer −2.56% year−1) coupled, however, to a significant increase in nitrate concentration in seawater (+3.80% year−1) in almost all seasons. These changes indicate that the nutrient concentrations in the NAS have been largely modulated, in the last forty years, by the evolution of environmental management practices and of the runoff. This implies that further alteration of the marine environment must be expected as a consequence of the climate changes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Factors Controlling Hypoxia Occurrence in Estuaries, Chester River, Chesapeake Bay
Water 2020, 12(7), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071961 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
The Chester River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, provides critical habitats for numerous living species and oyster aquaculture, but faces increasing anthropogenic stresses due to excessive nutrient loading and hypoxia occurrence. An application of the Integrated Compartment Water Quality Model (ICM), coupled with [...] Read more.
The Chester River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, provides critical habitats for numerous living species and oyster aquaculture, but faces increasing anthropogenic stresses due to excessive nutrient loading and hypoxia occurrence. An application of the Integrated Compartment Water Quality Model (ICM), coupled with the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), was carried out to study the controlling mechanisms and interannual variability in hypoxia occurrence from 2002 to 2011. Our study shows that hypoxia occurs mostly in the main stem in July, followed by August and June. On an interannual scale, 2005 had the highest hypoxia occurrence with an accumulative hypoxia volume of about 10 km3-days, whereas 2008 had the lowest occurrence with an accumulative hypoxia volume of about 1 km3-days. Nutrient loading is the predominant factor in determining the intensity and interannual variability in hypoxia in the Chester River estuary, followed by stratification and saltwater intrusion. Phosphorus has been found to be more efficient in controlling hypoxia occurrence than nitrogen due to their different limiting extent. On a local scale, the Chester River estuary is characterized by several meanders, and at certain curvatures helical circulation is formed due to centrifugal forces, leading to better reaeration and dissolved oxygen (DO) supply to the deeper layers. Our study provides valuable information for nutrient management and restoration efforts in the Chester River. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Urea Distribution, Sources, and Indication of DON Bioavailability in Zhanjiang Bay, China
Water 2020, 12(3), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030633 - 26 Feb 2020
Abstract
In marine environments, urea is an important component of the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen. The autochthonous and allochthonous sources (rivers, aquaculture, waste water input, etc.) of urea play a key role in urea cycles in adjacent coastal waters. Because urea is a specific [...] Read more.
In marine environments, urea is an important component of the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen. The autochthonous and allochthonous sources (rivers, aquaculture, waste water input, etc.) of urea play a key role in urea cycles in adjacent coastal waters. Because urea is a specific marker to trace the sewage fluxes in coastal waters, we investigated urea associated with terrestrial source input and coastal water in Zhanjiang Bay (ZJB) during the time from November 2018 to July 2019, and the spatiotemporal urea distribution and the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) based on urea concentration in the ZJB were explored. The results showed that the urea enrichment in coastal water was mainly due to discharge from urban sewage systems, rivers, and coastal aquaculture. The concentration of urea ranged from 1.14 to 5.53 μmol·L−1, and its mean value was 3.13 ± 1.02 μmol·L−1 in the ZJB. The urea concentration showed a significantly different seasonal variation in the ZJB (p < 0.05), and the highest and lowest concentrations were found in November 2018 and April 2019, respectively. Its high value appeared in the north and northeast of the ZJB, which were polluted by coastal aquaculture and agriculture fertilizer utilization. The range of urea concentration of terrestrial source inputs in the ZJB was 1.31–10.29 μmol·L−1, and the average urea concentration reached 3.22 ± 0.82 μmol·L−1. Moreover, the total urea flux surrounding the ZJB was 2905 tons·year−1. The seasonal terrestrial source of urea flux contributions had significant seasonal variation in wet, normal, and dry seasons (p < 0.05). The ZJB was subjected to a large flux of urea by estuaries and sewage outlet discharges. The seasonal urea concentration in all stations (>1 μmol·L−1) indicated that urea in the ZJB may have a bioavailable DON source. As a bioavailable nitrogen source, the ability of terrestrial source-derived urea to increase eutrophication should not be ignored in ZJB. Full article
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