Special Issue "Multi-Quality Water Distribution Systems Analysis: Simulation and Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 13938

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Avi Ostfeld
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel
Interests: water resources systems analysis; water distribution systems; surface hydrology; optimization; management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interest in modeling flow and water quality in water distribution systems stems from three types of circumstances: (1) Use of waters from sources with different qualities in a single distribution system, which serves as a “treatment facility” to mix and convey them, with a blend supplied to its consumers. This situation is common to areas where sources of good quality are limited, and thus, there is a need to use alternate water sources, such as saline groundwater, to meet agricultural or industrial water needs; (2) concern in municipal water distribution systems over water quality changes, such as decay of disinfectants and/or growth of organisms; and (3) deliberate or accidental events in which contaminants enter a drinking water distribution system and are distributed with flow.

The development of simulation and optimization algorithms for modeling water quality in distribution systems is needed by designers, utilities, and regulating agencies for a number of purposes: (1) Planning and design of networks and facilities; (2) real-time operation; (3) monitoring design and operation; (4) simulation of contamination events; and (5) guidelines establishments for planning, design, operation, and monitoring.

This Special Issue on multi-quality water distribution systems analysis: Simulation and management is aimed at covering the state-of-the-art on all aspects of multi-quality simulation and management in water distribution systems. Those include (but are not limited) to new simulation techniques for incorporating water quality complex parameters in water distribution systems modeling, optimization techniques for water quality incorporation as constraints or objectives in water distribution systems, uncertainty inclusion in modeling water quality in distribution systems, and calibration methods for multi-quality water distribution systems. Comprehensive review papers on water quality in distribution systems are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Avi Ostfeld
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • new schemes for water quality simulation of water distribution systems
  • incorporating water quality in water distribution systems management
  • water distribution systems optimization under water quality constraints
  • simulation of complex water quality contaminations in water distribution systems
  • water distribution systems security

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Optimization of Multi-Quality Water Networks: Can Simple Optimization Heuristics Compete with Nonlinear Solvers?
Water 2021, 13(16), 2209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13162209 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Optimal management of water systems tends to be very complex, especially when water quality aspects are included. This paper addresses the management of multi-quality water networks over a fixed time horizon. The problem is formulated as an optimization program that minimizes cost by [...] Read more.
Optimal management of water systems tends to be very complex, especially when water quality aspects are included. This paper addresses the management of multi-quality water networks over a fixed time horizon. The problem is formulated as an optimization program that minimizes cost by determining the optimal flow distribution that satisfies the water quantity and quality requirement in the demand nodes. The resulted model is nonlinear and non-convex due to bilinear terms in the mass balance equations of blending multi-quality flow. This results in several local optima, making the process of solving large-scale problems to global optimality very challenging. One classical approach to deal with this challenge is to use a multi-start procedure in which off-the-shelf local optimization solvers are initialized with several random initial points. Then the final optimal solution is considered as the lowest objective value over the different runs. This will lead to a cumbersome and slow solution process for large-scale problems. In light of the above, this study supports using ultra-fast simple optimization heuristics, which despite their moderate accuracy, can still reach the optimum solution when run many times using a multi-start procedure. As such, the final solution from simple optimization heuristics can compete with off-the-shelf nonlinear solvers in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The paper presents a simple optimization heuristic, which is specially tailored for the problem and compares its performance with a state-of-the-art nonlinear solver on large-scale systems. Full article
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Article
Modeling the Formation and Propagation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, a Dominant Taste and Odor Compound, in Water Distribution Systems
Water 2021, 13(5), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050638 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) formation is often reported as a cause of taste and odor (T&O) problems in water distribution systems (WDSs). The biosynthesis via microbial O-methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is the dominant formation pathway in distribution pipes. This paper attempted to utilize the [...] Read more.
2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) formation is often reported as a cause of taste and odor (T&O) problems in water distribution systems (WDSs). The biosynthesis via microbial O-methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is the dominant formation pathway in distribution pipes. This paper attempted to utilize the reported data on the microbial O-methylation process to formulate deterministic kinetic models for explaining 2,4,6-TCA formation dynamics in WDSs. The pipe material’s critical role in stimulating O-methyltransferases enzymatic activity and regulating 2,4,6-TCP bioconversion in water was established. The kinetic expressions formulated were later applied to develop a novel EPANET-MSX-based multi-species reactive-transport (MSRT) model. The effects of operating conditions and temperature in directing the microbiological, chemical, and organoleptic quality variations in WDSs were analyzed using the MSRT model on two benchmark systems. The simulation results specified chlorine application’s implication in maintaining 2,4,6-TCA levels within its perception limit (4 ng/L). In addition, the temperature sensitivity of O-methyltransferases enzymatic activity was described, and the effect of temperature increase from 10 to 25 °C in accelerating the 2,4,6-TCA formation rate in WDSs was explained. Controlling source water 2,4,6-TCP concentration by accepting appropriate treatment techniques was recommended as the primary strategy for regulating the T&O problems in WDSs. Full article
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Article
Modeling Bacterial Regrowth and Trihalomethane Formation in Water Distribution Systems
Water 2021, 13(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040463 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
The formation of bacterial regrowth and disinfection by-products is ubiquitous in chlorinated water distribution systems (WDSs) operated with organic loads. A generic, easy-to-use mechanistic model describing the fundamental processes governing the interrelationship between chlorine, total organic carbon (TOC), and bacteria to analyze the [...] Read more.
The formation of bacterial regrowth and disinfection by-products is ubiquitous in chlorinated water distribution systems (WDSs) operated with organic loads. A generic, easy-to-use mechanistic model describing the fundamental processes governing the interrelationship between chlorine, total organic carbon (TOC), and bacteria to analyze the spatiotemporal water quality variations in WDSs was developed using EPANET-MSX. The representation of multispecies reactions was simplified to minimize the interdependent model parameters. The physicochemical/biological processes that cannot be experimentally determined were neglected. The effects of source water characteristics and water residence time on controlling bacterial regrowth and Trihalomethane (THM) formation in two well-tested systems under chlorinated and non-chlorinated conditions were analyzed by applying the model. The results established that a 100% increase in the free chlorine concentration and a 50% reduction in the TOC at the source effectuated a 5.87 log scale decrement in the bacteriological activity at the expense of a 60% increase in THM formation. The sensitivity study showed the impact of the operating conditions and the network characteristics in determining parameter sensitivities to model outputs. The maximum specific growth rate constant for bulk phase bacteria was found to be the most sensitive parameter to the predicted bacterial regrowth. Full article
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Article
Water Lice and Other Macroinvertebrates in Drinking Water Pipes: Diversity, Abundance and Health Risk
Water 2021, 13(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030276 - 24 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
Activities to ensure and maintain water quality in drinking water networks, including flushing, are presented after standardized hydrant sampling combined with a stainless-steel low pressure–high flow rate (NDHF) filter and a 100 µm mesh size was used to separate pipe inhabitants. A databank [...] Read more.
Activities to ensure and maintain water quality in drinking water networks, including flushing, are presented after standardized hydrant sampling combined with a stainless-steel low pressure–high flow rate (NDHF) filter and a 100 µm mesh size was used to separate pipe inhabitants. A databank of more than 1000 hydrant samples in European lowland areas was developed and used to analyze the diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates in drinking water networks. Load classes for water louse (Asellus aquaticus) and oligochaetes are given with three evaluation classes: normal colonization, increased colonization, and mass development. The response of Asellus aquaticus in drinking water networks to environmental conditions are presented as are their growth and reproduction, promotion of a third generation by climate change effects, food limitations, and the composition and stability of their feces. Finally, the health risks posed by dead water lice and water lice feces with bacterial regrowth and the promotion of microbe development on house filters are analyzed. Full article
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Article
Identifying Contaminant Intrusion in Water Distribution Networks under Water Flow and Sensor Report Time Uncertainties
Water 2020, 12(11), 3179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113179 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Contamination events in water distribution networks (WDNs) could have severe health and economic consequences. Contaminants can be deliberately or accidentally introduced into the WDN. Quick identification of the injection location and time is important in devising a mitigation plan to prevent further spread [...] Read more.
Contamination events in water distribution networks (WDNs) could have severe health and economic consequences. Contaminants can be deliberately or accidentally introduced into the WDN. Quick identification of the injection location and time is important in devising a mitigation plan to prevent further spread of the contaminant in the network. A method of identifying the possible intrusion point in a given network and reporting data is to use an inverse calculation by backtracking the potential path of the contaminant in the network. However, there is an element of uncertainty in the data used for calculation, particularly in water flow and sensor report time. Given the uncertainties, a method was developed in this study for fast and accurate contaminant source identification. This paper proposes a comparison filter of results by first identifying potential contaminant locations through backtracking, followed by a forward calculation to determine the injection time range, thereby reducing the potential suspects and providing likeliness comparison among the suspects. The effectiveness of the proposed method was examined by applying it to a benchmark WDN. By simulating uncertainties and filtering through the results, several possible contaminant intrusion locations and times were identified. Full article
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Article
Investigating the Impacts of Water Conservation on Water Quality in Distribution Networks Using an Advection-Dispersion Transport Model
Water 2020, 12(4), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041033 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
With the increasing adoption of demand management strategies and water conservation practices, domestic water consumption is projected to decline in the future. The subsequent consumer-side demand reductions are expected to result in increased residence times in water distribution networks (WDNs), and thus could [...] Read more.
With the increasing adoption of demand management strategies and water conservation practices, domestic water consumption is projected to decline in the future. The subsequent consumer-side demand reductions are expected to result in increased residence times in water distribution networks (WDNs), and thus could have negative effects on the water quality (WQ) reaching the consumers’ taps. This study evaluates the impacts of the projected decrease in residential water demands on the deterioration of the WQ in WDNs. This deterioration will likely be most prominent in the dead-end branches at the perimeters of WDNs, where the flow is characteristically low and intermittent. The assessment of WQ deterioration in the dead-end branches requires the implementation of an accurate WQ simulation model. To this end, a new Python-based software package, WUDESIM_Py, is first introduced. The WQ simulation engine in WUDESIM_Py is based on an advection-dispersion-reaction model and accounts for the spatial distribution of water demands along dead-end pipes. WUDESIM_Py comprises various sets of functions that allow the users to set-up and conduct WQ simulations as well as obtain and visualize simulation results. A complete description of the different functions, together with examples of how these functions can be implemented in different applications, is provided. Through conducting extensive simulations of benchmark WDNs, the results revealed that widespread adoption of water conservation practices can lead to significant WQ deterioration in the dead-end branches. Additionally, the results suggested that neglecting dispersive transport and spatially aggregating demands may result in overestimating residual chlorine concentrations in the dead-end branches, which could mask the real impacts of demand reduction on WQ deterioration. Full article
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Article
Fractal-Heuristic Method of Water Quality Sensor Locations in Water Supply Network
Water 2020, 12(3), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030832 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
The article presents a new methodology for the selection of the water quality monitoring sensor locations using the water quality model created by means of the EPANET 2.0 software (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Durham, NC, USA). The model represents the propagation [...] Read more.
The article presents a new methodology for the selection of the water quality monitoring sensor locations using the water quality model created by means of the EPANET 2.0 software (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Durham, NC, USA). The model represents the propagation of free chlorine in a water supply network, in conjunction with the heuristic method, applying the elements of fractal geometry. In the first stage, a subarea is determined, while in the second, a specific node for the location of the measuring point is indicated. The process of determining the location is based on a ranking method, in which the usefulness of individual subareas and measuring nodes is determined by means of a formula taking into account the amount of water intake, the required level of water supply and the effects of a lack of water supply, as well as the calculated concentration of free chlorine. The application of the method requires the construction and calibration of a numerical model of free chlorine decay in the network, as well as the knowledge on the location of the objects of particular importance for the network users. The proposed method will be applied in an existing water supply network of approximately 50,000 recipients. Full article
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