Urban Water-Related Problems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 November 2022) | Viewed by 20668

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Japan
Interests: real-time prediction of hydro-meteorological time series; urban rainfall runoff model; urban landscape GIS delineation; integrated flood risk management; decision support system for water resource management; analysis of chaotic hydrological phenomena; sustainability assessment of groundwater resources; groundwater quantity and quality analysis; X-band MP radar rainfall data; deep learning model in hydrology

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Guest Editor
Institute of Integrated Science and Technology, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan
Interests: hydrogeology; groundwater; soil and water pollution; reactive transport in groundwater; physical and chemical hydrogeology and heterogeneity; saltwater intrusion and subsurface dam; groundwater modeling; remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban areas are considered to be the most vulnerable to water-related problems, which involve a lack of or excess of water problems from quantity and quality perspectives. These specific phenomena include flash floods and inundation, droughts and water shortage, surface and ground water pollution, tsunami and storm surges, landslides and mudflows, degradation of fluvial and aquatic ecosystems, unsanitary conditions and epidemics, among others. In urban areas, water-related problems cause immense human losses and economic damage. Water-related problems frequently reoccur in urban areas, and are intricately linked with each other, and they pose major obstacles to the achievement of human security and sustainable socio-economic development of cities. Thus, it is crucial that they are scientifically and comprehensively discussed, so that they can be better understood, in order to fight against and mitigate these problems.

For this Special Issue, published in Water, we intend to provide a wide range of topics and a collective perspective on urban water-related problems.

Prof. Dr. Akira Kawamura
Prof. Dr. Kei Nakagawa
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • localized downpour and urban stormwater
  • urban floods
  • early warning and information systems
  • urban droughts and water shortage
  • surface and ground water pollution
  • tsunami and storm surges
  • landslides and mudflows
  • fluvial and aquatic ecosystem degradation
  • urban water sustainability
  • unsanitary conditions and epidemics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Urban Water-Related Problems
by Akira Kawamura and Kei Nakagawa
Water 2023, 15(18), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183280 - 16 Sep 2023
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Urban areas are considered to be the most vulnerable to water-related problems, which involve a lack or excess of water problems from the perspectives of quantity and quality [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)

Research

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19 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
An Expanded Interpretive Structural Modeling Analysis of the Barriers to Integrated Flood Risk Management Adaptation in Metro Manila
by Jean Margaret Mercado, Akira Kawamura and Reynaldo Medina
Water 2023, 15(6), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061029 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
The implementation of integrated flood risk management (IFRM) is still in its infancy in both developed and developing countries, yet some countries have already encountered barriers to IFRM adaptation. The interrelationships between these barriers need to be determined and analyzed systematically, as such [...] Read more.
The implementation of integrated flood risk management (IFRM) is still in its infancy in both developed and developing countries, yet some countries have already encountered barriers to IFRM adaptation. The interrelationships between these barriers need to be determined and analyzed systematically, as such an analysis is the groundwork for decision-making when devising solutions to overcome the barriers. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) is a popular and systematic method for analyzing the interrelationship between variables in broad study areas. This study applies the proposed expanded ISM (Ex-ISM) approach to comprehensively analyze the interrelationships between the barriers to IFRM in Metro Manila. Ex-ISM enhances conventional ISM in that the symbolism is modified to explicitly show the contextual interrelationships, the step for hierarchy assignment is simplified, and the diagram shows all of the interrelationships that allow a comprehensive analysis. The results obtained using the Ex-ISM method do not deviate from those yielded by the conventional ISM method, but the Ex-ISM method allows an easy assignment of hierarchy, and it shows not only the direct but also the indirect interrelationships to provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships between the barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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16 pages, 1709 KiB  
Article
Decision Support for Lake Restoration: A Case Study in Swedish Freshwater Bodies
by Maja Sellergren, Jing Li, Stina Drakare and Sebastian Thöns
Water 2023, 15(4), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040668 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
A considerable number of lakes in Sweden have high phosphorus internal loading from the sediments which cause cyanobacterial blooms every summer. Due to potential risks with such blooms for human health, drinking water supply, and ecosystem services, measures need to be taken to [...] Read more.
A considerable number of lakes in Sweden have high phosphorus internal loading from the sediments which cause cyanobacterial blooms every summer. Due to potential risks with such blooms for human health, drinking water supply, and ecosystem services, measures need to be taken to control the phosphorus content. Measures to control the phosphorus input from the surrounding land has been in focus. However, the measures have not been sufficient. This is because phosphorus deposited at the bottom of the lakes for many years are finally starting to leak to the water phase when the decomposition of sediments leads to anoxic conditions. In order to determine effective and efficient lake restoration measures, methods for lake restoration decision support by a multi-criteria analysis and the application of a decision analysis are developed. The multi-criteria analysis includes the determination of costs, longevity, and efficacy of six common lake restoration measures to reduce internal phosphorous loads in two lakes selected as a case study. The results show that aluminum treatment combines a highest efficacy with a high-cost efficiency being thus the optimal identified measure. The method involves adding an aluminum solution to the lakes’ sediment, which binds phosphorus, preventing it to be released to the water column. The multi-criteria model is integrated to a decision analytical model. The decision analytical model is used to identify the monetary socio-economic and environmental boundaries for the implementation of the optimal lake restoration measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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21 pages, 7933 KiB  
Article
A Detailed Analysis on Hydrodynamic Response of a Highly Stratified Lake to Spatio-Temporally Varying Wind Field
by Hieu Ngoc Le, Tetsuya Shintani and Keisuke Nakayama
Water 2023, 15(3), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030565 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Wind is generally considered an important factor driving the transport and mixing processes in stratified enclosed systems such as lakes and reservoirs. Lake Abashiri is one of the instances of such a system. For these systems, typically, the temporally unsteady but spatially uniform [...] Read more.
Wind is generally considered an important factor driving the transport and mixing processes in stratified enclosed systems such as lakes and reservoirs. Lake Abashiri is one of the instances of such a system. For these systems, typically, the temporally unsteady but spatially uniform nature of wind has been assumed for simplicity. However, the spatial non-uniformity of wind could significantly alter compound hydrodynamic responses. In this study, such responses were investigated under the continuous imposition of different inhomogeneous wind conditions by applying numerical models and integrated analysis. The resultant tracer transport in both uniform and non-uniform wind cases was insignificant for the total study period of 9 days. However, under the short interval of Ti, where Ti is the internal fundamental period, different behaviors of both surface particle transport and the internal wave field were identified. Particularly, surface mass transport responses to higher spatial wind variance were obviously different from those in the uniform case. In addition, internal wave spectra under strong wind magnitude, which has low spatial variances, became identical to that of uniform wind; however, there were some discrepancies in the non-uniform case in the wave spectra under the influence of weak-to-moderate wind of high spatial variances. The results could provide an in-depth understanding of the lake’s hydrodynamic response to inhomogeneous wind which could improve water management in lakes and reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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18 pages, 4768 KiB  
Article
Study on a Water-Level-Forecast Method Based on a Time Series Analysis of Urban River Basins—A Case Study of Shibuya River Basin in Tokyo
by Naoki Koyama, Mizuki Sakai and Tadashi Yamada
Water 2023, 15(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010161 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
In urban basins, localized torrential rain increases the water level of rivers in an extremely short time, thereby leading to flooding within an hour. Therefore, to achieve early evacuation, the water level should be accurately forecasted. The outflow process in urban areas employs [...] Read more.
In urban basins, localized torrential rain increases the water level of rivers in an extremely short time, thereby leading to flooding within an hour. Therefore, to achieve early evacuation, the water level should be accurately forecasted. The outflow process in urban areas employs the sewer system to discharge the water back to rivers. However, the data for the sewer system are not freely available, and it requires much work and time to design a physical model based on such data. Thus, a vector autoregressive model to develop a water level forecast system that uses observed rainfall and water level is being used. Additionally, this model was used to ensure information conducive to evacuation approximately 20 min in advance and to assess its forecast accuracy, despite the very limited data—water levels at one point and average rainfall at another—without the need to build a physical model such as that which is used in sewer pipe calculations. Compared to the observed water level, the calculated water level increased faster; and thus, the forecast leaned toward safety in evacuation. Furthermore, the data from past five torrential rainfall events to achieve a stable forecast; this method can be applied to basins with limited observation data. Therefore, these results indicate that this method can be applied as a water level forecast method for basins with an extremely fast flood arrival time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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13 pages, 1604 KiB  
Article
PFAS in the Drinking Water Source: Analysis of the Contamination Levels, Origin and Emission Rates
by Dauren Mussabek, Anna Söderman, Tomomi Imura, Kenneth M. Persson, Kei Nakagawa, Lutz Ahrens and Ronny Berndtsson
Water 2023, 15(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010137 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3450
Abstract
Groundwater contamination caused by the use of the aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was investigated in southern Sweden. ΣPFAS concentrations in groundwater ranged between 20 and 20,000 ng L−1; PFAS composition was primarily represented by PFOS [...] Read more.
Groundwater contamination caused by the use of the aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was investigated in southern Sweden. ΣPFAS concentrations in groundwater ranged between 20 and 20,000 ng L−1; PFAS composition was primarily represented by PFOS and PFHxS. The PFAS chain length was suggested to have an impact on the contaminant distribution and transport in the groundwater. PFAS profiling showed that the use of PFSAs- and PFCAs/FTSAs-based PFAS-AFFF can be a contributor to PFAS contamination of the drinking water source (groundwater). PFAS emission was connected to PFAS-AFFF use during the fire-training and fire-fighting equipment tests at the studied location. PFAS emission per individual fire training was (semi-quantitatively) estimated as [1.4 < 11.5 ± 5.7 < 43.7 kg] (n = 20,000). The annual emission estimates varied as [11 < 401 ± 233 < 1125 kg yr−1] (n = 1005) considering possible [2 < 35 ± 20 < 96] individual fire-training sessions per year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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16 pages, 5913 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Quality and Potential Pollution in the Southern Shimabara Peninsula, Japan
by Kei Nakagawa, Hiroki Amano, Zhi-Qiang Yu and Ronny Berndtsson
Water 2022, 14(24), 4106; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244106 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Nitrate pollution in groundwater is a severe problem in Shimabara Peninsula, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Previous studies have investigated water quality characteristics in the northern part of the peninsula and shown serious effects of nitrate pollution in the groundwater. The present study aimed to [...] Read more.
Nitrate pollution in groundwater is a severe problem in Shimabara Peninsula, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Previous studies have investigated water quality characteristics in the northern part of the peninsula and shown serious effects of nitrate pollution in the groundwater. The present study aimed to investigate the groundwater quality in the southern areas of the peninsula for improved understanding of the water quality status for the entire peninsula. Groundwater samples were collected at 56 locations in Minami-Shimabara City from 28 July to 4 August 2021. The spatial distribution of water quality constituents was assessed by Piper-trilinear and Stiff diagrams for major ion concentrations. One agricultural area in the western parts exceeded Japanese recommended standards for water. According to the Piper-trilinear diagram, 44 sampling sites (78.6%) were classified as alkaline earth carbonate type, nine sites (16.1%) as alkaline earth non-carbonate type, and three sites (5.3%) as alkaline carbonate type. Stiff diagrams displayed Ca-HCO3 water type for most of the sites. Na-HCO3 and Mg-HCO3 types were found in coastal areas. Principal component analyses showed that the first component corresponded to dissolved constituents in groundwater and denitrification, the second effects of ion exchange and low nitrate pollution, and the third effects of severe nitrate pollution. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify the groundwater into five groups. The first group included sites with relatively high nitrate concentration. The second group had relatively low ion concentration, distributed from center to eastern parts. The third group included intermediate ion concentration, distributed at lower altitudes along the coastal line. The fourth and fifth groups had a higher ion concentration, especially characterized by high sodium and bicarbonate concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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16 pages, 4574 KiB  
Article
Topographical Characteristics of Frequent Urban Pluvial Flooding Areas in Osaka and Nagoya Cities, Japan
by Daisuke Komori, Kota Nakaguchi, Ryosuke Inomata, Yuika Oyatsu, Ryohei Tachikawa and So Kazama
Water 2022, 14(18), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182795 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Flooding area records have been available since 1993 in Japan; however, there have been no studies that have utilised these records to elucidate urban pluvial flooding formation mechanisms. Therefore, frequent urban pluvial flooding areas using 20 years of urban pluvial flooding area records [...] Read more.
Flooding area records have been available since 1993 in Japan; however, there have been no studies that have utilised these records to elucidate urban pluvial flooding formation mechanisms. Therefore, frequent urban pluvial flooding areas using 20 years of urban pluvial flooding area records during 1993–2012 were identified and analysed using the principal component analysis of their topographical characteristics in Osaka and Nagoya Cities, Japan. The results showed that the topographical characteristics of the frequent urban pluvial flooding areas in both cities were different, with particularly conflicting trends in principal component 1. Furthermore, the urban pluvial flooding in Osaka City could not be described solely by topographical characteristics, and the influence of anthropogenic factors such as dominant structures that may influence inundated water flows in and around frequent urban pluvial flooding areas and stormwater drainage improvements on the occurrence of urban pluvial flooding were shown to be influential. In addition, most of the frequent urban pluvial flooding areas in Nagoya City were located on almost no gradient with a slope of less than 1 degree, and thus, the mere presence of dominant structures around it would dam up the inundated water and cause urban pluvial flooding. The results of this study quantitatively showed the paradigm shift of urban pluvial flooding factors from topographical characteristics to anthropogenic characteristics by the statistical analysis of newly defined urban pluvial flooding frequency areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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24 pages, 1991 KiB  
Article
Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Domestic Water Supply System: The Case of Hanoi, Vietnam
by Nuong Thi Bui, Stephen Darby, Trang Quynh Vu, Jean Margaret R. Mercado, Thao Thi Phuong Bui, Komali Kantamaneni, Thuong Thi Hoai Nguyen, Tu Ngoc Truong, Hue Thi Hoang and Duong Du Bui
Water 2022, 14(14), 2161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142161 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4615
Abstract
Access to a reliable and safe domestic water supply is a serious challenge for many developing countries worldwide. In the capital of Vietnam, Hanoi, the municipal government is facing a number of difficulties in providing sufficient water in a sustainable manner due to [...] Read more.
Access to a reliable and safe domestic water supply is a serious challenge for many developing countries worldwide. In the capital of Vietnam, Hanoi, the municipal government is facing a number of difficulties in providing sufficient water in a sustainable manner due to the increasing urban population and the serious pollution of both surface and groundwater resources, but this is also due to a lack of resources to invest in the supply system. This study aimed to investigate water users’ willingness to pay for the improvement of Hanoi’s domestic water supply system. A contingent valuation process based on a survey of 402 respondents was used to explore citizens’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the improvement of their urban water supply. The results show that Hanoi’s urban communities (more than 90%) were generally satisfied with the quantity of their water supply, but tended to be dissatisfied with its quality, with 80% of the respondents using advanced water purifiers before drinking and cooking. Respondents were also concerned about the overall reliability of the service, with 40% of respondents indicating that they received no check and maintenance service. A WTP regression model was developed based on the survey findings. The average WTP is 281,000 dong/household/month (approximately 12.2 USD at the exchange rate of 1 USD to about 23,000 VND), equivalent to 1.4% of the average household income at the end of 2019, indicating the level of affordability of monthly water payments among Hanoi citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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19 pages, 3429 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution and Source Identification of Water Quality Parameters of an Industrial Seaport Riverbank Area in Bangladesh
by M. Shahidul Islam, Kei Nakagawa, M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun, Abu Shamim Khan, Md. Abdul Goni and Ronny Berndtsson
Water 2022, 14(9), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091356 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2754
Abstract
The Pasur River is a vital reservoir of surface water in the Sundarbon area in Bangladesh. Mongla seaport is located on the bank of this river. Many industries and other commercial sectors situated in this port area are discharging waste into the river [...] Read more.
The Pasur River is a vital reservoir of surface water in the Sundarbon area in Bangladesh. Mongla seaport is located on the bank of this river. Many industries and other commercial sectors situated in this port area are discharging waste into the river without proper treatment. For this reason, geospatial analysis and mapping of water pollutant distribution were performed to assess the physicochemical and toxicological situation in the study area. We used different water quality indices such as Metal Index (MI), Comprehensive Pollution Index (CPI), and Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method (WQI) to improve the understanding of pollution distribution and processes determining the quality of river water. Multivariate statistical methods were used to evaluate loads and sources of pollutants in the Pasur River system. The results indicate that the sources of contaminants are both geogenic and anthropogenic, including untreated or poorly treated wastewater from industries and urban domestic waste discharge. The concentration range of total suspended solid (TSS), chloride, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) were from 363.2 to 1482.7, 108.2 to 708.93, 1.13 to 2.75, and 0.19 to 1.41 mg/L, respectively, significantly exceeding the health-based guideline of WHO and Bangladeshi standards. The high Fe and Mn contents are contributions from geogenic and anthropogenic sources such as industrial waste and construction activities. The average pH value was 8.73, higher than the WHO and Bangladeshi standard limit. WQI (ranging from 391 to 1336), CPI (6.71 to 23.1), and MI (7.23 to 23.3) were very high and greatly exceeded standard limits indicating that the Pasur River water is highly polluted. The results of this study can be used as a first reference work for developing a surface water quality monitoring system and guide decisionmakers for priorities regarding wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

24 pages, 3963 KiB  
Review
Urban Flood Runoff Modeling in Japan: Recent Developments and Future Prospects
by Akira Kawamura, Hideo Amaguchi, Jonas Olsson and Hiroto Tanouchi
Water 2023, 15(15), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152733 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
Since the 20th century, Japan has experienced a period of very rapid urbanization. Cities have experienced substantial densification and expansion, resulting in gradually elevated flood risk. Urban flooding has also occurred in most large cities in Japan, particularly in Tokyo. In response to [...] Read more.
Since the 20th century, Japan has experienced a period of very rapid urbanization. Cities have experienced substantial densification and expansion, resulting in gradually elevated flood risk. Urban flooding has also occurred in most large cities in Japan, particularly in Tokyo. In response to this growing problem, much effort and resources have been spent on research and development aimed at understanding, simulating, and managing urban flood risk in Japan. The objective of this review is to summarize, discuss, and share key outputs from some of the main research directions in this field, significant parts of which have been uniquely developed in Japan and only published in Japanese. After a general introduction to urban runoff modeling, in the next section, key historical works in Japan are summarized, followed by a description of the situation in Japan with respect to observations of precipitation and water level. Then, the storage function model approach is reviewed, including an extension to urban basins, as well as recent experiments with AI-based emulation in Japanese basins. Subsequently, we review the prospects of detailed hydrodynamic modeling involving high-resolution, vector-based Geographical Information System (GIS) data for the optimal description of the urban environment with applications in Tokyo. We conclude the paper with some future prospects related to urban flood risk modeling and assessment in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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12 pages, 302 KiB  
Review
Frequency Analysis of Hydrological Data for Urban Floods—Review of Traditional Methods and Recent Developments, Especially an Introduction of Japanese Proper Methods
by Chiharu Mizuki and Yasuhisa Kuzuha
Water 2023, 15(13), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132490 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Frequency analysis has long been an important theme of hydrology research. Although meteorological techniques (physical approaches) such as radar nowcasting, remote sensing, and forecasting heavy rainfall events using meteorological simulation models are quite effective for urban disaster prevention, statistical and stochastic theories that [...] Read more.
Frequency analysis has long been an important theme of hydrology research. Although meteorological techniques (physical approaches) such as radar nowcasting, remote sensing, and forecasting heavy rainfall events using meteorological simulation models are quite effective for urban disaster prevention, statistical and stochastic theories that include frequency analysis, which are usually used in flood control plans, are also valuable for flood control plans for disaster prevention. Master plans for flood control projects in urban areas often use the concept of T-year hydrological values with a T-year return period. A flood control target is a “landside area that is safe against heavy rainfall or floods with a return period of T years”. This review emphasizes discussions of parameter estimation of stochastic models and selection of optimal statistical models, which include evaluation of goodness-of-fit techniques of statistical models. Based on those results, the authors criticize Japanese standard procedures recommended by the central government. Consistency between parameter estimation and evaluation of goodness-of-fit is necessary. From this perspective, we recommend using the maximum likelihood method and AIC, both of which are related to Kullback–Leibler divergence. If one prefers using SLSC, we recommend not SLSC itself but SLSC’s non-exceedance probability. One important purpose of this review is the introduction of well-used Japanese methods. Because some techniques that are slightly different from the international standard have been used for many years in Japan, we introduce those in the review article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
18 pages, 5961 KiB  
Review
Application of Porous Concrete Infiltration Techniques to Street Stormwater Inlets That Simultaneously Mitigate against Non-Point Heavy Metal Pollution and Stormwater Runoff Reduction in Urban Areas: Catchment-Scale Evaluation of the Potential of Discrete and Small-Scale Techniques
by Shigeki Harada
Water 2023, 15(11), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15111998 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
The expansion of pervious areas is an essential and common concept in mitigating non-point pollution runoff in urban areas. In this review, literature related to the expansion of pervious areas is introduced. In addition, the potential application of porous concrete as a medium [...] Read more.
The expansion of pervious areas is an essential and common concept in mitigating non-point pollution runoff in urban areas. In this review, literature related to the expansion of pervious areas is introduced. In addition, the potential application of porous concrete as a medium for constructing the bottom and side walls of street stormwater inlets is investigated. The effectiveness of this medium in reducing (i) the stormwater runoff volume via porous concrete by exfiltrating from the bottom and the wall, and (ii) the heavy metal pollution runoff loads via infiltration through the porous concrete is assessed using data obtained by the author and published in the literature. The urban hydrological model Infoworks ICM (Innovyze) was used to estimate the exfiltration rates through the porous concrete plates set at the bottom and side walls of the street stormwater inlets. The exfiltration rates used in the pre-reported literature varied depending on the methods used. In the present study, sensitivity tests were performed by changing the exfiltration rates. The results of this study indicated that porous concrete used at only the bottom and side walls of the street stormwater inlets is suitable for reducing the runoff volume and removing any heavy metals from stormwater at a catchment scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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18 pages, 2086 KiB  
Review
Real-Time Urban Flood Forecasting Systems for Southeast Asia—A Review of Present Modelling and Its Future Prospects
by Detchphol Chitwatkulsiri and Hitoshi Miyamoto
Water 2023, 15(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010178 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4891
Abstract
Many urban areas in tropical Southeast Asia, e.g., Bangkok in Thailand, have recently been experiencing unprecedentedly intense flash floods due to climate change. The rapid flood inundation has caused extremely severe damage to urban residents and social infrastructures. In addition, urban Southeast Asia [...] Read more.
Many urban areas in tropical Southeast Asia, e.g., Bangkok in Thailand, have recently been experiencing unprecedentedly intense flash floods due to climate change. The rapid flood inundation has caused extremely severe damage to urban residents and social infrastructures. In addition, urban Southeast Asia usually has inadequate capacities in drainage systems, complicated land use patterns, and a large vulnerable population in limited urban areas. To reduce the urban flood risk and enhance the resilience of vulnerable urban communities, it has been of essential importance to develop real-time urban flood forecasting systems for flood disaster prevention authorities and the urban public. This paper reviewed the state-of-the-art models of real-time forecasting systems for urban flash floods. The real-time system basically consists of the following subsystems, i.e., rainfall forecasting, drainage system modelling, and inundation area mapping. This paper summarized the recent radar data utilization methods for rainfall forecasting, physical-process-based hydraulic models for flood inundation prediction, and data-driven artificial intelligence (AI) models for the real-time forecasting system. This paper also dealt with available technologies for modelling, e.g., digital surface models (DSMs) for the finer urban terrain of drainage systems. The review indicated that an obstacle to using process-based hydraulic models was the limited computational resources and shorter lead time for real-time forecasting in many urban areas in tropical Southeast Asia. The review further discussed the prospects of data-driven AI models for real-time forecasting systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water-Related Problems)
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