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Special Issue "Observation and Numerical Modeling of Sediment Transport in Coastal Areas"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kehui Xu

Department of Oceanography & Coastal Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: geological oceanography; coastal morphodynamics; observation and numerical modeling of sediment transport along bottom boundary layer; sedimentary geology; coastal processes
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joseph Carlin

Department of Geological Sciences, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, California, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: coastal sedimentology; terrestrial sediment flux to marine environments; coastal geomorphology; sediment deposition and remobilization; event deposition; coastal processes; stratigraphy
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Houjie Wang

Key Laboratory of Submarine Geosciences and Exploration Technology, Ocean University of China, Shandong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: coastal sediment dynamics; land-sea interactions in context of global change; estuarine and coastal processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The objective of this Special Issue is to improve our knowledge of the observation and modeling of sediment tranport in various coastal areas. We encourage submissions based on the studies of sediment delivery, transport, and depositional processes in multiple coastal environments in continental margins, including shelves, estuaries, deltas, bays, barrier islands, and others. We would like to gather a series of publications that highlight recent new findings on various aspects of morphodynamics, sediment dynamics, non-cohesive and cohesive sediment transport, sedimentary geology, sequence startigraphy, geological oceanography, subsidence and land loss, sediment management, sediment-related human activities, coastal restoration, and beyond. Studies may derive from field observations, laboratory experiments, and model studies across a wide range of timescales. This Special Issue should be of interest to coastal scientists, engineers, stakeholders, resource managers, and decision makers.

Prof. Dr. Kehui Xu
Prof. Dr. Joseph Carlin
Prof. Dr. Houjie Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sediment tranport
  • Coastal processes
  • Estuaires and deltas
  • Continental shelves
  • Bottom boundary layer
  • Cohesive and noncohesive sediment processes

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sediment Identification Using Machine Learning Classifiers in a Mixed-Texture Dredge Pit of Louisiana Shelf for Coastal Restoration
Water 2019, 11(6), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061257
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
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Abstract
Machine learning classifiers have been rarely used for the identification of seafloor sediment types in the rapidly changing dredge pits for coastal restoration. Our study uses multiple machine learning classifiers to identify the sediment types of the Caminada dredge pit in the eastern [...] Read more.
Machine learning classifiers have been rarely used for the identification of seafloor sediment types in the rapidly changing dredge pits for coastal restoration. Our study uses multiple machine learning classifiers to identify the sediment types of the Caminada dredge pit in the eastern part of the submarine sandy Ship Shoal of the Louisiana inner shelf of the United States (USA), and compares the performance of multiple supervised classification methods. High-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data, as well as 58 sediment grab samples were collected in the Caminada pit in August 2018, about two years after dredging. Two primary features (bathymetry and backscatter) and four secondary features were selected in the machine learning models. Three supervised classifications were tested in the study area: Decision Trees, Random Forest, and Regularized Logistic Regression. The models were trained using three different combinations of features: (1) all six features, (2) only bathymetry and backscatter features, and (3) a subset of selected features. The best performing model was the Random Forest method, but its performance was relatively poor when dealing with a few mixed (sand and mud) surficial sediment samples. The model provides a new and efficient method to predict the change of sediment distribution inside the Caminada pit over time, and is more reliable when predicting mixed bed with rough pit bottoms. Our results can be used to better understand the impacts on biological communities by (1) direct defaunation after initial sand excavation, (2) later mud accumulation in topographic lows, and (3) other geological and physical processes. In the future, the deposition and redistribution of mud inside the Caminada pit will continue, likely impacting benthos and water quality. Backscatter, roughness derived from bathymetry, rugosity derived from backscatter, and bathymetry (in the importance order from high to low) were identified as the most effective predictors of sediment texture for mineral resources management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Typhoon Soudelor (2015) Induced Offshore Movement of Sand Dunes and Geomorphological Change: Fujian Coast, China
Water 2019, 11(6), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061191
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
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Abstract
Typhoons play a significant role in the marine sedimentary dynamic process and thus could significantly change the submarine geomorphology in their influence area. In this study, a high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and a side-scan sonar were used to detect the submarine geomorphology of the [...] Read more.
Typhoons play a significant role in the marine sedimentary dynamic process and thus could significantly change the submarine geomorphology in their influence area. In this study, a high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and a side-scan sonar were used to detect the submarine geomorphology of the southeast coastal area of Nanri Island in the Taiwan Strait before and after Typhoon Soudelor—three times in 2015. The results show that the typhoon induced seaward movement of the sand dunes up to several tens of meters, resulting in significant changes in both the shape of the sand dunes and the scale of the exposed bedrocks. The typhoon also changed the submarine geomorphology, including the smoothing of anchor traces of fishing boats and the formation of relatively small sand dunes (groups). A comparison of the results of different surveys shows that the submarine geomorphology that was changed by Typhoon Soudelor could not recover within a short period of time. The wind field simulations of the typhoon process showed that the storm wave caused by the strong wind stress of the typhoon was a key dynamic factor for changing the submarine geomorphology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Temperature on the Bulk Settling of Cohesive Sediment in Still Water with the Lattice Boltzmann Method
Water 2019, 11(5), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050945
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Flocculation is very common and significant for cohesive sediment in coastal areas, and the influence of temperature on it cannot be neglected. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with the extended Derjaguin‒Landau‒Verwey‒Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which considers the micro-interaction forces between particles, was applied [...] Read more.
Flocculation is very common and significant for cohesive sediment in coastal areas, and the influence of temperature on it cannot be neglected. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), combined with the extended Derjaguin‒Landau‒Verwey‒Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which considers the micro-interaction forces between particles, was applied to simulate the settling and flocculation processes of cohesive sediment under various temperature conditions. The floc size, floc volume, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and settling velocities were analyzed. The analyses revealed that with increasing temperature, both the mean floc diameter and floc volume grew, while the maximum floc diameter initially increased and then slightly decreased with its peak at 10 °C. During settling, the SSC change rate was exponentially related to the SSC, with an optimal fitting index of 0.3. The LBM sediment settling velocity was also compared with some formulas and physical model tests; the comparison results consistently demonstrated that the LBM was reasonable for modeling the bulk settling of cohesive sediment. Further discussions illustrated that the cohesive sediment is more difficult to flocculate at low temperatures due to the low aggregation frequency, while at high temperatures, some large flocs broke easily due to the effect of the short-distance force and macro force. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Two Decadal (1993–2012) Numerical Assessment of Sediment Dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico
Water 2019, 11(5), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050938
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
PDF Full-text (12006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We adapted the coupled ocean-sediment transport model to the northern Gulf of Mexico to examine sediment dynamics on seasonal-to-decadal time scales as well as its response to decreased fluvial inputs from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River. Sediment transport on the shelf exhibited contrasting conditions in [...] Read more.
We adapted the coupled ocean-sediment transport model to the northern Gulf of Mexico to examine sediment dynamics on seasonal-to-decadal time scales as well as its response to decreased fluvial inputs from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River. Sediment transport on the shelf exhibited contrasting conditions in a year, with strong westward transport in spring, fall, and winter, and relatively weak eastward transport in summer. Sedimentation rate varied from almost zero on the open shelf to more than 10 cm/year near river mouths. A phase shift in river discharge was detected in 1999 and was associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, after which, water and sediment fluxes decreased by ~20% and ~40%, respectively. Two sensitivity tests were carried out to examine the response of sediment dynamics to high and low river discharge, respectively. With a decreased fluvial supply, sediment flux and sedimentation rate were largely reduced in areas proximal to the deltas, which might accelerate the land loss in down-coast bays and estuaries. The results of two sensitivity tests indicated the decreased river discharge would largely affect sediment balance in waters around the delta. The impact from decreased fluvial input was minimum on the sandy shoals ~100 km west of the Mississippi Delta, where deposition of fluvial sediments was highly affected by winds. Full article
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