Special Issue "SARS-CoV-2 in Waters: Rational"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and One Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2021) | Viewed by 10943

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Philippe Hartemann
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Université de Lorraine, Faculté de Médecine, EA 7298, ERAMBO, DESP, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France
Interests: water health; public health; infectious disease; epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the current outbreak of COVID-19, the authorities and the public have raised numerous questions related to the risk of fecal–oral transmission and the eventual necessary prevention measures. Some recent papers have described the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in fecal samples of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, as well as in urban wastewater and surfaces, using PCR detection methods and sometimes by cell culture, the only methodology that allows confirmation of infectivity.

Important questions remain, and many research groups are now working hard to analyze SARS-CoV-2 in diverse water environments using more robust methods for recovering coronaviruses, studying persistence/survival in natural and marine waters used for recreational activities and the efficacy of the classical disinfection treatments. All these data are necessary for determining whether SARS-CoV-2 is persistent in water, as has been observed for other enveloped viruses, and whether or not it is resistant to classical treatments and disinfectants. These data are urgently required for scientifically sound risk management.

Prof. Dr. Philippe Hartemann
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Coronaviruses (CoV)
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Water environments
  • Fecal-oral transmission
  • Persistence/survival in waters
  • Occurrence in water environments
  • Recovery methods from waters

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Indicative Lake Water Quality Assessment Using Remote Sensing Images-Effect of COVID-19 Lockdown
Water 2021, 13(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010073 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
The major lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the socio-economic development of the world. On the other hand, there are also reports of reduced pollution levels. In this study, an indicative analysis is adopted to understand the effect of lockdown on [...] Read more.
The major lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the socio-economic development of the world. On the other hand, there are also reports of reduced pollution levels. In this study, an indicative analysis is adopted to understand the effect of lockdown on the changes in the water quality parameters for Lake Hussain Sagar using two remote sensing techniques: (i) spectral reflectance (SR) and (ii) chromaticity analysis (Forel-Ule color Index (FUI) and Excitation Purity). The empirical relationships from earlier studies imply that (i) increase in SR values (band B2) indicates a reduction in Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) concentrations, and (ii) increase in FUI indicates an increase in Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The Landsat 8 OLI satellite images are adopted for comparison between (i) January to May of year 2020: the effect of lockdown on water quality, and (ii) March and April for years 2015 to 2020: historical variations in water quality. The results show notable changes in SR values and FUI due to lockdown compared to before lockdown and after unlock suggesting a significant reduction in lake water pollution. In addition, the historical variations within April suggest that the pollution levels are least in the year 2020. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in Waters: Rational)
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Article
COVID-19 Pandemic Consequences on Coastal Water Quality Using WST Sentinel-3 Data: Case of Tangier, Morocco
Water 2020, 12(9), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092638 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
The west coast of Tangier, in northern Morocco, has been affected by industrial wastewater discharge that reaches the ocean through the Boukhalef river. Therefore, the Jbila and Sidikacem beaches near to the Boukhalef river mouth have been classified as polluted for many years. [...] Read more.
The west coast of Tangier, in northern Morocco, has been affected by industrial wastewater discharge that reaches the ocean through the Boukhalef river. Therefore, the Jbila and Sidikacem beaches near to the Boukhalef river mouth have been classified as polluted for many years. With the aim of determining the COVID-19 pandemic consequences on the Tangier coastal environment, a linear model using Sentinel 3 water surface temperature (WST) has been tested in several locations. Data from April 2019 and April 2020, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic related emergency status in Morocco, were compared. The results from April 2019 showed high WST values and consequently, the poorest water quality in the sites closest to the Boukhalef river mouth. On the other hand, the results from April 2020 showed normal WST values and high water quality in the same study area. These results illustrate the usefulness of Sentinel 3 WST for the estimation of bathing water quality on the west coast of Tangier. The study shows the positive impact of the COVID-19 pandemic consequences on the coastal environment quality in the study area and indicates the importance of decreasing the industrial discharge on the west coast of Tangier. The same methodology could be used in decision-making processes and to reduce cost, time and human resources for coastal monitoring systems. We demonstrate the potential of using the Sentinel 3 data for coastal waters monitoring, as well as the need for stricter controls of pollutant discharges into the world’s rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in Waters: Rational)
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Review

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Review
SARS-CoV-2 from Urban to Rural Water Environment: Occurrence, Persistence, Fate, and Influence on Agriculture Irrigation. A Review
Water 2021, 13(6), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060764 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), originating from China, has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people worldwide. While its transmission may occur predominantly via aerosolization of virus-laden droplets, the possibility of other routes of contagion via the environment necessitates considerable scientific consideration. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), originating from China, has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people worldwide. While its transmission may occur predominantly via aerosolization of virus-laden droplets, the possibility of other routes of contagion via the environment necessitates considerable scientific consideration. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA has been detected in the feces of infected persons, and studies also have reported its occurrence in wastewater and surface water bodies. Therefore, water may be a possible route of virus outbreaks. Agricultural irrigation is the largest use of water globally, accounting for 70% of water use worldwide. Ensuring adequate water quality within irrigation practices is fundamental to prevent harm to plants and soils, maintain food safety, and protect public health. This review aims to gather information on possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission routes within urban and rural water environments, looking into the detection, persistence, and fate of SARS-CoV-2. Based on published literature, the effect of current treatment technologies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on SARS-CoV-2 inactivation has also been investigated. Preliminary research efforts that concentrated on SARS-CoV-2 indicate that the risk of virus transmission from the aquatic environment may currently be non-existent, although a few studies have reported the presence of SARS-CoV RNA in soils, whereas there are still no studies on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in Waters: Rational)
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Review
Fate of COVID-19 Occurrences in Wastewater Systems: Emerging Detection and Treatment Technologies—A Review
Water 2020, 12(10), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102680 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3320
Abstract
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is currently posing a significant threat to the world’s public health and social-economic growth. Despite the rigorous international lockdown and quarantine efforts, the rate of COVID-19 infectious cases remains exceptionally high. Notwithstanding, the end route of COVID-19, together with [...] Read more.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is currently posing a significant threat to the world’s public health and social-economic growth. Despite the rigorous international lockdown and quarantine efforts, the rate of COVID-19 infectious cases remains exceptionally high. Notwithstanding, the end route of COVID-19, together with emerging contaminants’ (antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, nanoplastics, pesticide, etc.) occurrence in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), poses a great challenge in wastewater settings. Therefore, this paper seeks to review an inter-disciplinary and technological approach as a roadmap for the water and wastewater settings to help fight COVID-19 and future waves of pandemics. This study explored wastewater–based epidemiology (WBE) potential for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and its metabolites in wastewater settings. Furthermore, the prospects of integrating innovative and robust technologies such as magnetic nanotechnology, advanced oxidation process, biosensors, and membrane bioreactors into the WWTPs to augment the risk of COVID-19’s environmental impacts and improve water quality are discussed. In terms of the diagnostics of COVID-19, potential biosensors such as sample–answer chip-, paper- and nanomaterials-based biosensors are highlighted. In conclusion, sewage treatment systems, together with magnetic biosensor diagnostics and WBE, could be a possible way to keep a surveillance on the outbreak of COVID-19 in communities around the globe, thereby identifying hotspots and curbing the diagnostic costs of testing. Photocatalysis prospects are high to inactivate coronavirus, and therefore a focus on safe nanotechnology and bioengineering should be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in Waters: Rational)
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