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Special Issue "Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2022) | Viewed by 13063

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Water Protection, Faculty of Biology, A. Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
Interests: water quality; lakes and rivers; sediments; lake restoration; water management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The quality of waters (lakes and rivers) is one of the most important hydrobiological problems. Nowadays, attention is increasingly being paid to the quality of our waters and the various possibilities of their use. Different sources of water pollution (municipal and industrial wastewater inflows, agricultural and urban runoffs) and new pollutants are extremely important: antibiotics, hormones, painkillers and drugs. Their identification and effective removal are important for the functioning of water ecosystems and human health. There is growing interest among scientists in issues concerning not only the identification of sources of pollution and stopping the process of eutrophication of waters of both lakes and rivers, but also the possibility of improving their quality. Protective treatments introduced in catchment areas and restoration methods in water bodies are an area which is developing very fast. As research has shown, a very important problem related to water eutrophication is not only the external load of biogenic compounds from the direct and indirect catchment area, but also internal loading from bottom sediments. It is also important how the quality of river waters flowing through heavily polluted reservoirs changes. We encourage all the researchers working in this field to send us their manuscripts with the latest advances in this area.

Dr. Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • lakes
  • rivers
  • water quality
  • contamination
  • restoration
  • water management

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Effects of a Volcanic-Fluid Cycle System on Water Chemistry of a Deep Caldera Lake: Lake Tazawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan
Water 2022, 14(19), 3186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14193186 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Lake Tazawa, the deepest lake (423.4 m depth at maximum) in Japan underwent drastically changed water quality in 1940, because volcanic water from two active volcanos was then drawn into the lake for power generation and irrigation. Thereby, the pH of lake water [...] Read more.
Lake Tazawa, the deepest lake (423.4 m depth at maximum) in Japan underwent drastically changed water quality in 1940, because volcanic water from two active volcanos was then drawn into the lake for power generation and irrigation. Thereby, the pH of lake water decreased from 6.7 to 4.2, which exterminated a land-locked type of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerkakawamurae (locally called Kunimasu trout). Additionally, the mean residence time of lake water changed from 195 years to 8.9 years by rapidly increasing the outflow for power generation and irrigation. In this study, long-term chemical fluxes controlling lake water chemistry were obtained, and a groundwater water cycle system between the lake and the volcano was explored by estimating hydrological and chemical budgets of the lake. In the chemical budget estimate, two ionic species, SO42− and Cl, in volcanic fluids were chosen and each mass conservation equation was yielded. The hydrological budget estimate gave us the net groundwater inflow at −1.36 m3/s on average over three periods in 2020–2021, and then the simultaneous equation coupled with the chemical budget equation allowed us to separate into groundwater inflow and outflow at 6.01 m3/s and 7.37 m3/s, averaged over the three periods, respectively. The evaluated groundwater inflow and outflow were compared with those of the other crater or caldera lakes. The linear relationship between the lake volume and the magnitude of groundwater inflow or outflow suggests that the groundwater cycle scale in such a lake increases with the magnitude of the volcanic eruption to have formed the lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
The Assessment of External and Internal Nutrient Loading as a Basis for Lake Management
Water 2022, 14(18), 2844; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182844 - 12 Sep 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Successful management of lake ecosystems used for recreation requires firstly an identification of nutrient sources. It is necessary to identify the factors causing the deterioration of water quality and to plan measures for their mitigation. Analyses of the external and internal nutrient loading [...] Read more.
Successful management of lake ecosystems used for recreation requires firstly an identification of nutrient sources. It is necessary to identify the factors causing the deterioration of water quality and to plan measures for their mitigation. Analyses of the external and internal nutrient loading were carried out for the hypereutrophic Raczyńskie Lake. The study included flows from lake tributaries, stormwater runoff from impermeable areas and direct catchment impact as external sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as bottom sediments as an internal source of phosphorus. In the case of external sources, the largest load (about 80% of N and 67% of P) is supplied from croplands via the shoreline. Both external and internal loading was characterized by distinct seasonal variability. The loads from watercourses supplying the lake played the most significant role in spring, whereas the release of phosphorus from bottom sediments (accounting for 81.4% of the total P load) was responsible for cyanobacterial blooms in summer. In order to improve Raczyńskie Lake water quality it is crucial to implement both in-catchment and in-lake measures by means of diversion of stormwater runoff, reduction of nutrient content in some of tributaries at their inflow to the lake (gabions filled with dolomite surrounded by macrophytes) and restoration treatments aiming at the inactivation of phosphorus in the water column and reduction of its release from sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Study of Non-Point Pollution in the Ashe River Basin Based on SWAT Model with Different Land Use
Water 2022, 14(14), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142177 - 10 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
The Ashe River Basin (ARB), long known as the “Golden Waterway” in Manchu, has become one of China’s most polluted rivers. The basin area of the Ashe River is 3545 km2 and the total length of the river is 257 km. There [...] Read more.
The Ashe River Basin (ARB), long known as the “Golden Waterway” in Manchu, has become one of China’s most polluted rivers. The basin area of the Ashe River is 3545 km2 and the total length of the river is 257 km. There have not been specific studies on land use change and non-point pollution in the ARB region. This paper uses the ARB watershed as the study area, simulates the watershed using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model, and analyzes the hydrological processes and the temporal and spatial changes of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the watershed with hydrology and water quality as the objectives under different periods of land use to reduce pollution in the watershed and protect the environment. The results show that the simulation of runoff, and even the R2 and NS (both the coefficient of determination and the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient are simulated by SWAT-CUP, which is generally used to validate the simulation results of the hydrological model, where the closer the result is to 1, the better the effect) of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the watershed, are also all above 0.75 and have good applicability during regular and validation periods. Since 2000, the simulated monthly average total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels have progressively grown. The most polluted areas are concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the watershed near the main streams owing to the rise in load per unit area caused by the collection of pollutants from the upper watershed to the watershed outlet, and even an increase in fertilizer application due to the larger area of cultivated land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Observations and Correlations from a 3-Year Study of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in the Mohawk River in Upstate NY
Water 2022, 14(13), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132137 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as E. coli and Enterococci, are used to indicate the potential of fecal contamination in waterways. One known source of FIB in urbanized areas is the occurrence of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). To explore the impact of [...] Read more.
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as E. coli and Enterococci, are used to indicate the potential of fecal contamination in waterways. One known source of FIB in urbanized areas is the occurrence of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). To explore the impact of CSOs on local water quality and FIB presence, sampling was conducted during the summers of 2017–2019 of two cities, one with CSOs and one without, on the Mohawk River in upstate New York, USA. Sampling included in situ physiochemical parameters of pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen and laboratory tests for E. coli, Enterococci, nitrates, and total organic carbon (TOC). Correlations between parameters were explored using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Spearman’s Rank correlation with and without considerations of site and city location. Overall, positive correlations between FIB and rainfall were identified in one city but were less significant in the other, suggesting a buffering of FIB concentrations likely due to inflow contributions from a reservoir. Samples collected downstream from an active CSO reached the detection limit of the FIB tests, demonstrating a 2-log or greater increase in FIB concentrations from dry weather conditions. The city with CSOs demonstrated greater FIB concentrations, which are likely a combination of greater urban runoff, CSOs, and the potential resuspension of sediment during high flow events. Due to the widespread presence of FIB in the region, future research includes utilizing microbial source tracking to identify the sources of contamination in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Water Quality of the Tiflet River, Province of Khemisset, Morocco
Water 2022, 14(12), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121829 - 07 Jun 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Humanity’s water needs are constantly increasing, however, under the action of humanity themselves, the reserves of this substance are, constantly, deteriorating in quantity and quality. It is, therefore, necessary to preserve the water reserves. However, any development of a hydrosystem’s quality conservation strategy [...] Read more.
Humanity’s water needs are constantly increasing, however, under the action of humanity themselves, the reserves of this substance are, constantly, deteriorating in quantity and quality. It is, therefore, necessary to preserve the water reserves. However, any development of a hydrosystem’s quality conservation strategy is based on determining the chemical characteristics of its waters. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in the Tiflet River, a watercourse in the northwest of Morocco, to estimate its degree of pollution and to determine its main sources of pollution. Thus, eight stations, distributed along the watercourse and positioned taking into account the potential sources of pollution, were fixed, and eleven physicochemical parameters were, seasonally, evaluated. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to assess variations in water quality and identify the main factors responsible for pollution. The results showed that wastewater discharges into the river can increase the water salinity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of the river. The total loads of nitrogen and nitrate pollution were higher compared to the standard norms in the stations exposed to agricultural pollution and to the leaching of the watersheds, which could aggravate the eutrophication state of the river and stimulate the growth of aquatic vegetation. The organic pollution load recorded in the wet season is low, compared to that recorded in the dry season. Whereas, the nutrient load recorded during the dry season is low, compared to that recorded in the wet season. An overall pollution index was used, classifying surface waters from sub-clean to moderately polluted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Variation in Dissolved Organic Matter Using Absorbance and Fluorescence Measurements during Dry Season in Sta. Rosa and Cabuyao Rivers, Philippines
Water 2022, 14(9), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091444 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Santa Rosa watershed, where the Santa Rosa River and Cabuyao River are located, is growing with increasing urbanization and commercialization in their surroundings. Water quality monitoring is an important tool in understanding the possible impacts of domestic, industrial, and commercial discharges, and agricultural [...] Read more.
Santa Rosa watershed, where the Santa Rosa River and Cabuyao River are located, is growing with increasing urbanization and commercialization in their surroundings. Water quality monitoring is an important tool in understanding the possible impacts of domestic, industrial, and commercial discharges, and agricultural run-off on river systems and their tributaries. With the integration of absorbance and fluorescence measurements, we can further examine the effects of land use and climate change on dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources found in river systems. In this study, these two rivers exhibit poor quality with varying values in each sampling station and period. DOM sources change from terrestrial to endogenous sources within the sampling period. High aromaticity and molecular size were observed in all downstream sampling stations. This is supported by the high values of humic-like substances. Fluorescence index values showed temporal changes from terrestrial to endogenous DOM sources from November 2019 to February 2020. This is also confirmed by the increasing trend in the biological index. The variation in all sampling stations can be attributed to varying land use, hydrological, and climatological changes such as typhoon Tisoy, and Taal Volcano eruption observed during the sampling period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Assessment of Water Quality Based on Trophic Status and Nutrients-Chlorophyll Empirical Models of Different Elevation Reservoirs
Water 2021, 13(24), 3640; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243640 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Water quality degradation is one of the most pressing environmental challenges in reservoirs around the world and makes the trophic status assessment of reservoirs essential for their restoration and sustainable use. The main aims of this study were to determine the spatial variations [...] Read more.
Water quality degradation is one of the most pressing environmental challenges in reservoirs around the world and makes the trophic status assessment of reservoirs essential for their restoration and sustainable use. The main aims of this study were to determine the spatial variations in water quality and trophic state of 204 South Korean reservoirs at different altitude levels. The results demonstrated mean total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), total suspended solids (TSS), organic matter indicators (chemical oxygen demand: COD; total organic carbon: TOC), water temperature (WT), and electrical conductivity (EC) remain consistently higher in the very lowland reservoirs (VLLR) than those in other altitudes, due to sedimentary or alluvial watersheds. The average TP and CHL-a levels in VLLR crossed the limit of the eutrophic water, symptomizing a moderate risk of cyanobacterial blooms. Empirical models were developed to identify critical variables controlling algal biomass and water clarity in reservoirs. The empirical analyses of all reservoir categories illustrated TP as a better predictor of CHL-a (R2 = 0.44, p < 0.01) than TN (R2 = 0.02, p < 0.05) as well as showed strong P-limitation based on TN:TP ratios. The algal productivity of VLLR (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.01) was limited by phosphorus, while highland reservoirs (HLR) were phosphorus (R2 = 0.23, p < 0.03) and light-limited (R2 = 0.31, p < 0.01). However, TSS showed a highly significant influence on water clarity compared to TP and algal CHL-a in all reservoirs. TP and TSS explained 47% and 34% of the variance in non-algal turbidity (NAT) in HLR. In contrast, the TP and TSS variances were 18% and 29% in midland reservoirs (MLR) and 32% and 20% in LLR. The trophic state index (TSI) of selected reservoirs varied between mesotrophic to eutrophic states as per TSI (TP), TSI (CHL-a), and TSI (SD). Mean TSI (CHL-a) indicated all reservoirs as eutrophic. Trophic state index deviation (TSID) assessment also complemented the phosphorus limitation characterized by the blue-green algae (BGA) domination in all reservoirs. Overall, reservoirs at varying altitudes reflect the multiplying impacts of anthropogenic factors on water quality, which can provide valuable insights into reservoir water quality management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Damming Induced Natural Attenuation of Hydrothermal Waters by Runoff Freshwater Dilution and Sediment Biogeochemical Transformations (Sochagota Lake, Colombia)
Water 2021, 13(23), 3445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233445 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
The volcanic area of the Paipa system (Boyacá, Colombia) contains a magmatic heat source and deep fractures that help the flow of hot and highly mineralized waters, which are further combined with cold superficial inputs. This mixed water recharges the Salitre River and [...] Read more.
The volcanic area of the Paipa system (Boyacá, Colombia) contains a magmatic heat source and deep fractures that help the flow of hot and highly mineralized waters, which are further combined with cold superficial inputs. This mixed water recharges the Salitre River and downstream feeding Sochagota Lake. The incoming water can contribute to substantial increases in hydrothermal SO42−-Na water in the water of the Salitre River basin area, raising the salinity. An additional hydrogeochemical process occurs in the mix with cold Fe-rich water from alluvial and surficial aquifers. This salinized Fe-rich water feeds the Sochagota Lake, although the impact of freshwaters from rain on the hydrochemistry of the Sochagota Lake is significant. A series of hydrogeochemical, biogeochemical, and mineralogical processes occur inside the lake. The aim of this work was to study the influence of damming in the Sochagota Lake, which acts as a natural attenuation of contaminants such as high concentrations of metals and salty elements coming from the Salitre River. Damming in the Sochagota Lake is considered to be an effective strategy for attenuating highly mineralized waters. The concentrations of dissolved elements were attenuated significantly. Dilution by rainfall runoff and precipitation of iron sulfides mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria in deposits rich in organic material were the main processes involved in the attenuation of concentrations of SO42−, Fe, As Cu, and Co in the lake water. Furthermore, the K-consuming illitization processes occurring in the sediments could favor the decrease in K and Al. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Effects of Long-Term Increases in Water Temperature and Stratification on Large Artificial Water-Source Lakes in South Korea
Water 2021, 13(17), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172341 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Long-term changes in air and water temperatures and the resulted stratification phenomena were observed for Soyang Lake (SY), Paldang Lake (PD), Chungju Lake (CJ), and Daecheong Lake (DC) in South Korea. Non-parametric seasonal Kendall and Mann-Kendall tests, Sen slope estimator, and potential energy [...] Read more.
Long-term changes in air and water temperatures and the resulted stratification phenomena were observed for Soyang Lake (SY), Paldang Lake (PD), Chungju Lake (CJ), and Daecheong Lake (DC) in South Korea. Non-parametric seasonal Kendall and Mann-Kendall tests, Sen slope estimator, and potential energy anomaly (PEA) were applied. The lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) of SY and DC increased at the same rate (0.125 °C/y), followed by those of CJ (0.071 °C/y) and PD (0.06 °C/y). Seasonally, the LSWT increase rates for all lakes, except PD, were 2–3 times higher than the air temperature increase rates. The lake stratification intensity order was similar to those of the LSWT increases and correlations. SY and DC displayed significant correlations between LSWT (0.99) and PEA (0.91). Thus, the LSWT significantly affected stratification when the water temperature increased. PD demonstrated the lowest correlation between LSWT and PEA. Inflow, outflow, rainfall, wind speed, and retention time were significantly correlated, which varied within and between lakes depending on lake topographical, hydraulic, and hydrological factors. Thus, hydraulic problems and nutrients should be managed to minimize their effects on lake water quality and aquatic ecosystems because lake cyanobacteria can increase as localized water temperatures increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Influence of Environmental Factors on Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Abundance of Saxitoxin-Producing Cyanobacteria in a Subtropical Drinking Water Reservoir in Brazil
Water 2021, 13(12), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121716 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Blooms of cyanobacteria are frequent in Brazilian water reservoirs used for drinking water. The warning for the presence of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria is typically based on time-consuming microscopy, rather than specific molecular detection of toxic genes in cyanobacteria. In this study, we developed [...] Read more.
Blooms of cyanobacteria are frequent in Brazilian water reservoirs used for drinking water. The warning for the presence of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria is typically based on time-consuming microscopy, rather than specific molecular detection of toxic genes in cyanobacteria. In this study, we developed a quantitative PCR assay for the detection of cyanobacteria producing the neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX). The assay targets the sxtA gene in the sxt gene cluster. Potential and dominant STX-producers in the Itupararanga reservoir were the genera Raphidiopsis, Aphanizomenon and Geitlerinema. Numbers of the sxtA gene varied from 6.76 × 103 to 7.33 × 105 cells mL−1 and correlated positively with SXT concentrations in the water. Concentrations of STX and the sxtA gene also correlated positively with TN:TP ratio and pH, but correlated negatively with inorganic nutrients and turbidity, confirming that regulation of the SXT production was impacted by environmental variables. In contrast, the occurrence of another cyanotoxin, microcystin, did not correlate with any environmental variables. The developed qPCR assay was found to be a rapid and robust approach for the specific quantification of potential STX-producing cyanobacteria and should be considered in future investigations on toxic cyanobacteria to provide an early warning of potential toxin episodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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Article
Selection of Optimum Pollution Load Reduction and Water Quality Improvement Approaches Using Scenario Based Water Quality Modeling in Little Akaki River, Ethiopia
Water 2021, 13(5), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050584 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
The collective impacts of rapid urbanization, poor pollution management practices and insufficient sanitation infrastructure have driven the water quality deterioration in Little Akaki River (LAR), Ethiopia. Water quality modeling using QUAL2Kw was conducted in the LAR aimed at selecting the optimal water quality [...] Read more.
The collective impacts of rapid urbanization, poor pollution management practices and insufficient sanitation infrastructure have driven the water quality deterioration in Little Akaki River (LAR), Ethiopia. Water quality modeling using QUAL2Kw was conducted in the LAR aimed at selecting the optimal water quality improvement and pollution load reduction approaches based on the evaluation of five scenarios: modification of point sources (PS) load (S1), modification of nonpoint sources (NPS) load (S2), simultaneous modification of PS and NPS load (S3), application of local oxygenators and fish passages using cascaded rock ramps (S4), and an integrated scenario (S5). Despite the evaluation of S1 resulting in an average load reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (17.72%), PO4-P (37.47%), NO3-N (19.63%), the water quality objective (WQO) in LAR could not be attained. Similarly, though significant improvement of pollution load was found by S2 and S3 evaluation, it did not secure the permissible BOD and PO4-P pollution load in the LAR. Besides, as part of an instream measure, a scenario evaluated using the application of rock ramps (S4) resulted in significant reduction of BOD load. All the individual scenarios were not successful and hence an integration of scenarios (S5) was evaluated in LAR that gave a relatively higher pollutant load reduction rate and ultimately was found a better approach to improve pollution loads in the river. In conclusion, pollution load management and control strategy integrally incorporating the use of source-based wastewater treatment, control of diffuse pollution sources through the application of best management practices and the application of instream measures such as the use of cascaded rock ramps could be a feasible approach for better river water quality management, pollution reduction, aquatic life protection and secure sustainable development in the LAR catchment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Changes of Lakes and Rivers)
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